• Title, Summary, Keyword: gelatinization

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Physicochemical Properties of Rice Cultivars with Different Amylose Contents (아밀로스 함량이 다른 쌀 품종의 이화학적 특성)

  • Choi, In-Duck
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.39 no.9
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    • pp.1313-1319
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    • 2010
  • Rice cultivars of Goami2 (G2), Baegjinju (BJJ), and Sulgaeng (SG) with different amylose contents were developed by mutation breeding via N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) treatment to Ilpumbyeo (IP), high japonica rice. They were identified by different appearances such as grain size, color, and shape. In this experiment, the compositional and physical qualities of those cultivars were examined. The G2 rice classified as a high-amylose rice cultivar was significantly higher in its non-digestable carbohydrates contents. Linoleic and oleic acid were composed of 70~75% of all fatty acids composition regardless of milled and brown rice, except G2 rice in which palmitic acid was the major fatty acid followed by linoleic acid and oleic acid in order. Major amino acids were aspartic acid, glutamic acid, and hydroxy lysine. It was found that cysteine contents were higher in the cultivars of endosperm mutant rice. The DSC analysis revealed that enthalpy was the highest in BJJ followed by SG, IP, and G2 rice. The lowest enthalpy of G2 might be attributable to the higher amylose content. Ilpumbyeo in its cooked rice form showed the highest in Toyo value and less in hardness, but G2 was vise versa. Results of gelatinization and cooked rice properties suggest that G2 was less suitable for cooked rice, but has a potential for functional ingredients from nutritional point of view. The BJJ and SG could be used for traditional cooking as well as for processed foods.

Effect of Lilium davidi's Root Powder Additions on the Rheology of the Dough and Processing Adaptability for Bread (백합 구근 분말 첨가가 반죽 물성 및 제빵 가공적성에 미치는 영향)

  • Joung, Yong-Myeon;Lee, Kyung-Seok;Hwang, Seong-Yun;Son, Man-Ja;Lee, Ki-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.287-293
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    • 2010
  • Regarding the physical properties of wheat flour added with lily's root powder, elasticity in farinograms tended to increase as the ratio of added lily's root powder increased. However, viscoelasticity, absorptivity, absorption time, and stability tended to decrease after an initial increase when a certain ratio of lily's root powder was added to the wheat flour. Results from the rapid viscosity analyzer (RVA) indicated that the retention strength, final viscosity, break down, set back value, $P_{max}$ value of the alveogram, and falling number value decreased. As for gaseous release, measured with a rheofermentometer, the total amount of $CO_2$ gas generated and retained tended to decrease. As for the gelatinizing properties in terms of differences in the granularity and the amount of lily's root powder (bulbs) added to wheat flour, the initial gelatinization temperature had no effect regardless of the type or amount of general grinding and minute (ultra-fine, $10\;{\mu}m$) lily's root powder. Meanwhile, the peak viscosity and peak viscosity time exhibited significant differences in 3, 5% general grinding lily's root powder additive groups. On the other hand, there was no significant difference between 3, 5% minute lily's root powder additive groups. This is likely because the activity of the enzyme in wheat flour decreased relatively and differences in the lily's root powder granularity resulted in a variation in water absorptivity. In the preference test, flavor retention of the functional bread increased according to the granularity of lily's root powder and the ratio of added lily's root powder, thus resulting in significant differences in the mouth feel and flavor; the texture and crumb color, however, did not exhibit significant differences.

Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Activities of Noodles Added with Rehmanniae Radix Preparata Powder (숙지황 분말을 첨가한 국수의 품질 특성 및 항산화성)

  • Min, A Young;Son, Ah Young;Kim, Hyun Jeong;Shin, Suk Kyung;Kim, Mee Ree
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.386-392
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    • 2015
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of noodles added with Rehmanniae Radix Preparata powder (RP). Wheat flour noodles were prepared with four levels of RP (0, 2.5, 5, and 7.5%). Moisture absorption of RP added noodles was somewhat greater than that of control. The turbidity of RP noodles decreased according to addition of RP. Hunter L (lightness) and b (yellowness) values of RP added noodles decreased according to addition of RP amount. Textural properties (measured by a texture analyzer), hardness, and springiness of RP noodles up to 5% were not significantly different from those of control. Antioxidant activity of RP added noodles increased according to addition of RP: $IC_{50}$ values of DPPH radical scavenging activity for raw noodles was 3.77 mg/g, whereas values of raw noodles with RP 2.5 and 7.5% were 3.69 mg/g and 2.47 mg/g, respectively. Polyphenol content increased according to addition of RP. Amylogram showed that RP addition increased initial gelatinization temperature, decreased breakdown, and reduced setback and consistency, which indicates protection against retrogradation. The sensory preference test revealed that cooked noodles with added 2.5% RP showed the highest scores for color, odor, taste, and overall preference. It is suggested that RP up to 2.5% could be substituted for wheat flour to improve noodle quality.

