• Title, Summary, Keyword: gastrointestinal tract(GIT)

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Characteristics of Upper Gastrointestinal Tract Involvement in Korean Pediatric Crohn's Disease: A Multicenter Study

  • Park, Ji Hyoung;Nam, Hye Na;Lee, Ji-Hyuk;Hong, Jeana;Yi, Dae Yong;Ryoo, Eell;Jeon, In Sang;Tchah, Hann
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.227-235
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: Crohn's disease (CD) can involve any site of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). However, the characteristics of upper GIT involvement in CD are unclear, especially in the Eastern pediatric population. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of upper GIT involvement and identify the clinical features of Korean children with CD. Methods: This was a retrospective multicenter cohort study that included 52 pediatric patients with CD who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy and biopsy. The clinical symptoms and endoscopic and histologic features of the upper GIT were identified according to the presence or absence of upper gastrointestinal symptoms. Results: Among the 52 patients, upper GIT involvement was noted in 50.0% (26/52). The mean age at CD diagnosis was $14.1{\pm}2.1$ years. Gastric ulcer was the most common lesion (19.2%) found on upper GIT endoscopy, followed by duodenal ulcers (15.4%). Chronic inflammation was the most common histopathologic feature (75.0%), followed by gastric erosion (17.3%). Granuloma was found in 9.6% of patients. Helicobacter pylori infection was identified in 5.8% of patients. Endoscopic and histologic findings were not significantly different, but the mean values of erythrocyte sedimentation rate ($60.7{\pm}27.1$ vs. $43.0{\pm}27.6mm/h$, p=0.037) and C-reactive protein ($16.5{\pm}28.2$ vs. $6.62{\pm}13.4mg/dL$, p=0.014) were significantly different between patients with and without upper gastrointestinal CD symptoms. Conclusion: Upper GIT involvement was relatively common in pediatric patients with CD irrespective of upper gastrointestinal symptoms, and H. pylori infection was relatively uncommon. The results of this study should aid the establishment of regional guidelines for upper GIT examination.

Changes in the Serotonin-, Somatostatin- and Motilin-Immunoreactive Cells in the Gastrointestinal Tract of the Bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana, at Various Developmental Stages

  • Hyeung-Sik Lee;Sae-Kwang Ku;Jae-Hyun Lee
    • Animal cells and systems
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.97-102
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    • 1999
  • In order to investigate the regional distribution and relative frequency of the serotonin-, somatostatin- and motilin-immunoreactive cells in the gastrointestinal tract GIT) of the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) with developmental stages, group of bullfrogs subdivided into the tadpole with hindlegs, metamorphosed bullfrog with tail, 2 wk after metamorphosed bullfrog and adult bullfrog, were stained by immunohistochemical methods (PAP methods). Multifarious changes of the regional distribution and relative frequency of the gastrointestinal endocrine cells were observed as developmental stages but motilin-immunoreactive cell ere not detected in this study. Serotonin-immunoreactive cells were detected from 2 wk after metamorphosed bullfrog in the whole GIT. The positive cells were predominant in the pylorus regions. In the adult bullfrog, these cells increased in fundus. On the other hand, somatostatin-immunoreactive cells were observed from the tadpole with hindlegs in the stomach regions. In the metamorphosed bullfrog with tail, they were found in the whole GIT except for the ileum, and increased with developmental stages except for rectum. In the rectum, these cells were not detected after that period. Our results show that most of the immunoreactive cells appear from completed metamorphosed periods when the histological structure of GIT is completely differentiated.

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Metagenomic Analysis of Chicken Gut Microbiota for Improving Metabolism and Health of Chickens - A Review

  • Choi, Ki Young;Lee, Tae Kwon;Sul, Woo Jun
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.28 no.9
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    • pp.1217-1225
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    • 2015
  • Chicken is a major food source for humans, hence it is important to understand the mechanisms involved in nutrient absorption in chicken. In the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), the microbiota plays a central role in enhancing nutrient absorption and strengthening the immune system, thereby affecting both growth and health of chicken. There is little information on the diversity and functions of chicken GIT microbiota, its impact on the host, and the interactions between the microbiota and host. Here, we review the recent metagenomic strategies to analyze the chicken GIT microbiota composition and its functions related to improving metabolism and health. We summarize methodology of metagenomics in order to obtain bacterial taxonomy and functional inferences of the GIT microbiota and suggest a set of indicator genes for monitoring and manipulating the microbiota to promote host health in future.

