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Formation of particulate-phase and gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cigarette smoke

  • Shimazu, Haruki;Yata, Tsuyoshi;Ozaki, Naoto
    • Advances in environmental research
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.189-202
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    • 2017
  • This study examines the concentrations of particulate-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and gas-phase PAHs in sidestream cigarette smoke. Sixteen PAHs were determined for four brands of cigarettes. The volume of the experimental room is approximately $66m^3$. The air samples in the room were collected before and after smoking. The median total of particulate-phase and gas-phase PAH concentrations before smoking $3.13ng/m^3$and $48.0ng/m^3$, respectively. The median concentrations of them after smoking were $10.0ng/m^3$ and $79.6ng/m^3$. The median increases in the total of 16 PAH concentrations per cigarette during smoking were 271 ng for the particulate-phase PAHs and 1960 ng for the gas-phase PAHs. According to the relationship between particulate-phase and gas-phase PAHs after smoking, the two- to four-ring gas-phase PAHs and the higher molecular weight particulate-phase PAHs were probably formed from similar precursors. The relationship between the total suspended particulate (TSP) concentration and the increase in the total particulate-phase concentration of the 16 PAHs per cigarette during smoking were significantly positive. The increase in the total gas-phase concentration of the 16 PAHs tended to increase as the TSP concentration increased. This may indicates that decreasing the amount of TSP produced inhibit the production of PAHs during smoking.

Gas/Particle Level and Dry Deposition Flux of Atmospheric PCBs

  • Yeo, Hyun-Gu;Park, Ki-Chul
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.10-16
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    • 2003
  • Atmospheric samples were conducted from September 2001 to July 2002 with GPS-l PUF sampler in rural site to concentration distributions of gas/particle PCBs and to calculate dry deposition flux of PCBs. $\Sigma$PCBs concentrations of gas/particle PCBs were 59.29$\pm$48.83, 6.56$\pm$6.59 pg/㎥, respectively. Gas contribution (%) of total PCBs (gas + particle) was 90% which existed gas phase in the atmosphere. The particle contribution (%) of PCB congeners increased relatively more of the less volatile congeners with the highest chlorine number. The correlation coefficients (r) between total PCBs and temperature ($^{\circ}C$) showed negative correlation in - 0.62 (p<0.0l) for particle phase, positive correlation in 0.63 (p<0.01) for gas phase. In other word, particle phase PCBs is enriched in colder weather which could be due to greater in corporation of condensed gas phase at low temperature. The calculated dry deposition of total PCBs (gas + particle) was 0.008, 0.008 $\mu\textrm{g}$ $m^{-2}$ da $y^{-l}$ which showed maximum dry deposition flux in December, minimum data in July Bs in the atmosphere. The calculated dry deposition fluxes of total PCBs were influenced by particle phase PCBs even though PCBs in the atmosphere were present primarily in the gas phase.e.

Characteristics of Gas- and Particle-phase Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Distribution in Tunnels (터널 내 기체 및 입자상 다환방향족탄화수소(PAH) 분포 특성)

  • Lee, Ji Yi;Lee, Seung-Bok;Kim, Jin Young;Jin, Hyoun Cher;Lim, Hyung Bae;Bae, Gwi-Nam
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.519-530
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    • 2014
  • Twenty four individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds both in gas- and particle-phase were quantified in three tunnels (Namsan Tunnel 3, Jeongneung Tunnel, Bukak Tunnel) to characterize vehiculate emission of PAHs. Gas phase PAHs were dominant in tunnels which consisted of 85% of total PAHs concentrations. Naphthalene and 2-methyl naphthalene were the most abundant gas phase PAH compounds, while the concentrations of fluoranthene and pyrene were highest in the particle phase. Most (96%) of the gas phase PAH compounds consisted of two- and three-aromatic rings whereas most of the particle phase PAHs were in four and five-rings (67%) in tunnels. Average BaP-eq concentrations of PAHs in the particle phase ($20.8{\pm}11.6ngm^{-3}$) was about twenty fold higher than that in the gas phase ($1.6{\pm}0.6ngm^{-3}$). It means that the particle phase PAHs has more adverse health effect than the gas phase PAHs even though the concentrations of the particle phase PAHs were lower than those of the gas phase PAHs. Compared to previous studies reporting diagnostic ratios for specific PAH compounds, the profile of individual PAH compounds measured in this study reflected well for the vehiculate emissions. We reported, for the first time, on the results of the profile of individual PAH compounds measured in tunnels for both gas and particle phases.