Sensory and Instrumental Texture Properties of Rice Cakes According to the Addition of Songpy(pine tree endodermis) or Mosipul(china grass leaves) (송피 및 모시풀 첨가에 의한 떡의 관능적, 기계적 텍스쳐 특성 변화)

  • 김순임;안미정;한영실;변재형
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.603-610
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    • 1993
  • Effects of pine tree(Pinus densiflora) endodermis or china grass leaves(Boehmeria nipponivea) on textural or sensory quality of rice cake were investigated. Rice cakes prepared with the addition of pine tree endodermis or china grass leaves were not remarkably decreased in moisture content during storage. Degree of gelatinization was shown the highest value in the samples 17.28% of pine tree endodermis or china grass leaves added. As a result of the sensory evaluation for the rice cakes, consistency, moistness and cohesiveness were gradually improved with the increase of pine tree endodermis or china grass leaves addition amount. The overall quality was most preferable in the rice cakes prepared with 17.28% of pine tree endodermis or china grass leaves. The detrimental changes were occured in textural quality of the all rice cake samples during storage. Textural quality of rice cakes was higher in pine tree endodermis or china grass leaves addition samples than that of control group. In the texturometer test, hardeness and chewiness decreased in pine tree endodermis or china grass leaves addition samples where as gumminess increased these samples compare to control group.

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Extraction of starch from frozen potato whole-tissues using cellulase and its physicochemical properties (셀룰로오스분해효소에 의한 동결감자로부터 전분의 추출 및 물리화학적 특성)

  • Kim, Jaehyun;Kim, Hyun-Seok
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.51 no.4
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    • pp.348-355
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    • 2019
  • This study investigated the impact of cellulase treatment on the extraction yield of potato starch (PS), and compared the physicochemical properties of PS by conventional (CSE) and enzymatic (ESE) starch extraction. In ESE, the PS extraction yield was predominantly influenced by reaction temperature, time and their interaction, compared to the cellulase concentration. When potatoes were treated for 8 h at $40^{\circ}C$ with 1.5% cellulase, the PS extraction yield was about 3.4-fold higher than that by CSE. Compared to CSE-PS, ESE-PS showed lower total starch contents and higher amylose contents, resulting in lower swelling factors and distorted pasting viscosity profiles accompanied by absence of peak and breakdown viscosities. However, ESE did not affect the gelatinization characteristics of PS. Overall results suggested that ESE can provide the highest yield of PS, and ESE-PS can be a potential starch source for extending the utilization of PS in food industries.

Effects of heat-moisture treatment on functional properties of high amylose rice starches with different crystalline types (결정형이 다른 고아밀로스 쌀 전분의 기능적 성질에 수분열처리 효과)

  • Huang, Mengyao;No, Junhee;Shin, Malshick
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.52 no.1
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    • pp.31-39
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    • 2020
  • The effects of heat-moisture treatment (HMT) on the functional properties of high amylose rice starches (HARSes) purified from Korean rice varieties (A-type Goami and Singil and B-type Dodamssal and Goami2) were investigated. HMT was accomplished with moisture contents of 18 and 27% and heated at 100℃ for 16 h. While the amylose content, swelling power and solubility decreased after HMT, the water binding capacity and resistant starch (RS) content increased with increasing moisture content after HMT. The X-ray diffraction patterns of all HARSes did not change after HMT, but a decrease in the intensity of peak at 2θ=5° was observed in B-type HMT HARSes. While the starch granules aggregated after HMT, their shape and size remained unchanged. B-type HARSes exhibited higher gelatinization temperatures and lower pasting viscosities than A-type HARSes following HMT. The results, thus, suggest that while the crystalline intensity of B-type Dodamssal and Goami2 rice starches did not change after HMT, the RS content, water binding capacity, and pasting temperatures of all HARSes increased with increasing moisture content after HMT.

