• Title/Summary/Keyword: functional properties

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Function of Dietary Fibers as food ingredients

  • Hwang, Jae-Kwan
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.153-163
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    • 1992
  • Dietary fiber imparts both mutritional and functional properties to foods. This review deals with (1) the classification of dietary fiber, (2) the plant cell wall models, (3) the relations between structure and physicochemical and functional properties of dietary fiber and (4) the applications of dietary fiber in foods. Dietary fiber can be classified in terms of source, plant function, solubility, charge and topology. Plant cell wall models are presented to provide information on the interconnections of dietary fiber components which determines the content of soluble and insoluble dietary fiber content. In reality, physicochemical and functional properties of dietary fiber originate factors such as chemical constituents , charge, branching degree, conformation and etc. Dietary fibers possess a variety of functional properties in food systems, which thus make them useful in food application. In particular, rheology and gelation of water-soluble gums or hydrocolloids are discussed for their effects on food quality. A guideline s also listed for the gum selection to meet the best product requirements.

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Effects of Heating Time and Temperature on Functional Properties of Proteins of Yellow Mealworm Larvae (Tenebrio molitor L.)

  • Lee, Ha-Jung;Kim, Ji-Han;Ji, Da-Som;Lee, Chi-Ho
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.296-308
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    • 2019
  • Although the yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor L.) is a promising alternative protein source, the effects of processing conditions on functional properties are unclear. In this study, a protein extract of yellow mealworm larvae (PEYM) was subjected to different heat temperature ($55^{\circ}C$, $75^{\circ}C$, and $95^{\circ}C$) with different time (20, 40, and 60 min) to evaluate the functional properties and protein oxidation. Different heat temperature treatment significantly affected the exposure of surface hydrophobicity of the proteins and protein molecule aggregation, which reached maximum levels at $95^{\circ}C$ for 60 min. Protein oxidation was inversely proportional to the temperature. Both the highest carbonyl value (1.49 nmol/mg protein) and lowest thiol value (22.94 nmol/mg protein) were observed at $95^{\circ}C$ for 60 min. The heating time-temperature interaction affected several functional properties, including solubility, emulsifying potential, and gel strength (GS). Solubility decreased near the isoelectric point (pH 5 to 6). As the temperature and heating time increased, emulsifying properties decreased and GS increased. The oil absorption capacity and foaming properties decreased and the water absorption capacity increased. These results confirmed that PEYM is a suitable source of proteins for processing and applications in the food industry.

The Role of Ca Equilibrium on the Functional Properties of Cheese: A Review

  • Lee, Mee-Ryung;Lee, Won-Jae
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.545-549
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    • 2009
  • The functional properties of cheese, such as texture and melt, are known to be controlled by several important parameters. Recently, the characteristics of Ca in cheeses, especially the form of Ca (insoluble (INSOL) or soluble) and the shift in Ca equilibrium (i.e., from INSOL to soluble Ca), during aging has received a lot of attention. The INSOL form of Ca, which is present as a structural form in casein, plays a critical role in determining the functional properties of cheese during the early period of ripening (~1 mon). It seems that there is always a reduction of INSOL Ca content in cheese during ripening and there are also factors that can affect the shift in Ca equilibrium. These factors may include the composition of cheese milk, cheese manufacturing pH, acid development during aging, adopting curd-washing in various methods, pre-acidification of milk, etc. There have been many studies showing that the rheological and melting properties of cheese during ripening were significantly (p<0.05) affected by the shift in Ca equilibrium. Therefore, for cheese makers, it is now possible to predict/manage the functional properties of cheese by monitoring and controlling Ca equilibrium in cheese during aging.

Effect of Irradiation of Red Radish Seeds on the Seed Viability and Functional Properties of Sprouts

  • Waje, Catherine K.;Park, Ju-Hwan;Kim, Gui-Ran;Kim, Yu-Ri;Han, Bum-Soo;Lee, Yeon-Kyung;Moon, Kwang-Deog;Kwon, Joong-Ho
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.390-395
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    • 2009
  • Red radish seeds were irradiated at doses up to 8 kGy using electron beam (e-beam) and gamma ray ($\gamma$-ray). The seed viability and functional properties (carotenoid, chlorophyll, ascorbic acid, and total phenol) of sprouts grown from these irradiated seeds were evaluated. High germination percentage ($\geq$97%) was observed in seeds irradiated at $\leq$5 kGy, but the yield ratio and sprout length significantly decreased with increased irradiation dose. Irradiation at $\geq$6 kGy resulted in curling of the sprout roots. Sprouting enhanced the functional properties of red radish seeds as indicated by the increased carotenoid, chlorophyll, ascorbic acid, and total phenol contents during germination. However, radiation treatment hampered the growth of seeds resulting in underdeveloped sprouts with decreased carotenoid, chlorophyll, ascorbic acid, and total phenol contents. In general, e-beam and $\gamma$-ray irradiation of red radish seeds showed similar effects on the seed viability and functional properties of sprouts. Postharvest storage reduced the functional quality of sprouts.

