• 제목/요약/키워드: gelatinization

검색결과 621건 처리시간 0.125초

가열온도(加熱溫度), 시간(時間) 및 첨가제(添加劑)가 감자 전분(澱粉)의 호화(糊化)에 미치는 영향(影響) (Effects of Heating Temperature, Time and Additives on Gelatinization of Potato Starch)

  • 장영일;장규섭;윤한교
    • 농업과학연구
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.102-110
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    • 1989
  • 가열조건(加熱條件)을 달리한 감자 전분(澱粉) 호화액(糊化液)의 X-ray diffractogram과 표면구조(表面構造)를 SEM으로 촬영(撮影)하여 관찰(觀察)한 결과(結果), 전분입자(澱粉粒子)의 모양은 계란형(鷄卵形) 이었으며, 호화시간(糊化時間)과 호화온도(糊化溫度)가 증가(增加)할수록 전분입자(澱粉粒子)는 파괴(破壞)되었고, 완전(完全) 호화시(糊化時)에는 전분(澱粉)의 구조(構造)를 나타내지 않았다. 시료(試料)감자 전분(澱粉)의 구성(構成)을 검토(檢討)하기 위하여, Amylose 함량(含量)과 Blue Value를 측정(測定)한 결과(結果), 각각(各各) 23.5%, 0.49%였다. X-ray diffractogram으로 호화도(糊化度)를 측정(測定)한 결과(結果), $70^{\circ}C$에서 90 %의 호화도(糊化度)를 보였고, 동일(同一)한 온도(溫度)에서 가열시간(加熱時間)에 따른 변화(變化)는 크지 않았으며, 인산염(燐酸鹽)의 농도(濃度)가 증가(增加)할수록 호화도(糊化度)도 증가(增加)하였다.

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쌀 전분의 Differential Scanning Calorimetry (Differential Scanning Calorimetry of Rice Starch)

  • 현창기;박관화;김영배;윤인화
    • 한국식품과학회지
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.331-337
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    • 1988
  • 국내에서 생산되는 다수확계 및 일반계 쌀 각 5품종을 Differential Scanning Calorimetry(DSC)로 열분석 하여 호화, amylose-lipid complex의 melting 및 노화 등의 상전이 현상들을 연구하였다. 다수확계와 일반계품종간에는 호화개시 온도에 있어서는 특정한 차이가 없었으나 호화의 온도범위는 다수확계가 약간 넓은 경향이었는데 다수확계가 더 큰 값을 보였다. 고단백 쌀가루의 DSC thermogram은 온도범위가 좁아지고 크기가 작아진 호화 peak를 보여주었다. 노화현상을 DSC방법과 diastase 측정방법을 이용하여 측정한 결과 DSC방법이 보다 우수함을 알았고 다수확계 삼강품종의 노화속도는 일반계 추청품종보다 빠른 것을 알 수 있었다.

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Physicochemical Characteristics of Starches in Rice Cultivars of Diverse Amylose Contents

  • Yoon, Mi-Ra;Chun, A-Reum;Oh, Sea-Kwan;Hong, Ha-Cheol;Choi, Im-Soo;Lee, Jeong-Heui;Cho, Young-Chan;Kim, Yeon-Gyu
    • 한국작물학회지
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    • v.57 no.3
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    • pp.226-232
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    • 2012
  • Through the sampling four rice cultivars with differing amylose contents, the relationship between the structural and gelatinization properties of endosperm starches was analyzed. These rice varieties exhibited different chain length distribution ratio within the amylopectin cluster as well as varing amylose levels. The proportion of amylopectin short chains of in Goami cutlivars was higher than the other varieties, whereas the Goami 2 which shows amylose extender mutant properties in the endosperm showed the highest proportion of long chains. In X-ray diffraction analysis of rice starches, the Goami 2 variety displayed a B-type pattern whereas the other varieties were all A-type. Among the cultivars with high and normal rice starch levels, those with the higher amylose contents showed distinctly lower swelling. Goami 2 rice was found to have the highest onset and peak gelatinization temperature from the differential scanning calorimetry results. The four rice cultivars under analysis also showed different rates of hydrolysis by amyloglucosidase. These findings suggest that the composition and chemical structure of the starch content is a major determinant of both the gelatinization and functional properties of rice.

Molecular Structure and Gelatinization Properties of Turnip Starch (Brassica rapa L.)

  • Kim, Nam-Hee;Yoo, Sang-Ho
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.470-473
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    • 2005
  • Starch was isolated from turnip (Brassica rapa L.), and to elucidate the structure-function relationship its structural and physical properties were characterized. Morphological structure of the starch was analyzed by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy). Most of the starch granules were spherical in shape with diameter ranging from 0.5-10mm. Apart from larger granules ($<10\;{\mu}m$) which dominated the population size of turnip starch, significant amount of small ($0.5-2\;{\mu}m$) and mid-size granules (${\sim}\;{\mu}m$) were also detected. It was revealed that presumably, erosion damages occurred due to the attack of amylase-type enzymes on the surface of some granules. Branch chain-length distribution was analyzed by HPAEC (High-Performance Anion-Exchange Chromatography). The chain-length distribution of turnip starch revealed a peak at DP12 with obvious shoulder at DP18-21. The weight-average chain length ($CL_{avg}$) was 16.6, and a large proportion (11.8%) of very short chains (DP6-9) was also observed. The melting properties of starch were determined by DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry). The onset temperature ($T_o$) and the enthalpy change (${\Delta}H$) of starch gelatinization were $50.5^{\circ}C$ and 12.5 J/g, respectively. The ${\Delta}H$ of the retrograded turnip starch was 3.5 J/g, which indicates 28.2% of recrystallization. Larger proportion of short chains as well as smaller average chain-length can very well explain relatively lower degree of retrogradation in turnip starch.

