• Title, Summary, Keyword: fungicidal and insecticidal activity

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Synthesis and Evaluation O-Benzyl Oxime-ether Derivatives Containing β-Methoxyacrylate Moiety for Insecticidal and Fungicidal Activities

  • Hu, Zhi-Bin;Luo, He-An;Wang, Xiao-Guang;Huang, Ming-Zhi;Huang, Lu;Pang, Huai-Lin;Mao, Chun-Hui;Pei, Hui;Huang, Chao-Qun;Sun, Jiong;Liu, Ping-Le;Liu, Ai-Ping
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.1073-1076
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    • 2014
  • In attempt to lead compounds exhibiting both insecticidal and fungicidal activities, a series of O-benzyl oximeether derivatives were designed and synthesized by introducing ${\beta}$-methoxyacrylate pharmacophore into a scaffold. The insecticidal activity against Aphis fabae and the fungicidal activity against Erysiphe graminis were screened. The title compounds exhibited remarkable insecticidal and fungicidal activities. The most potent compound 6d was identified. Its insecticidal $LC_{50}$ against A. fabae is 6.4 mg/L, which is lower than that of chlorfenapyr (19.4 mg/L) and even close to the level of imidacloprid (4.8 mg/L). Its fungicidal $EC_{90}$ in preventive and curative treatment against E. graminis are 2.2 and 4.8 mg/L, respectively, which are lower than azoxystrobin (7.0 and 5.9 mg/L). These results indicate that compound 6d can be considered as a lead for further developing new O-benzyl oxime-ether typed candidates with both fungicidal and insecticidal activities.

Fungicidal and insecticidal activities of various grain extracts against five insect pests and six phytopathogenic fungi (다양한 잡곡 추출물의 살균.살충활성)

  • Lee, Hoi-Seon;Choi, Gyung-Ja;Cho, Kwang-Yun;Lee, Sang-Gil;Ahn, Young-Joon
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.7-14
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    • 2000
  • Methanol extracts from 21 grains were tested for fungicidal activities against six phytopathogenic fungi and for insecticidal activities toward five insect pests in a greenhouse. The efficacy varied with both the plant pathogen/insect pest and grain species used. Potent fungicidal activity at 5 mg/pot, were produced from extracts of Elymus sibiricus and Hordeum vulgare var. nudum against Pyricularia grisea and Erysiphe graminis and these of Sesamum indicum (W) and Triticum aestivum against Puccinia recondita and Erysiphe graminis. At 2,500 ppm, potent insecticidal activities were exhibited from the extracts of Fagopyrum esculentum against Myzus persicae and Ischaemum crassipes, and these of Oryzo sativa var. glutinosa, Panicum miliaceum, Setaria italica, Sorghum bicolor, and T. aestivum against Tetranychus urticae. All grain extracts revealed weak or no fungicidal and insecticidal effect against Phytophthora infestans, Plutella xylostella and Spodoptera litura. As a naturally occurring fungicide and insecticide, grain-derived materials described could be useful as new fungicidal and insecticidal products against phytopathogenic fungi and insect pests.

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Synthesis and biological activities of Chloronicotinyl derivatives (Chloronicotinyl 유도체의 합성 및 생물활성 검정)

