• Title, Summary, Keyword: gelatinization

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Effect of microwave radiation on physical special quality of normal, high amylose and waxy corn starches (마이크로웨이브를 조사한 옥수수전분의 물리적 특성변화)

  • Lee Su Jin;Choe Yeong Hui
    • Journal of Applied Tourism Food and Beverage Management and Research
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.113-125
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    • 2004
  • Effect of microwave radiation on physico-chemical properties of cor'n starches was studied. Waxy com, com and high amylose com starches of varying moisture content(20~35%) were subjected to microwave processing(2450MHz) at $120^{\circ}$ and the experimental starch samples were examined by a X-ray diffractometry, rapid viscosity analyzer(RVA) and. with the samples in temperature was observed and the peaks of high amylose com starches at $2^{\circ}$=5.0, 15.0 and $23.0^{\circ}$, were disappeared indicating the melting of crystallines while those of com and waxy com had not changed. A change in gelatinization pattern was observed in the case of corn starches from type A with nearly no peak-viscosity and breakdown to type C. Except a decreased viscosity, no change was observed in those of waxy com starches.

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Changes in Physicochemical Properties in Wheat Grains as Influenced by Average Temperature Rise during Ripening Stage (등숙기 평균기온 상승에 따른 밀 종실의 이화학적 특성 변화)

  • Ahn, Seung-Hyun;Kim, Dea-Wook;Lee, Hyeon-Seok;Jeong, Jae-Hyeok;Jeong, Han-Yong;Hwang, Woon-Ha;Baek, Jung-Sun;Choi, Kyung-Jin;Choi, In-Bea;Park, Hong-Kyu;Youn, Jong-Tag;Kim, Geun-Joong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of International Agriculture
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.50-55
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    • 2017
  • We investigated the changes in the physicochemical properties of wheat grains during ripening stage to determine the effect of the rise in average temperature on that of wheat grains. The treated average temperatures were $18.3^{\circ}C$(control), $19.9^{\circ}C$($1.6^{\circ}C$ increase), $21.5^{\circ}C$($3.2^{\circ}C$ increase) in artificial climate room from heading time to harvest. Results showed that the ripening period from heading to maturity tended to be shorter during higher temperature treatment condition. The 1,000-grain weight, grain width, number of florets per spike, and number of grains per spike decreased as the ripening period was shortened. Gelatinization properties were affected by high temperature due to the reduction of starch and amylose contents. As the grain filling period was shortened by high temperature treatments, the crude protein content increased. As the grain filling period was shortened by 6 days, the starch and amylose contents decreased by 10.8% and 5.4%, respectively. However, the crude protein content increased by 1.7% in such a condition. Starch content showed positive correlations between amylose and breakdown. Meanwhile, it showed negative correlations between electric conductivity of leaching water from seeds, crude protein content, peak viscosity, trough viscosity, final viscosity, and setback.

The Comparative Understanding between Red Ginseng and White Ginsengs, Processed Ginsengs (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) (홍삼과 백삼의 비교 고찰)

  • Nam, Ki-Yeul
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.1-18
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    • 2005
  • Ginseng Radix, the root of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer has been used in Eastern Asia for 2000 years as a tonic and restorative, promoting health and longevity. Two varieties are commercially available: white ginseng(Ginseng Radix Alba) is produced by air-drying the root, while red ginseng(Ginseng Radix Rubra) is produced by steaming the root followed by drying. These two varieties of different processing have somewhat differences by heat processing between them. During the heat processing for preparing red ginseng, it has been found to exhibit inactivation of catabolic enzymes, thereby preventing deterioration of ginseng quality and the increased antioxidant-like substances which inhibit lipid peroxide formation, and also good gastro-intestinal absorption by gelatinization of starch. Moreover, studies of changes in ginsenosides composition due to different processing of ginseng roots have been undertaken. The results obtained showed that red ginseng differ from white ginseng due to the lack of acidic malonyl-ginsenosides. The heating procedure in red ginseng was proved to degrade the thermally unstable malonyl-ginsenoside into corresponding netural ginsenosides. Also the steaming process of red ginseng causes degradation or transformation of neutral ginsenosides. Ginsenosides $Rh_2,\;Rh_4,\;Rs_3,\;Rs_4\;and\;Rg_5$, found only in red ginseng, have been known to be hydrolyzed products derived from original saponin by heat processing, responsible for inhibitory effects on the growth of cancer cells through the induction of apoptosis. 20(S)-ginsenoside $Rg_3$ was also formed in red ginseng and was shown to exhibit vasorelaxation properties, antimetastatic activities, and anti-platelet aggregation activity. Recently, steamed red ginseng at high temperature was shown to provide enhance the yield of ginsenosides $Rg_3\;and\;Rg_5$ characteristic of red ginseng Additionally, one of non-saponin constituents, panaxytriol, was found to be structually transformed from polyacetylenic alcohol(panaxydol) showing cytotoxicity during the preparation of red ginseng and also maltol, antioxidant maillard product, from maltose and arginyl-fructosyl-glucose, amino acid derivative, from arginine and maltose. In regard to the in vitro and in vivo comparative biological activities, red ginseng was reported to show more potent activities on the antioxidant effect, anticarcinogenic effect and ameliorative effect on blood circulation than those of white ginseng. In oriental medicine, the ability of red ginseng to supplement the vacancy(허) was known to be relatively stronger than that of white ginseng, but very few are known on its comparative clinical studies. Further investigation on the preclinical and clinical experiments are needed to show the differences of indications and efficacies between red and white ginsengs on the basis of oriental medicines.