Effect on Functional Properties of the Cotton Fabrics Treated by UV-absorbers with Nanosilver/DMDHEU Treatment (자외선 흡수제 처리 시 은나노/수지 첨가가 면직물의 기능성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kang, Mi-Jung;Kwon, Young-Ah
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.33 no.9
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    • pp.1463-1471
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    • 2009
  • Silver ions or silver nanoparticles have multi-functional properties. The cotton fabrics for providing multi-functional properties were treated with a nanosilver powder, UV-absorbers, and dimethyloldi-hydroxyethyleneurea (DMDHEU) alone and mixed solution. The physical properties, UV protection, antibacterial, and deodorizing properties of treated cotton fabrics were evaluated. The results were as a follows. The UV protection of cotton fabrics were increased by the application of a nanosilver and Uv-absorbers mixture. The UV protection of treated fabrics were improved by nanosilver/DMDHEU/UV-absorbers mixed solution. The wrinkle recovery properties of fabrics treated with DMDHEU and nanosilver improved. The stiffness of fabrics are decreased by a nanosilver/DMDHEU/UV-absorbers mixed solution. The antibacterial properties of the fabrics treated with nanosilver/DMDHEU/UV-absorbers mixed solution is 99.99%. The functional properties of cotton fabrics are shown to be better with aanosilver/DMDHEU/UV-absorbers mixed than treated with nanosilver alone.

Effect of Succinylation on Functional Properties of Aspergillus fumiagtus Cell Protein (숙시닐화가 Aspergillus fumiagtus 균체단백질의 기능적 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Jong-Duck;Kim, Jeong-Gyun;Cho, Sung-Hwan
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.21 no.5
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    • pp.573-579
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    • 1992
  • The influence of succinylation on several functional properties of fungal protein (Aspergillus fumigatus) was investigated. Fungal protein was succinylated to 20.7 and 85.3% by addition of 2.5 and 10% succinic anhydride, respectively. Succinylated fungal protein decreased the absorbance at 260nm, nucleic acid and carbohydrate, but increased the proteinous nitrogen and protein extraction in fungal protein. Succinylation had an enhancing effect on the functional properties as much as the degree of it was increased. Oil retention of succinylated fungal protein was higher about from two to five times than those of milk casein. Nitrogen solubility of succinylated fungal protein was increased to 32 and 51% than that of milk casein and soy flour. Emulsifying activity and stability were increased in proportion to the succinylated degree of fungal protein. As the result of succinylation increase more than 80%, emulsifying activity increased about 8.4 times. In conclusion, succinylated fungal protein improved functional properties, compared with nonsuccinylated fungal protein, milk casein and soy flour.

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Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Collagen Powder from Skate (Raja Kenojei) Skins (홍어껍질로부터 추출한 콜라겐의 물리화학적 및 기능적 특성)

  • Shon, Jin-Han;Eun, Jong-Bang
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.435-443
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    • 2010
  • Physicochemical and functional properties of collage from skate skin (Raja Kenojei) are examined depending on pH and NaCl concentration in the medium. The solubility decreased as NaCl concentration increased but, turbidity increased as concentration of collagen increased. Oil-holding capacity and water-holding capacity were similar to other fish skin collagens. Emulsion activity, creaming stability, and viscosity were lowest at where pH levels were isoelectric point regions of collagens. However, the higher pH values at 7.0-9.0 caused increasing foam expansion, foam viscosity, and gel strength. These results indicated that collagen from skate skin could be used as a functional ingredient for food and industrial applications.

Functional Properties of Milk Protein in Fermented Milk Products (발효유제품의 유단백질 기능성 연구 동향)

  • Lee, Won-Jae
    • Journal of Dairy Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.29-32
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    • 2007
  • An understanding functional properties and molecular interactions of milk proteins was critical to improve qualities of fermented dairy products including yogurts and cheeses. Extensive rearrangements of casein particles were important factors to enhance whey separation in yogurt gel network. The use of high hydrostatic pressure treated whey protein as an ingredient of low fat processed cheese food resulted in the production of low fat processed cheese food with acceptable firmness and enhanced meltabilities. Milk protein-based nano particles produced by self-association of proteins could be better nutrient delivery vehicle than micro particle since particle size reduction in nano particles could lead to increased residence time and surface area available in GI tract.

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Development of new food protein through chemical modification of rice bran proteins

  • Bae, Dongho;Jang, In Sook
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.180-185
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    • 1999
  • Protein concentrate was produced and succinylated from rice bran to assess and improve its functional properties for the purpose of expanding the uses of rice bran proteins. The most effective solvent for the extraction of rice bran proteins was 20% aqueous ethanol at pH 9. The protein content of rice bran protein concentrate produced was 70.0% and the total protein yield was 64.3%. The extent of succinylation of free amino groups in the modified products was 72.8%. Though the modified protein products showed good functional properties including solubility, emulsion properties, and oil absorption capacity, it did not form gel. Succinylation improved solubility and emulsion and gelling properties. These improvements in functionality will enhance the value of rice bran proteins, thus enabling them to be more competitive with other food proteins.

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Nutritive Value and Functional Properties of Protein Concentrate Fractionated from Chrysanthemum Flowers

  • Park, Nan-Young;Park, Yong-Jin;Kwon, Joong-Ho
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.175-179
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    • 1998
  • Some functional properties and nutritive value were determined for the protein concentrated fractionated from chrysanthemum flower in orer to renew interest in the flowers as food. Proximate components of chrysanthemum flower protein concentration (FPC) showed 61.2% protein, 2.0% fat and 35.2% carbhydrate on a dry basis. In amino acid composition of FPC, glutamic acid was the highest in the content, follwoed by aspartic acid, leucine and lysine. The ratio of essential/ total amino acids(E/T) was 0.42, showing a higher level of essential amino acids compared to the FAO reference protein. Digestibility of chrysanthemum FPC by pepsin and trypsin was lwoer than that of casein and was negatively correlative to both water and fat absorptions. Similar characteristics were determined between chrysanthemum FPC and milk casein in their emulsifying activity and emulsion stability. This results indicate that flowers or petals of chrysanthemum might be developed as a good source of protein.

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