  • Park, Su-Jin;Kim, In-Hae;Choi, In-Young;Kim, Song-Mun;Han, Dae-Sung;Hur, Jang-Hyun
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.20-28
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    • 1999
  • Chloronicotinyl derivatives were synthesized by substitution of amino in 3-pyridylmethylamine with phosphite groups and their insecticidal and fungicidal activities were determined. At 500 ppm, compound 4 with methyl and butyl group in phosphonate and compound 5, 6, 7, and 8 with two butyl, 2,2,2-trifluorotehtyl, 2-ethylhexyl, phenyl, respectively, in phosphonate showed 90% insecticidal activities against brown plant-hopper (Nilaparvate lugens). These compounds showed, however, poor insecticidal activities against diamond-back moth (Plutella xylostella) and two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) (<65%), suggesting that insecticidal activity of chloronicotinyl derivatives containing phosphorus moieties are species-dependent. Newly synthesized chloronicotinyl derivatives with halogen and/or heterocycle (compound $10{\sim}21$) did not show insecticidal activities. We also determined fungicidal activity of the synthesized chloronicotinyl derivatives against rice sheath blight (Pyricularia grisea), cucumber gray mold (Bortytis cinerea), tomato late blight (Phytophthora infestans), wheat leaf rust (Puccinia recondita), and barley powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis). Compound 10 with butyl and 4-nitrophenyl in phosphonate at 10 ppm showed 85% fungicidal activity against rice blast, suggesting that chloronicotinyl derivatives containing phosphorus moieties could be developed as a fungicidal agent of a novel chemical structure.

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Pesticidal Constituents Derived from Piperaceae Fruits

  • Lee, Hoi-Seon
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.48 no.2
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    • pp.65-74
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    • 2005
  • Fungicidal, insecticidal, and mosquito larvicidal activities of piperidine alkaloids, pipernonaline and piperoctadecalidine, and isobutylamide alkaloids, pellitorine, guineensine, pipercide, and retrofractaminde A, derived from Piperaceae fruits were studied. Pipernonaline and piperoctadecalidine showed potent fungicidal activities against Puccinia recondita with 91 and 80% control values at 500 ppm. Against Phytophthora infestans, pipernonaline showed strong fungicidal activity with 91 and 80% control values at 1,000 and 500 ppm. $LD_{50}$ values of pipernonaline and piperoctadecalidine against Plutella xylostella were 125 and 95.5 ppm, respectively, and that of piperoctadecalidine against Tetranychus urticae was 246 ppm. Against larvae of Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens pallens, $LD_{50}$ values of pipernonaline were 0.35 and 0.21 ppm, respectively. Highest larvicidal activities of pipercide and retrofractamide A were found against A. aegypti, A. togoi, and C. pipiens pallens. $LD_{50}$ values of pipercide and retrofractamide A were 0.10 and 0.039 ppm against A. aegypti, 0.26 and 0.01 ppm against A. togoi, and 0.004 and 0.028 ppm against C. pipiens pallens, respectively. Based upon these results and earlier findings, bioactive components derived from Piperaceae fruits may be valuable for development of useful lead product of possibly safer fungicidal, insecticidal, and mosquito larvicidal agents.

Studies of biological activities of tree extracts for conservation of wooden cultural properties (목재문화재 보존을 위한 수목추출물의 부위별 생리활성 탐색)

  • Kang, So-yeong;Choi, Yun-a;Chung, Yong-jae
    • 보존과학연구
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    • pp.59-73
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    • 2007
  • Wooden artifacts are biologically damaged by animals, insects, and micro-organisms. We focused on the evaluation of the antifungal and insecticidal activities of tree extracts to control deterioration of wooden cultural properties. 12 kinds of methanol extracts from 9 species of tree were investigated for their biocidal activities against two micro-organisms and two spices of insect. Most tree extracts showed fungicidal activities to Tyromyces palustris and Trametes versicolor. Among 12 different tree extracts, the strongest antifungal activity against T.palustris and T.versicolor was observed from the extracts of Pinus densiflora stem-bark extract and Pinus koraiensis leaf extracts. However, in the insecticidal activity test, Pinus densiflora stem-bark extracts against termite was relatively effective. Chemical compositions of methanol extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. As a result, it was confirmed that development of biocide based on the natural extracts can be expected to conservate of wooden cultural properties.