Microflora Management in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Piglets

  • Metzler, B.;Bauer, E.;Mosenthin, R.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.9
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    • pp.1353-1362
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    • 2005
  • The stressful physiological and environmental conditions around weaning often promote the proliferation of pathogens in the digestive tract of piglets resulting in diarrhoea and reduced daily weight gain. Typical dietary practices to maintain growth performance and health have led to an increased use of antimicrobial growth promoters. Due to the advanced ban of antibiotics in pig production, new concepts have been developed to secure animal health and growth performance, feed efficiency, and product quality as well. Several naturally occurring compounds seem to beneficially affect the composition and activity of the microflora in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of pigs. These are, among others, organic acids, probiotics, prebiotics, and enzymes. Organic acids are already widely used, especially in pigs, due to their positive effects on GIT health and growth performance. Probiotics have been shown to be effective against diarrhoea though effects may be dependent on diet composition and environmental conditions. Prebiotics may influence composition and activity of the intestinal microflora. Additionally, pre- and probiotics may exert positive influences on immune response, whereas enzymes may enhance feed digestibility by breaking down anti-nutritional factors. In the following, the focus will be directed to the role of organic acids, probiotics, prebiotics, and feeding enzymes as potential modulators of GIT health.

Localization of Endocrine Cells in the Gastrointestinal Tract of the Manchurian Chipmunk, Tamias sibiricus barberi

  • Lee, Hyeung-Sik;Ku, Sae-Kwang;Lee, Jae-Hyun
    • Animal cells and systems
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    • v.2 no.3
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    • pp.395-401
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    • 1998
  • The regional distribution and relative frequency of endocrine cells were studied immunohistochemically in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of the Manchurian chipmunk, Tamias sibiricus asiaticus. Six kinds of endocrine cells were identified in this study. 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-immunoreactive cells were detected throughout the GIT. These cells were observed in moderate numbers in the pylorus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, fundus, colon, and rectum. Somatostatin- and bovine pancreatic polypeptide (BPP)-immunoreactive cells were also identified throughout the GIT. The former were abundant in the pylorus region while the latter were scattered In ileum and colon. Motilin-immunoreactive cells were rarely detected in the small intestine. A few neurotensin-immunoreactive cells were detected in jejunum, ileum and colon. Also, a few substance P-immunoreactive cells were observed to be restricted to duodenum and jejunum.

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An immunohistochemical study on the gastrointestinal endocrine cells in the bean goose, Anser fabalis Latham (기러기 위장관 내분비세포에 관한 면역조직화학적 연구)

  • Park, Ki-dae;Lee, Jae-hyun;Ku, Sae-kwang;Lee, Hyeung-sik
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.39 no.6
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    • pp.1038-1048
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    • 1999
  • The regional distributions and relative frequencies of the gastrointestinal endocrine cells in the bean goose (Anser fabalis Latham) were investigated by immunohistochemical methods using bovine Sp-1/chromogranin (CG), serotonin, gastrin, cholecystokinin (CCK)-8, somatostatin and glucagon antisera. BCG-immunoreactive cells were widespread throughout the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) with moderated frequencies except for the gizzard and proventriculus which were a few frequencies. Serotonin-immunoreactive cells were detected throughout the GIT except for the proventriculus and gizzard. These cells were observed in the pylorus with rare frequencies but numerous cells were detected in the intestinal tract. Gastrin-immunoreactive cells were restricted to the gizzard, pylorus and duodenum. These cells were most predominant in the pylorus and a few or rare in the gizzard and duodenum, respectively. CCK-8-immunoreactive cells were observed from the gizzard to ileum. The highest frequencies of endocrine cells were observed in the duodenum. These cells were increased from the gizzard to duodenum but thereafter decreased. Somatostatin-immunoreactive cells were detected in the GIT except for the large intestine. In the proventriculus and pylorus, numerous immunoreactive cells were demonstrated but a few cells were present in the other regions. Glucagon cells were observed in the gizzard, pylorus, ileum, colon and rectum with a few or moderated numbers.