Cooking Properties of Waxy Varieties of Rice (통일(統一) 찹쌀의 가공(加工) 및 조리특성(調理特性)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Kim, Hyong-Soo;Moon, Soo-Jae;Sohn, Kyong-Hee;Heu, Mun-Hue
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.144-152
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    • 1977
  • The physiochemical properties of eight different cultivars or newly bred lines of glutionous rice were investigated and obtained following results; (1) The gelatinizing temperature, blue value and alkali number of starch separated from the sample cultivars or lines were similar to those of starch from conventional cultivar Olchal. The expansive power of three newly bred lines were somewhat weaker than that of starch from conventional cultivar, but the expansive power of other four lines were similar to that of conventional cultivar. (2) pH of cooked rice of the ten sample cultivars or breeding lines showed no discernible differences rangeing from 6.54 to 6.60. (3) The degree of gelatinization of cooked rice of newly bred lines were rather lower than that of conventional ones, but the degree of their retrogradation were somewhat higher than that of conventional cultivars. (4) In order to improve the palatability of cooked rice of Tongil (common rice), glutinous rice were mixed in different rate. The results showed that a mix ratio of six per cent glutinous rice was most favourable. The acceptability of common Tongil rice was improved when it was cooked with four to six per cent of glutinous rice mixed, and it showed no significant difference from that of Akibare alone cooked rice. Also no difference was noticed among newly bred glutinous lines in the acceptability when they cooked with common Tongil rice mixed. (5) Injolmi, Yaksik, Misitgaru, Twipap and Yugwa were prepared from glutinous rice of sample cultivars and or breeding lines to study their characteristics in processing and their acceptability. The results indicated that the acceptability score of newly bred lines were lower than that of conventional cultivar in cases of Twipap and Yugwa, but in cases of Injolmi, Yaksik and Misitgaru, identical score was obtained from both of newly bred lines and conventional cultivars.

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Development of Composite Flours and Their Products Utilizing Domestic Raw Materials -Part VI. Effect of Additives on the Bread-making Quality with Composite Flours- (국산원료(國産原料)를 활용(活用)한 복합분(複合粉) 및 제품개발(製品開發)에 관한 연구(硏究) -제6보 복합분(複合粉)에 의한 제(製)빵에 있어서 첨가제(添加劑)의 영향(影響)-)

  • Kim, Hyong-Soo;Lee, Hee-Ja
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.106-115
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    • 1977
  • In order to study the baking properties of various composite flours, naked barley flour, corn flour, potato flour, and sweet potato flour were added to the hard wheat flour respectively in a ratio of 3 : 7. Using above composite flours, effects of glyceryl monosterate (GMS), sodium stearyl lactylate (SSL), calcium stearyl lactylate (CSL), xanthan gum (XG) and polysaccharide (PS) were also examined in terms of sedimentation test, viscosity by amylograph and baking test. The results are as follows: 1) Sedimentation value decreased in the order of hard wheat flour (58), corn flour (47), potato flour (46), sweet potato flour (33). and barley flour (23). Significant effects of additives were observed for all of flours as well as for the composite flours. The most prominant result of additives was obtained with the composite flour of barley and wheat. Among the additives, mixtures of GMS and SSL at 1% final concentration and that of GMS and SSL at the same concentration increased the sedimentation value considerably. No sedimentation measurement, however, was possible for XG since the compound was precipitated by acid during experiment of sedimentation. 2) Effects of additives on the viscosity were determined by amylograph. The mixtures of GMS 1%+SSL 1% and GMS 1%+CSL 1% increased gelatinization point,maximum viscosity and cooling viscosity. GMS 1%+XG 1% or GMS 1%+PS 1% showed less effects. 3) GMS 1%+CSL 0.5% increased the specific loaf volume of bread produced from the composite flour of naked barley and wheat, and appearance, taste and texture of the product were very similar to those of the standard bread produced from wheat flour. GMS 1%+SSL 0.5%, however, increased the loaf volume of bread produced from the composite flours of corn, potato and sweet potato, and wheat. No effects were obtained with XG and PS, except slight improvement of the texture of bread. 4) No specific loaf volume of bread produced from the composite flour of barley and wheat was increased when 1% of SSL, CSL, XG or PS was used separately.