Day and Night Distribution of Gas and Particle Phases Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Concentrations in the Atmosphere of Seoul (서울 대기 중 기체 및 입자상 다환방향족탄화수소 (PAHs)의 낮·밤 분포 특성)

  • Lim, Hyung Bae;Kim, Yong Pyo;Lee, Ji Yi
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.408-421
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    • 2016
  • Day and night sampling for gas and particle phases PAHs were carried out in Seoul to characterize gas and particle phases PAHs concentrations in day and night times. There was no significant difference between day and night time for particle phase PAHs concentrations and phase distribution of PAHs, while, gas phase PAHs concentrations in daytime were about 1/2 of nighttime concentrations in both summer and winter due to photochemical reaction of gas phase PAHs during daytime. A high fraction of cancer risk for PAHs was attributed to particle phase PAHs and the excess cancer risk in winter was higher than in summer. The excess cancer risk level of total(gas+particle) PAHs in summer was partially observed when both gas and particle phase PAHs concentrations were considered as risk assessment. Based on the diagnostic ratios and factor analysis of PAHs concentrations, combustion(coal and natural gas) and vehicular emission might be the most significant contributors of PAHs and major factors for determining of PAHs concentration were different between day and night times.

Numerical Simulation of Two-Phase Flow for Gas-Solid Particles (가스와 입자가 혼합된 2상 유동에 관한 수치해석적 연구)

  • Jung H.;Choi J. W.;Park C. G.
    • Journal of computational fluids engineering
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.8-14
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    • 2001
  • The phenomena of two-phase suspension flows appear widely in nature and industrial processes. Hence, it is of great importance to understand the mechanism of the gas-solid two-phase flows. In the present study, the numerical simulation has been approached by utilizing the Eulerian-Lagrangian methodology for describing the characteristics of the fluid and particulate phases in a vertical pipe and a 90°square-sectioned bend. The continuous phase(gas phase) is described by the Eulerian formulation and a κ-ε turbulence model is employed to find mean and turbulent properties of the gas phase. The particle properties(velocity and trajectory) are then described by a Lagrangian approach and computed using the mean velocity and turbulent fluctuating velocity of the gas phase. The predictions are compared with measurements by laser-Doppler velocimeter for the validation. As a result, the calculated results show good agreements.

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An Analytical Study on the Gas-Solid Two Phase Flows

  • Sun, Jianguo;Kim, Heuy-Dong
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Propulsion Engineers Conference
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    • pp.356-363
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    • 2012
  • This paper addresses an analytical study on the gas-solid two phase flows in a nozzle. The primary purpose is to get recognition into the gas-solid suspension flows and to investigate the particle motion and its influence on the gas flow field. The present study is the primal step to comprehend the gas-solid suspension flow in the convergent-divergent nozzle. This paper try to made a development of an analytical model to study the back pressure ratio, particles loading and the particle diameter effect on gas-solid suspension flow. Mathematical model of gas-solid two phase flow was developed based on the single phase flow models to solve the quasi-one-dimensional mass, momentum equations to calculate the steady pressure field. The influence of particles loading and particle diameter is analyzed. The results obtained show that the suspension flow of smaller diameter particles has almost same trend as that of single phase flow using ideal gas as working fluid. And the presence of particles will weaken the strength of the shock wave; the bigger particle will have larger slip velocity with gas flow. The thrust coefficient is found to be higher for larger particles/gas loading or back pressure ratio, but it also depends on the ambient pressure.