Exploration of optimum conditions for production of saccharogenic mixed grain beverages and assessment of anti-diabetic activity (잡곡당화음료 제조 최적 조건 탐색 및 항당뇨 활성 평가)

  • Lee, Jae Sung;Kang, Yun Hwan;Kim, Kyoung Kon;Yun, Yeong Kyeong;Lim, Jun Gu;Kim, Tae Woo;Kim, Dae Jung;Won, Sang Yeon;Bae, Moo Hoan;Choi, Han Seok;Choe, Myeon
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.47 no.1
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    • pp.12-22
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: This study was conducted to establish the production conditions through optimization of the production process of beverages using Aspergillus oryzae CF1001, and to analyze volatile compounds and antidiabetic activity. Methods: The optimum condition was selected using the response surface methodology (RSM), through a regression analysis with the following independent variables gelatinization temperature (GT, $X_1$), saccharogenic time (ST, $X_2$), and dependent variable; ${\Delta}E$ value (y). The condition with the lowest ${\Delta}E$ value occurred with combined 45 min ST and $50^{\circ}C$ GT. The volatile compounds were analyzed quantitatively by GC-MS. Results: Assessment of antidiabetic activity of saccharogenic mixed grain beverage (SMGB) was determined by measurement of ${\alpha}$-glucosidase inhibition activity, and glucose uptake activity and glucose metabolic protein expression by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analysis. Results of volatile compounds analysis, 62 kinds of volatile compounds were detected in SMGB. Palmitic acid (9.534% ratio), benzaldehyde (8.948% ratio), benzyl ethyl ether (8.792% ratio), ethyl alcohol (8.35% ratio), and 2-amyl furan (4.826% ratio) were abundant in SMGB. We confirmed that ${\alpha}$-glucosidase inhibition activity, glucose uptake activity, and glucose-metabolic proteins were upregulated by SMGB treatment with concentration dependent manner. Conclusion: Saccharogenic mixed grain beverage (SMGB) showed potential antidiabetic activity. Further studies will be needed in order to improve the taste and functionality of SMGB.

Waxy Rice Variety-dependent Variations in Physicochemical Characteristics of Sogokju, a Korean Traditional Rice Wine (찰벼 품종에 따른 소곡주의 이화학적 특성)

  • Lee, Jin-Seok;Woo, Koan-Sik;Chun, Ar-Eum;Na, Jang-Yeon;Kim, Kee-Jong
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.54 no.2
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    • pp.172-180
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    • 2009
  • This study was carried out to compare the physicochemical characteristics and sensory quality of Sogokju (Korean traditional rice wine) prepared with waxy rice varieties. Among tested waxy rice varieties, highest protein contents (8.11%) was observed in cv. Sangjuchal, and highest whiteness and L-value were observed in cv. Hwaseonchal, while no significant differences in gelatinization temperature could be observed among tested varieties, and cv. Boseokchal and Sinseonchal exhibited higher breakdown viscosity compared to the others. The alcohol contents of Sogokju with waxy rice varieties ranges from 13.0 to 13.4%, and the brix degree and turbidity were within the range of 20.5 to 24.6 $^{\circ}Bx$, and 0.0344 to 0.0530, respectively. The highest L-value (6.90), b-value (l.45), pH (4.79), total acidity (0.8384%), and glucose content (10.843 g/100 ml) could be observed in Sogokju made with cv. Sangjuchal. The organic acids such as succinic acid, malic acid, citric acid and oxalic acid could be detected in Sogokju. Although no variety-dependant differences in appearance, aroma, and taste could be found in sensory evaluation, Sogokju made with cvs. Sinseonchal, Haepyeongchal, and Hwaseonchal showed higher overall quality than Sogokju made with cv. Dongjinchal, which is most widely used for Sogokju used for Sogokju production nowadays.

