• Title, Summary, Keyword: gamma irradiation

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Alterations in Seed Vigour and Viability of Soybean Related with Accelerated Seed Aging and Low Dose Gamma Irradiation

  • Hwangbo, Jun-Kwon;Kim, Jae-Sung;Lim, Ji-Hyeok;Baek, Myung-Hwa;Chung, Byung-Yeoup
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.48 no.4
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    • pp.334-338
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    • 2003
  • The objective of this study was to demonstrate whether or not the deleterious effects of accelerated aging on seed vigour and viability are alleviated by interaction with gamma irradiation. Seeds of soybean (Glycine max L.) were artificially aged and subsequently irradiated with 4 and 8 Gy of gamma irradiation. Germination rate was negatively affected by accelerated aging and positively by gamma irradiation, with a positive interaction of a 3day-seed aging treatment occurring with 4 Gy, possibly suggesting that 4 Gy of gamma irradiation partially offset the adverse effects of seed aging on germination. However, 5-day aged seeds did not gain any benefits from the gamma irradiation. Electrolyte leakage from the seeds increased with the duration in days aged. Irradiation, however, did not impose any effects on the leakage. Respiration rate of the seed with hypocotyl and primary root was significantly low for the aged seeds, but not for the seeds with both irradiation and aging treatments. Accelerated aging decreased the dry weight of the hypocotyl and primary root of the seeds without any measurable effects of irradiation. $\alpha$-Amylase activity decreased with seed aging and positively responded to gamma irradiation. The data is discussed with regard to the possible roles of gamma irradiation for improving the seed vigour and viability of aged seeds.

The Effect of Gamma Irradiation on PLGA and Release Behavior of BCNU from PLGA Wafer

  • Lee, Jin-Soo;Chae, Gang-Soo;Gilson Khang;Kim, Moon-Suk;Cho, Sun-Hang;Lee, Hai-Bang
    • Macromolecular research
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    • v.11 no.5
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    • pp.352-356
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    • 2003
  • The objectives of this study were to investigate the influence of gamma irradiation for sterilization on poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) with different molecular weight and the effect of gamma irradiation on the release behavior of 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU, carmustine) from PLGA wafer with various irradiation doses. The effect of gamma irradiation on PLGA was evaluated by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The weight average molecular weight (M$_{w}$) and glass transition temperature (T$_{g}$) of PLGA decreased after gamma irradiation. The extent of M$_{w}$ reduction was dependent on irradiation dose and PLGA molecular weight. Using EPR spectroscopy, we successfully detected gamma irradiation induced free radicals in PLGA. The gamma irradiation increased the release rate of BCNU from PLGA wafer at applied irradiation doses except 2.5 Mrad of irradiation dose in this study.study.

Low-Dose Gamma Irradiation as Means of Isolating Carotenoid-Hyperproducing Yeast Mutant

  • Sun, Nam-Kyu;Lee, Seung-Hee;Ahn, Gil-Hwan;Won, Mi-Sun;Song, Kyung-Bin
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.12 no.6
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    • pp.1010-1012
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    • 2002
  • In order to isolate carotenoid-hyperproducing yeast, low-dose gamma irradiation was used as means of mutagenesis. Phaffia rhodozyma was treated by gamma irradiation of less than 10 kGy, which is considered to be a wholesome irradiation condition established by the Food and Drug Administration. Through repeated rounds of gamma irradiation and visual screening, mutant 3A4-8 was obtained. It produced a $3,824{\mu}g$ carotenoid/g yeast, 69% higher content than $2,265{\mu}g/g$ yeast of the unirradiated one. This result indicates that low-dose gamma irradiation could be used as means of mutagenesis to obtain carotenoid-hyperproducing strain of Phaffia rhodozyma, since only carotenoid-hyperproducing yeast survived gamma irradiation by scavenging oxygen radicals generated by radiolysis of water.

Early Germination Response of Soybean Seed to Accelerated Aging and Low Dose Gamma Irradiation

  • Hwangbo, Jun-Kwon;Kim, Jae-Sung;Lim, Ji-Hyeok;Baek, Myung-Hwa;Chung, Byung-Yeoup;Kim, Jin-Hong
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.49 no.1
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    • pp.25-29
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    • 2004
  • The responses of soybean seeds were evaluated to accelerated aging and gamma irradiation with regard to germination, seed leakage, seed leachate component and dry weight of hypocotyl and primary root of the germinating seed. Accelerated aging significantly reduced the final germination rate while gamma irradiation increased the final germination rate. Furthermore, the interactive effects occurred that the final germination rate of 5-day aged seeds increased considerably in response to 4 Gy of gamma irradiation. The extent to which the electrolyte was leaked from the seeds (conductivity) was significantly affected by accelerated aging and showed a close negative correlation with the germination rate. Gamma irradiation, however, did not significantly affect the electrical conductivity of seed leachate. The accelerated aging significantly increased the concentrations of the particular electrolytes leaked from the seeds while the gamma irradiation did not affect those concentrations. Of the electrolytes leaked from the seeds, Ca and Mg showed relatively lower concentrations while K showed greater concentrations than others. Moreover, N and P showed similar responses to aging treatment. Aging treatment significantly affected dry weight (DW) of hypocotyls and primary root. Also, gamma irradiation decreased DW of hypocotyls and primary root, particularly for 8 Gy associated with 5 days aging treatment. The data were discussed in terms of the relationships of seed vigor with aging treatment and gamma irradiation.