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The Characteristics of Compound Layers Formed during Plasma Nitrocarburising in Pure Iron (플라즈마 침질탄화처리된 순철의 화합물층 특성)

  • Cho, H.S.;Lee, S.Y.;Bell, T.
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Heat Treatment
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.143-150
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    • 2000
  • Ferritic plasma nitrocarburising was performed on pure iron using a modified DC plasma unit. This investigation was carried out with various gas compositions which consisted of nitrogen, hydrogen and carbon monoxide gases, and various gas pressures for 3 hours at $570^{\circ}C$. After treatment, the different cooling rates(slow cooling and fast cooling) were used to investigate its effect on the structure of the compound layer. The ${\varepsilon}$ phase occupied the outer part of the compound layer and ${\gamma}^{\prime}$ phase existed between the ${\varepsilon}$ phase and the diffusion zone. The gas composition of the atmosphere influenced the constitution of the compound layer produced, i.e. high nitrogen contents were essential for the production of ${\varepsilon}$ phase compound layer. It was found that with increasing carbon content in the gas mixture the compound layer thickness increased up to 10%. In the gas pressure around 3 mbar, the compound layer characteristics were slightly effected by gas pressure. However, in the low gas pressure and high gas pressure, the compound layer characteristics were significantly changed. The constitution of the compound layer was altered by varying the cooling rate. A large amount of ${\gamma}^{\prime}$ phase was transformed from the ${\varepsilon}$ phase during slow cooling.

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A study on the channel design of bipolar plate of electrolytic cell by flow dynamic simulation in the two phase flow system (2상 흐름계에서 유로설계에 따른 전해조 분리판의 전산모사 연구)

  • Jo, Hyeon-Hak;Jang, Bong-Jae;Song, Ju-Yeong
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.415-420
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    • 2010
  • This study is focused on the channel design of bipolar plate in the electrode of hydrogen gas generator. The characteristics of hydrogen gas generation was studied in view of efficiency of hydrogen gas generation rate and a tendency of gas flow through the riv design of electrode. Since the flow rate and flow pattern of generated gas in the two phase flow system are the most crucial in determining the efficiency of hydrogen gas generator, we adopted the commercial analytical program of COMSOL MultiphysicsTM to calculate the theoretical flow rate of hydrogen gas from the outlet of gas generator and flow pattern of two phase fluid in the electrode. In this study, liquid electrolyte flows into the bipolar plate and decomposed into gas phase, two phase flow simulation is applied to measure the efficiency of hydrogen gas generation.

Thermodynamic promoter effects on the phase equilibrium of BFG(Blast Furnace Gas) hydrate (촉진제 첨가에 따른 철강공정 배기가스 하이드레이트 상평형 영향)

  • Lee, Bo Ram;Sa, Jeong-Hoon;Park, Da-Hye;Kwak, Kye-Hoon;Lee, Kun-Hong
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.125.1-125.1
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    • 2011
  • $CO_2$ separation from a flue gas by using the gas hydrate technology was suggested by Kang et al. They reported phase equilibrium conditions of mixed gases composed of $CO_2$ and N2 with THF as a thermodynamic promoter. In this study, we reported the phase equilibrium conditions of a mixed gas which had a realistic composition of the blast furnace gas (BFG) emitted from the steel-making process. The phase equilibrium measurements were done by using the "continuous" QCM method, and the results demonstrate that this method is efficient and as accurate as the conventional temperature search method.

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A Study on the Flow Characteristics of Liquid Phase in Air-Water Model (Air-Water 모델에서 액상의 유동특성에 관한 연구)

  • Oh, Yool-Kwon;Seo, Dong-Pyo;Park, Seol-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Safety
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.1-5
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    • 2004
  • In the present study, the gas injection system based on air-water model was designed to investigate the flow characteristics of liquid phase. A PIV system was applied to analyze the flow pattern in a ladle which gas stated to rise upward from the bottom. Gas flow is one of most important factors which could feature a flow pattern in a gas injection system. As the gas injected into the liquid, the kinetic energy of bubble transfer to liquid phase and a strong circulation flow develops in the liquid phase. Such a flow in the liquid develops vortex and improve the mixing process. Due to the centrifugal force, circulation flow was well developed near both wall sides and upper region respectively. Increasing gas flow was helpful to remove dead zone but, weak flow zone still exists in spite of the increasement of gas flow rate.