Comparison on Physicochemical and Cooking Properties of Milled Kernel in Waxy Corn Hybrids (찰옥수수쌀의 품종별 이화학특성 및 취반특성)

  • Lee, Yu Young;Lee, Choon-Ki;Lee, Jin-Suk;Kim, Mi-Jung;Kim, Sun-Lim;Kim, Yul-Ho;Park, Hyang Mi;Kim, Wook-Han;Kwon, Young-Up;Kim, Sung Kook
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.58 no.4
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    • pp.424-431
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    • 2013
  • Consumption of waxy corn is steadily increasing due to consumer preference for natural food. However, availability of waxy corn is limited because most of them are used for steamed waxy corn. It is therefore important to create new demands of waxy corn using food processing technology. There is little prior research about characteristics of milled kernel in waxy corn. This study examined the physicochemical and cooking properties of milled kernel using nine waxy corn hybrids. Colored hybrids (Heukjinju, Miheukchal, and Eolrukchal1) showed high milling yield and low change of grain length after milling process compared to other hybrids. The total starch content ranged from 62.1 to 68.4% and the gelatinization temperature of starch was lowest in Yeonnong1 ($69.9^{\circ}C$). The breakdown viscosity of Yeonnong1, Miheukchal and Heukjinju was higher than those of tested hybrids, whereas setback viscosity of those hybrids was lower. In cooking properties of milled waxy corn, water absorption and volume expansion rate were high in Yeonnong2 (84.9, 219.3%), Miheukchal (85.9, 211.4%), and Heukjinju (80.9, 203.7%). In the sensory test, the overall preference was significantly higher in Heukjinju and Miheukchal. Thus, Heukjinju, Yeonnong2, and Miheukchal showed good scores in milling yield, cooking properties, and the preference of sensory test. These results will provide fundamental information to extend milled waxy corns usage.

Optimizing Ingredients Mixing Ratio of Mungbean Pancake (빈대떡의 재료혼합비율의 최적화)

  • Lee, J.H.;Shin, E.S.;Kweon, B.M.;Ryu, H.S.;Jang, D.H.
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.34 no.8
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    • pp.1274-1283
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    • 2005
  • The sensory acceptability, texture profile analysis and nutritional evaluation were peformed in Korean traditional mungbean pancake (MPC) and modified MPC containing squid meat and soybean to standardize the recipes for healthy fast food market potentiality. Optimal ingredient formulations were revealed as mung-bean 55$\%$, pork 13$\%$ and vegetables 32$ \%$ for traditional MPC, and pork 3$\%$, squid 42$\%$ and soybean 55$\%$ for modified MPC using response surface methodology. Flavor and hardness correlated highly with overall accept-ability rather than appearance and color of traditional MPC. Higher squid levels raised adhesiveness, springi-ness and resiliences of modified MPC, but soybean decreased these textural attributes. Protein, lipid and total calorie of modified MPC were lower than those of traditional MPC. Computed protein efficiency ratio (C-PER) and degree of gelatinization of modified MPC were superior than traditional MPC.

Quality Enhancement of Vaccum Packaged Waxy Corns by Far Infrared Ray Drying (원적외선 건조처리에 의한 진공포장 찰옥수수의 품질확보)

  • Choi, Jae-Ho;Im, Ji-Soon;Oh, Deog-Hwan
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.635-640
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    • 2006
  • This study was conducted to determine the effect of far infrared ray drying on the microbial and quality changes of vacuum packaged waxy corns, such as microbial growth, rehydration, color differences, weight loss and hardness during the storage at $4^{\circ}C$ and $25^{\circ}C$ for 7 months. After far infrared ray drying for 6 hours at $60^{\circ}C$, 2.32 log CFU/g of total microbial counts in raw waxy corns was enumerated, but no microorganism was detected in steamed or sugar-treated waxy corns. However, no microorganism was observed in all treatments except for control samples until 3 month storage at $4^{\circ}C$, whereas steamed and sugar-treated waxy corns showed 2 and 2.7 log reduction compared to that of control after 3 month storage. Yeasts and molds were more resistant than bacteria against far infrared ray drying at the same conditions. Similar results were observed in $25^{\circ}C$ storage. The degree of gelatinization in raw waxy corns far infrared ray drying changed from 98% to 96.2% after 7 month storage at $4^{\circ}C$, whereas steamed waxy corns with far infrared ray drying changed from 81.14% to 58.73%. Water contents in sugar-treated waxy corns with far infrared ray drying gradually reduced compared to steamed waxy corns as drying time increased. The L values in raw waxy corns far infrared ray drying increased as drying time increased, but L values in steamed or sugar-treated waxy corns significantly reduced after 12 hour far infrared ray drying. Hardness in raw waxy corns was higher than in steamed or sugar-treated waxy corns before storage, but similar hardness was observed between raw- and sugar-treated waxy corns after 9 hour drying. This results showed that the microbial reduction, the enhancement of shelf life and quality establishment of steamed or sugar-treated waxy corns could be maximized by using far infrared ray drying.