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A comparative study on quality characteristics of Jook(traditional Korean rice gruel) made of imported and domestic rices(Chuchung byeo) (수입쌀과 국산쌀(추청벼)로 제조한 죽의 품질 특성 비교)

  • 한승희;오명숙
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.604-610
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    • 2001
  • Quality characteristics of Jook made of imported rice(Thai and Chinese rice, harvested in 1998) and domestic rice(Chuchung byeo, harvested in 1998 and 1997) were examined. After cooking, Thai rice granules in Jook gained more weight than other rices and had a higher degree of swelling(p<0.05). The hardness of Thai rice granules in Jook was the highest and the adhesiveness of that was the lowest(p<0.05). Thai rice granules in Jook had high cohesiveness, chewiness and gumminess. Results showed that Thai rice has improper characteristics for making Jook which must be swallowed easily. In Thai rice, the time needed for the liquid pan of Jook to flow was shortest with values of 4.33s(60$\^{C}$) and 4.97s(40$\^{C}$) and spreadability of Jook was highest with value of 7.37cm(p<0.05). It showed that Jook made of Thai rice had nonsticky properties. Lightness of Jook made of Thai rice had the highest value of 66.3(p<0.05) and yellowness of Jook made of imported rice were higher than those made of domestic rices. Yields of reducing sugar by $\beta$-amylase reaction was highest in Jook made of Korean rice harvested in 1998 and lowest in Jook made of Thai rice(p<0.05). It showed That gelatinization of Korean rice harvested in 1998 was highest and that of Thai rice retarded. In sensory tests, Jook made of Korean rice harvested in 1997 had the highest acceptability and that made of Thai rice showed the lowest acceptability due to its strong off odor, low consistency and low smoothness in the mouth(p<0.05) There were no significant differences between the Jook made of Korean rice harvested in 1998 and that of Chinese rice.

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Quality Characteristics of Pound Cake with Citrus mandarin Powder during Storage (감귤 분말을 첨가한 파운드케이크의 저장 중 품질 특성)

  • Park, Yeong-Sun;Shin, Sol;Shin, Gil-Man
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.1022-1031
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    • 2008
  • Pound cakes were prepared with Citrus mandarin powder(CMP) cultivated in JeJu Island, Korea. The impact of CMP amount level, which was incorporated into wheat flour by the ration of 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% based on a flour weight, on the rheology and sensory profile of the pound cakes was measured. Moisture content of 13.70%, crude protein 5.12%, crude lipid 1.30%, crud ash 1.92%, respectively. Also evaluation was performed on the changes in physicochemical properties of the pound cakes during storage at 4 and $30^{\circ}C$. According to the amylogram, gelatinization temperature of the control dough was $63.35^{\circ}C$ and those of the dough with CMP were $63.85{\sim}66.55^{\circ}C$. Maximum viscosity of the dough was 686 B.U in the control, those were 575 B.U, 553 B.U, 504 B.U and 401 B.U in the dough with 5, 10, 15, and 20% CMP, respectively. The retrogradation degree(setback value) of CMP dough was $31{\sim}57%$ lower than that of the control dough under the same conditions. Water holding capacity of pound cake was increased gradually in proportion to the amount of CMP. The CMP addition decreased the brightuess(L) of pound cakes but increased redness(a) and yellowness(b). Hardness of pound cakes was significantly increased by CMP addition, while springiness, adhesiveness and cohesiveness were decreased. Based on sensory evaluation, pound cakes added with CMP were not significantly different in color and texture, while that of 10% CMP was significantly high in taste, flavor, and overall preferences, compared to the control. pH of pound cake with CMP was decreased during storage, showing that pH of CMP samples was lower than the control. Titrated acidity of pound cake with CMP was increased rapidly from storage for 10 days, which the changes in degree was fast in accordance with CMP amount. The Hunter's color value of pound cake with CMP was decreased, as the storage time proceeded. In the samples prepared with CMP, the firmness, adhesiveness, gumminess and chewiness was increased as the storage time proceeded, while springiness and cohesiveness was decreased.

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