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An histological and immunohistochemical study of endocrine cells in the gastrointestinal tract of the Amur lizard (Takydromus amurensis) (아무르장지뱀의 위장관 내분비세포에 관한 조직화학적 및 면역조직화학적 연구)

  • Lee, Hyeung-sik;Lee, Mal-soon;Lee, Jae-hyun
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.67-73
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    • 1995
  • The distribution and the frequency of endocrine cells in the GIT of the Amur lizard(Takydromus amurensis) were investigated using silver techniques and immunohistochemical method. Only argyrophil cells stained by the Grimelius technique were found numerous in the pyloric glands and moderate in the duodenum. Two types of immunoreactive endocrine cells were identified by immunohistochemical method. Bovine CG-immunoreactive cells were demonstrated the entire GIT. BPP-immunoreactive cells were restricted in the duodenum and the ileum. The results showed that: the number of argyrophil cells was lower than the number of cells stained with bovine CG antiserum. Therefore, bovine CG-immunostaining and the Grimelius silver technique did not correspond with various endocrine cells in the Amur lizard.

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Immunomodulatory effects of phytogenics in chickens and pigs - A review

  • Huang, C.M.;Lee, T.T.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.617-627
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    • 2018
  • Environmental stressors like pathogens and toxins may depress the animal immune system through invasion of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) tract, where they may impair performance and production, as well as lead to increased mortality rates. Therefore, protection of the GIT tract and improving animal health are top priorities in animal production. Being natural-sourced materials, phytochemicals are potential feed additives possessing multiple functions, including: anti-inflammatory, anti-fungal, anti-viral and antioxidative properties. This paper focuses on immunity-related physiological parameters regulated by phytochemicals, such as carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, curcumin, and thymol; many studies have proven that these phytochemicals can improve animal performance and production. On the molecular level, the impact of inflammatory gene expression on underlying mechanisms was also examined, as were the effects of environmental stimuli and phytochemicals in initiating nuclear factor kappa B and mitogen-activated protein kinases signaling pathways and improving health conditions.

An immunohistochemical study of the gut hormones in Hynobius leechii (도롱뇽의 위장관 내분비세포에 관한 면역조직화학적 연구)

  • Lee, Hyeung-sik;Lee, Jae-hyun
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.39-44
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    • 1995
  • Using immunohistochemical technique, three endocrine cell types were observed in the GIT of the Korean salamander, Hynobius leechii. BPP-immunoreactive cells were distributed from the pyloric region to the small intestine. A moderated number of somatostatin-immunoreactive cells were restricted to the pyloric region. 5-HT-immunoreactive cells were demonstrated throughout the GIT, reaching a peak in the pyloric region. The presence of BPP- and 5-HT-immunoreactive cells are identified for the first time in Hynobius leechii.

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An immunohistochemical study on the gastro-entero-pancreatic endocrine cells of the cat-shark, Scyliorhinus torazame (두툽상어 (Scyliorhinus torazame)의 위장관 내분비세포에 관한 면역조직화학적 연구)

  • Lee, Hyeung-sik;Lee, Jae-hyun
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.417-425
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    • 1995
  • The regional distribution and relative frequencies of gastrointestinal endocrine cells were studied immunohistochemically in the GIT of the cat-shark. Five kinds of endocrine cells were identified in this study. Mostly these cells were of open types, except for glucagon-, BPP- and somatostatin-immunoreactive cells in the stomach which seemed to be of closed type. 5-HT-immunoreactive cells were detected throughout the GIT, and were more freguent than of the other regions. Glucagon-and BPP-immunoreactive cells were demonstrated in the entire GIT except for the duodenum an the rectum, and occurred in various frequencies. A few numbers of Gas/CCK-immunoreactive cells were restricted to the duodenum. Somatostatin-immunoreactive cells were distributed in the whole GIT, and were a few in numbers in the stomach and rare in the intestine, respectly. These results suggest that the pattern of the regional distribution is rather similar to that reported fur previously, but relative number was less frequent than that of other species.

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