Changes in Quality Properties of Fermented Waxy Rice Paste of Yakchobugak as Affected by Lactic Acid Bacteria and Waxy Rice Powder (유산균 종류와 찹쌀가루의 호화온도 및 발효시간에 따른 약초부각 발효풀의 품질특성 변화)

  • Ko, Young-Ran;Shon, Mi-Yae;Kim, Yun-Geun;Chung, Kyung-Sook;Wang, Su-Bin;Park, Seok-Kyu
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.201-210
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    • 2009
  • This study was undertaken to investigate the quality properties of yakchobugak as affected by lactic acid bacteria and waxy rice paste for improving palatability of yakchobugak of Agastache rugosa. Total sugar contents of lactic acid bacteria-fermenting waxy rice paste gelatinized at $90^{\circ}C$ were higher than that of $70^{\circ}C$. Reducing sugar contents were $2{\sim}5$ times higher in $70^{\circ}C$ waxy rice paste than in $90^{\circ}C$ waxy rice paste and increased as the fermentation progressed. Total acidity of waxy rice pastes gelatinized at $70^{\circ}C$ and fermented for 15 hours were $2.7{\sim}1.3$ times higher than at $90^{\circ}C$, and then Lactococcus lactis had the lowest total acidity during fermentation. Viscosity of fermented paste (VFP) were lower than those of raw paste. VFPs gelatinized at $90^{\circ}C$ were markedly higher than those at $70^{\circ}C$ over 28% concentration. In L. lactis and Lactobacillus plantarum, VFPs fermented for 15 hours were over $2{\sim}3$ times lower than those fermented for 40 hours. Hunter's color lightness (L) and yellowness (b) were decreased according to the elevation of gelatinization temperature and fermentation time. L. lactis and L. plantarum-producing waxy rice pastes were the uniform micell type with a large air-pore size and amorphous micell type with a small air-pore size, respectively. Based on these results, L. lactis was a lower lactic acid-producing bacteria as well as uniform air-pore distribution on waxy rice paste. It was found to be a good sourpaste-fermenting strain for enhancement of quality properties of yakchobugak, as revealed through viscosity, total acidity, Hunter's color b value and scanning electron micrographs.

Variation of Grain Quality and Grain Filling Rapidity Milyang 23 / Gihobyeo Recombinant Inbred Lines (벼 밀양 23호$\times$기호벼의 재조합 자식계통에서 초기급속등숙과 미질 특성)

  • 곽태순;여준환
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.49 no.3
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    • pp.160-166
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    • 2004
  • This study was carried out to get the basic informations regarding the varietal variations for the physicochemical properties such as protein content, amylose content, fatty acid content, grain quality values and color properties such as lightness value, chroma and hue for the 164 recombinant inbred lines(RILs) of Milyang 23 and Gihobyeo(M/G) at the experimental farm in the Sangji University. The principal component analysis and heritability study were conducted for this experiments. The rapidity of grain filling(RCF) for the 164 M/G RILs could be classified into four groups such as slow maturing group less than 41%, mid-slow maturing group 41∼60%, fast maturing group 61∼80% and very fast maturing group more than 81% based on the rapidity of grain filling rate. The slow maturing group of RGF showed a little bit higher protein content 9.1%, compared to the other RGF groups. However, the amylose content of all the RGF groups revealed the same content by the groups. The very fast maturing group of RGF showed longer grain length in brown rice compared to other RGF varietal groups, in case of grain width in brown rice showed shorter than any other groups. The alkali digestive value which was so much related to gelatinization temperature showed 3.40 degree at fast maturing group of RGF in M/G RILs. However, the very fast maturing group of RGF revealed 4.31 degree of alkali digestive value. The principal component analysis was performed by the chemical and color properties such as quality value, protein content, amylose content, alkali digestive value, fatty acid content, lightness value, chroma and hue for M/G RILs. The first principal component was able to explained upto 36% to total informations. It was corresponded to quality value, protein content, amylose content, fatty acid content, lightness value and a-value(green -1 red). The characters regarding grain quality showed high heritable properties more than 75% of heritability, but color characters appeared relatively lower heritability compared to grain quality.