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Synthesis and pesticidal activity of ricinine derivatives (Ricinine 유도체(誘導體)의 합성(合成) 및 농약활성(農藥活性))

  • Kwon, Oh-Kyung;Lim, Soo-Kil;Hong, Su-Myeong;Lee, Sung-Eun;Kyung, Suk-Hun
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.24-31
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    • 1998
  • Chemical derivative synthesis of ricinine, an active compound of Ricinus communis which showed high mortality against brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens), was performed to improve its pesticidal activity and the toxicity of 12 synthetic derivatives against major insect pests and phytopathogenic fungi were examined. Carbamate derivatives of ricinine could be synthesized from the precursor of ricinine, chloronorricinine and norricinine, whereas the derivatives were not synthesized from chlororicinic acid and ricinic acid having ketone group of pyridine ring. In organophosphates, reaction with oxon type of phosphate gave better yield than thiono type. Among the organophosphate derivatives of ricinine, thiono type of derivative structure gave $96.3%{\sim}100%$ mortality of the brown planthopper and the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) at 500 ${\mu}g/ml$ level. On the other hand, carbamate derivatives did not show insecticidal activity. In the fungicidal activity of ricinine derivatives, the derivative having amino radical at the 2 position of ricinine gave 85 to 100% of mycelium growth inhibition effect against ten major plant pathogens at the 200 ${\mu}g/ml$ level. In particular, the control value of the derivative on the rice blast (Pyricularia grisea) and barley powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis) at the 250 ${\mu}g/ml$ level in vivo under greenhouse conditions was 92% and 96%, respectively.

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Effect of Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius H. Robinson) Extracts on Herbicidal, Fungicidal, and Insecticidal Activities (야콘(Smallanthus sonchifolius H. Robinson) 추출물의 제초, 살균 및 살충활성 효과)

  • Yun, Young-Beom;Kim, Jin-Hwa;Jang, Se-Ji;Kim, Do-Ik;Kwon, Oh-Do;Kuk, Yong-In
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.98-106
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    • 2012
  • This research has been carried out to find out the highest effect on insecticidal, fungicidal and herbicidal activities in leaves, stem and tuber extracts of yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) and extraction methods such as water, boiling water and methanol. Characteristics of potential herbicidal components among extraction methods were investigated by solvent fractions such as hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol, and water. Generally, methanol extract was the best on inhibition of germination rate, plant height, and root length in cucumber and barley. On the other hand, the inhibition effect on growth in cucumber and barley was the best in tuber among plant parts of yacon. Inhibition of germination rate, plant height, and root length in cucumber and barley in solvent fractions was the best in water fraction, but there were no differences in other fractions. Digitaria sanguinalis L. and Solanum nigrum L. by 5 and 10% extractions of yacon tuber were controlled by more than 70~80% and 95~100%, respectively. However, there was no inhibition effect on foliar treatment in cucumber and barley as affected by 5 and 10% extractions of yacon tuber. Mortality of green peach aphid (Myzus persicae Sulzer) was 50% at 3 days after treatment of 5% extracts of yacon leaves. Mortality of brown plant hopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stal) was only 24% in 5% extracts of stems and leaves with midrib, but was 57% in 5% extracts of leaves without midrib. There was no fungicidal effect on anthracnose (Colletotrichum truncatum), wilt disease (Fusarium oxysporum), verticillium wilt (Verticillium dahliae), bacterial blight (Xanthomonus oryzae) in 5% extracts of yacon leaves.

Effect of Chamaecyparis obtusa tree Phytoncide on Candida albicans (편백 피톤치드가 Candida albicans에 미치는 영향에 대한 연구)

  • Kang, Soo-Kyung;Auh, Q-Schick;Chun, Yang-Hyun;Hong, Jung-Pyo
    • Journal of Oral Medicine and Pain
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.19-29
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    • 2010
  • Phytoncide, essential oil of trees, has microbicidal, insecticidal, acaricidal, and deodorizing effect. The present study was performed to examine the effect of phytoncide on Candida albicans, which is a commensal colonizer of the mucous membranes but has become an opportunistic pathogen. C. albicans was incubated with or without phytoncide extracted from Hinoki (Chamaecyparis obtusa Sieb. et Zucc.; Japanese cypress) and then changes were observed in its optical density, cell viability and morphology. As concentrations of phytoncide added to the culture medium increased, optical density and cell viability of C. albicans decreased. Minimum inhibitory concentration of phytoncide for C. albicans was observed to be 0.25%, and minimum fungicidal concentration was 0.5%. Numbers of morphologically atypical cells with electron-dense cytoplasm and granules and increased with increasing concentration of the phytoncide. At higher concentrations of phytoncide, compartments and organelles in the cytoplasm became indistinguishable. The overall results indicate that the phytoncide used for this study has a strong antimicrobial activity against C. albicans. Therefore, the phytoncide may be used as a candidate for prevention and therapeutic agent against oral candidiasis.