Changes of the phsico-Chemical Characteristics of oils treated by the ${\gamma}$-ray irradiation (I) -The Extracted soybean oil- (방사선 조사선량에 따른 유지의 이화학적 성질변화 (I))

  • 임국이
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.77-88
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    • 1992
  • To investigate the oxidative stabilities of the ${\gamma}$-ray irradiated soybean during storage and heating and some physico-chemical characteristics of soybean and the extracted soybean oil (SBO) with/without the ${\gamma}$-ray irradiation were determined. The ${\gamma}$-ray level use in irradiation for soybean were 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 KGY respectively and Acid Value, Peroxide Value, Conjugated Diene Value, Composed Fatty Acids amounts, and Trans Fatty Acid occurrence were determined for all samples, which were incubated at 45$\pm$1$^{\circ}C$ for 25 days heated at 180$\pm$1$^{\circ}C$ for 30 hours. And these values of the ${\gamma}$-ray treated samples were compared to those of nontreated samples. The results were obtained as follows : 1. According to the increased level of the ${\gamma}$-ray irradiation, there was little difference in Dielectric Constant, Viscosity, and the Induction Period by Rancimat. But, in case of 5.0 KGY, oxidative stability was increased more twice than that of non-irradiation. In the quantity of fatty Acids composition of the extracted soybean oil irradiated with 10.0 KGY, palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids were less increased thanb those of non-irradiation, while stearic, linolenic acids were decreased. In the case of 2.5 KGY irradiation, stearic and oleic acids were increased. 2. The Acid Value of SBO according to the ${\gamma}$-ray irradiation level was almost not change, but was 0.1 lower than that of non-irradiation during incubation (45$\pm$1$^{\circ}C$). The Peroxide Value of SBO with the ${\gamma}$-ray irradiation, was very lower than that of non-irradiation, but its effect on oxidative stability was better of SBO treated with 5.0 KGY and 10.0 KGY. In the Fatty Acids composition of SBO, palmitic, stearic, oleic acids were increased, while linoleic, linolenic acids were decreased during incubation(45$\pm$1$^{\circ}C$). This tendency was more obvious due to the ${\gamma}$-ray level. While heating(180$\pm$1$^{\circ}C$), the Acid Value of SBO treated with the ${\gamma}$-ray irradiation was decreased, the Acid Value of SBO irradiated with 2.5 KGY was the lowest. Also the peroxide Values of SBO treated with 5.0 KGY, 10.0 KGY were very lower than that of non-irradiation. Conjugated Diene Value of SBO was almost unchanged according to the ${\gamma}$-level and heating time. 3. When the methyl linoleate was irradiated with the ${\gamma}$-ray, the Trans Fatty Acid was little produced. In case of SBO with non-irradiation, the trans C18:1 was occured about 6.5~7.9%, but trans C18:2 and C18:3 were not shown, while SBO irradiated with the ${\gamma}$-ray 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 KGY, trans C18:3 and C18:2 amount in SBO were increased according to heating time, but trans C18:3 was little occured. As these results, the effects of the ${\gamma}$-ray irradiation to oil containing food were to cut down the energy for food storage and to increase oxdative stability during storge. And also it was shown to be the best that 10.0 KGY of the ${\gamma}$-ray irradiation would be applied to soybean.

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Gamma Irradiation-reduced IFN-γ Expression, STAT1 Signals, and Cell-mediated Immunity

  • Han, Seon-Kyu;Song, Jie-Young;Yun, Yeon-Sook;Yi, Seh-Yoon
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.35 no.6
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    • pp.583-589
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    • 2002
  • The signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)1 is a cytoplasmic-transcription factor that is phosphorylated by Janus kinases (Jak) in response to interferon $\gamma$ (IFN-$\gamma$). The phosphorylated STAT1 translocates to the nucleus, where it turns on specific sets of IFN-$\gamma$-inducible genes, such as the interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-1. We show here that gamma irradiation reduces the IFN-$\gamma$ mRNA expression. The inhibition of the STAT1 phosphorylation and the IRF-1 expression by gamma irradiation was also observed. In contrast, the mRNA levels of IL-5 and transcription factor GATA-3 were slightly induced by gamma irradiation when compared to the non-irradiated sample. Furthermore, we detected the inhibition of cell-mediated immunity by gamma irradiation in the allogenic-mixed lymphocytes' reaction (MLR). These results postulate that gamma irradiation induces the polarized-Th2 response and interferes with STAT1 signals, thereby causing the immunosuppression of the Th1 response.