A 90-Day Inhalation Toxicity Study of Ethyl Formate in Rats

  • Lee, Mi Ju;Kim, Hyeon-Yeong
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.333-342
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    • 2017
  • Ethyl formate, a volatile solvent, has insecticidal and fungicidal properties and is suggested as a potential fumigant for stored crop and fruit. Its primary contact route is through the respiratory tract; however, reliable repeated toxicological studies focusing on the inhalation route have not been published to date. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate the safety of a 90-day repeated inhalation exposure in rats. Forty male and 40 female rats were exposed to ethyl formate vapor via inhalation at concentrations of 0, 66, 330, and 1,320 ppm for 6 hr/day, 5 days a week for 13 weeks. Clinical signs, body weights, food consumption, urinalysis, hematologic parameters, serum chemistry measurements, organ weights, necropsy, and histopathological findings were compared between the control and ethyl formate-exposed groups. Locomotor activity decreased during exposure and recovered afterward in male and female rats exposed to 1,320 ppm ethyl formate. Body weight and food consumption continuously decreased in both sexes exposed to 1,320 ppm ethyl formate from week 1 or 3 compared with the control values. The increases in adrenal weight and decreases in thymus weight were noted in both sexes exposed to ethyl formate at 1,320 ppm. Degeneration, squamous metaplasia of olfactory epithelium in the nasopharyngeal tissue, or both were noted in the male and female rats at 1,320 ppm and female rats at 330 ppm ethyl formate. Taken together, our results indicate that ethyl formate-induced changes were not observed in male and female rats at 330 and 66 ppm, respectively. This indicates that exposure to ethyl formate at concentrations below 66 ppm for 90 days is relatively safe in rats. This is the first report of a full-scale repeated inhalation toxicity assessment in rats and could contribute to controlling occupational environmental hazards related to ethyl formate.

Selection of Entomopathogenic Fungus Isaria javanica FT333 for Dual Control of Thrips and Anthracnose (총채벌레 및 고추탄저병의 동시 방제를 위한 곤충병원성 곰팡이 Isaria javanica FT333 선발)

  • Lee, Moran;Jeong, Hyeju;Kim, Jaeyoon;Kim, Dayeon;Ahn, Seung Ho;Lee, SangYeob;Han, Ji Hee
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.46 no.4
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    • pp.479-490
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    • 2018
  • Red pepper is seriously damaged by thrips (Thrips palmi) and anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum acutatum throughout its development. Because of biotic constraints, producers often depend on chemicals that are expensive and have adverse effects on the environment, operator, and beneficial insects. In addition, resistance is developed because of the repeated use of chemicals. In recent decades, the use of microorganisms in crop protection has become a credible alternative because it is eco-friendly. In this study, we aimed to select isolates with insecticidal and fungicidal activities against the pathogens that cause anthracnose and thrips. We treated T. palmi adults and juveniles with 13 strains of entomopathogenic fungi (isolated from the soil by using the insect-bait method), and 6 strains showed excellent insecticidal activity (70-100%) 5 days after the treatment. The selected isolates were cultured with C. acutatum to screen for the strain with excellent anti-fungal activities, among which an isolate FT333 showed more than 95% control efficacy against C. acutatum in vitro. The isolate was identified as Isaria javanica through its morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analysis of the ITS and ${\beta}-tubulin$ nucleotide sequences. The Isaria javanica FT333 isolate could be used effectively for dual bio-control of thrips and anthracnose during red pepper cultivation.