Growth and Mineral Contents of Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) as Related with a Low Dose Gamma Irradiation

  • Hwangbo, Jun-Kwon;Kim, Jae-Sung;Lim, Ji-Hyeok;Baek, Myung-Hwa;Chung, Byung-Yeoup;Kim, Jin-Hong
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.400-404
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    • 2003
  • This study was to evaluate the effects of gamma irradiation on the germination, nutrient concentrations and growth of spinach and radish. Both the spinach and radish seeds exhibited relatively higher germination rates in response to the low doses of gamma irradiation compared to the non -irradiated control. Leaf DW of the radish did not respond to gamma irradiation but that of the spinach increased significantly in response to a gamma radiation of 4 Gy (P< 0.05). Leaf growth parameters of the spinach including the leaf area and SLA (leaf area/leaf dry weight) also demonstrated increased responses to gamma irradiation. R/S (root dry weight/shoot dry weight), root DW and root length of the spinach exhibited a positive response to gamma irradiation while those of the radish did not. In contrast, SRL (root length/root dry weight) significantly decreased with gamma irradiation at 8 Gy for the spinach, but not for the radish. The tissue nitrogen concentrations of the spinach showed an increased response to gamma irradiation while that of the radish did not. Furthermore, higher concentrations of phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium were found in the irradiated spinach, but not in the irradiated radish. It seems that the non-specific physiological and/or biochemical activities of spinach might be accelerated by gamma irradiation, possibly accounting for the stimulation of nutrient uptake from the root media and early biomass accumulation in the current study.

Combinational Effect of Moist Heating and Gamma Irradiation on The Inactivation of Trypsin Inhibitory Activity in Soybean

  • Felipe, Penelope;Yang, Yun-Hyoung;Lee, Jeong-Hee;Sok, Dai-Eun;Kim, Hyoung-Chin;Yoon, Won-Kee;Kim, Hwan-Mook;Kim, Mee-Ree
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.732-737
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    • 2005
  • The combinational effect of gamma irradiation and moist heating on the trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) in soaked and dried soybeans was evaluated by measuring the inhibition using N-benzoyl-DL-arginine-p-nitroanilide (BAPNA) as substrate. Gamma irradiation significantly decreased the TIA level in soybean at doses above 5 kGy, and the $ID_{50}$ (the gamma irradiation dose required to reach 50% inhibition) value for TIA was 13.53 kGy. Soaking prior to gamma irradiation significantly lowered the $ID_{50}$ to 8.44 kGy, and the soaking process enhanced the efficiency to inactivate TIA by as much as 48%. When soaking prior to gamma irradiation was followed by subsequent mild heating ($60^{\circ}C$) process, the $IT_{50}$ (heating time required to reach the 50% inhibition of TIA) value at even 1 kGy (5.28 min) was greatly reduced by over 50% compared to the level for the no-soaking process. In addition, the activation energy of soaking prior to gamma irradiation at 1 kGy was 2.45 kcal/mole, which was also about 50% lower than the 5.10 kcal/mole of dried soybean gamma-irradiated. Based on these results, soaking prior to gamma irradiation is an effective method for TIA inhibition. Furthermore, a combination of two or more processing methods such as soaking, heating and gamma irradiation is much more effective than any single processing method.

Control of Postharvest Bacterial Soft Rot by Gamma Irradiation and its Potential Modes of Action

  • Jeong, Rae-Dong;Chu, Eun-Hee;Park, Duck Hwan;Park, Hae-Jun
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.157-161
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    • 2016
  • Gamma irradiation was evaluated for its in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activity against a postharvest bacterial pathogen, Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc). Gamma irradiation in a bacteria cell suspension resulted in a dramatic reduction of the viable counts as well as an increase in the amounts of DNA and protein released from the cells. Gamma irradiation showed complete inactivation of Ecc, especially at a dose of 0.6 kGy. In addition, scanning electron microscopy of irradiated cells revealed severe damage on the surface of most bacterial cells. Along with the morphological changes of cells by gamma irradiation, it also affected the membrane integrity in a dose-dependent manner. The mechanisms by which the gamma irradiation decreased the bacterial soft rot can be directly associated with the disruption of the cell membrane of the bacterial pathogen, along with DNA fragmentation, results in dose-dependent cell inactivation. These findings suggest that gamma irradiation has potential as an antibacterial approach to reduce the severity of the soft rot of paprika.

Effect of Gamma-Irradiation on the Molecular Properties of Blood Plasma Proteins

  • Song, Kyung-Bin;Lee, Seunghwan;Lee, Seunghyun
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.184-187
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    • 2002
  • Blood products from slaughterhouses that are not hygienically prepared for disposal or food consumption pose a human health hazard. Gamma irradiation is an effective method for sterilization of blood products, but may introduce changes in the molecular characteristics of proteins. This study evaluated the effects of irradiation on animal plasma proteins. Bovine and porcine blood was obtained from a slaughterhouse and the plasma proteins purified and lyophilized. The secondary structure and molecular weight distribution of the plasma protein solutions and powders were examined after ${\gamma}$-irradiation at 1, 5, 7 and 10 kGy. Gamma-irradiation affected the molecular properties of the protein solutions, but not the protein powders. Circular dichroism and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis studies showed that increased doses of ${\gamma}$-irradiation decrease the ordered structure of plasma proteins in solution, and cause initial fragmentation of the polypeptide chains and subsequent aggregation.