수침 시간을 달리한 찹쌀가루로 제조한 찰떡의 품질 특성 (Quality Characteristics of Chalduk according to the Soaking Time of Glutinous Rice in Water)

  • 정은진;우경자
    • 동아시아식생활학회지
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.677-683
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    • 2006
  • Glutinous rice cake(Chalduk) was made by varying the hours of soaking time of glutinous rice in the water(0, 4, 8, 12, 24 hours). After storage for various periods, the sensory and physical characteristics and the degree of gelatinization were examined in order to determine the effect of glutinous rice soaking period on the quality of Chalduk. The results of the study are summarized as follows. In the sensory test, 8-hour water soaking produced the significantly highest score for salty taste, while 0-hour water soaking had the lowest score. Four-hour water soaking had the significantly highest score for the degree of chewiness. Eight-hour water soaking had the significantly highest score for overall desirability. For the moisture content of Chalduk covered with bean flour, 8-hour water soaking produced the highest moisture content but the difference was not significant. For the degree of gelatinization, 8-hour water soaking had the highest maltose content, which confirmed the suitability of 8-hour water soaking glutinous rice. Eight-hour water soaking had the lowest hardness. With increasing storage period, the hardness sharply increased. Elasticity was higher for the long-period immersed samples than for the non-immersed samples. In conclusion, an 8-hour soaking time for glutinous rice in water was proposed to maximize the Chalduk quality.

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유탕처리된 쌀엿강정용 팽화쌀의 조직학적 연구 (Study on the Structure of Expanded Rice with Deep-Frying for Salyeotgangjung)

  • 김명애
    • 한국식생활문화학회지
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.323-329
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    • 2001
  • 쌀엿강정은 쌀을 호화 건조하여 유탕처리하거나 가압 등으로 팽화시켜서 제조한다. 이때 호화과정에서 가열기구나 호화의 정도가 쌀의 팽화에 영향을 미칠 것으로 판단되어 이들 처리에 따라 팽화량(크기, 비중), 사진촬영, 주사형 전자현미경(SEM)으로 관찰 비교하였다. 1. 전기밥솥이나 압력솥, 혹은 증기로 찌는 등 밥의 형태로 쌀을 호화시킨 것은 팽화쌀이 서로 부착된 것이 많아 좋지 않았다. 전기밥솥이나 압력솥의 경우는 팽화쌀의 표면에 파괴된 부분이 나타났다. 압력솥이나 증기고 찌는 경우는 쌀의 팽화량이 작았다. 2. 쌀을 세정하여 바로 많은 양의 물로 끓이는 방법이 좋았으며, 쌀을 불려서 끓이는 방법과 팽화량에 차이를 보이지 않았다. 쌀을 불리더라도 익을 정도로만 단시간에 끓일 경우에는 오히려 팽화량이 작았다. 3. 쌀을 끓이는 시간이 길수록 팽화는 컸으나 너무 지나칠 정도로 끓일 경우에는 쌀의 표면이 파괴되거나 균열이 생겨서 외관이 좋지 않고 팽화량도 작았다.

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백년초 분말의 첨가비율과 저장에 따른 증편의 품질 특성 (The Quality and Storage Characteristics of Jeung-Pyun prepared with Opuntia ficus-india var. Sabolen powder)

  • 김기숙;이소영
    • 한국식품조리과학회지
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.179-184
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    • 2002
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effects of adding prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-india var. Sabolen) on the quality characteristics of Jeung-Pyun, a traditional fermented Korean rice cake, and to find out an appropriate ratio of prickly pear powder to give a favorable color. Changes in the quality characteristics of prickly pear-added Jeung-Pyun during storage period were also studied. As the addition of prickly pear powder was increased from 1 to 3%, the degrees of expansion and gelatinization of Jeung-Pyun were increased. The degree of gelatinization and hardness were changed slowly during storage at room temperature (20$^{\circ}C$). In sensory evaluation, control Jeung-Pyun samples without prickly pear powder was preferred to that with prickly pear powder, but it was not significant up to 2% prickly pear powder. In the case of Jeung-Pyun containing 2% prickly pear powder, those stored for 12 hr received higher sensory scores than those right after being manufactured. In general, Jeung-Pyun samples with 2% prickly pear powder was favored. The addition of prickly pear powder was likely to improve the preservation property of Jeung-Pyun.

유색미의 품종별 호화 특성 (Gelatinization Properties of Pigmented Rice Varieties)

  • 하태열;박성희;이상효;김동철
    • 한국식품과학회지
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.564-567
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    • 1999
  • 유색미의 호화특성을 구명하고자 유색미를 품종별로 수집하여 아밀로오스 함량, 아밀로그래프 특성, gel consistency 등을 조사하였다. 아밀로오스 함량은 유색미가 일반현미에 비하여 낮은 값을 나타내었고 그 중에서도 상해향혈나는 5.5%로 매우 낮은 값을 나타내었다. Gel consistency는 적미, 일반현미에 비하여 흑미에서 현저하게 높았고 특히 상해향혈아가 가장 높았다. WAI는 각 시료간의 차이가 거의 없었으며 WSI는 적미<일반현미<흑미의 순으로 높은 경향을 나타내었다. 아밀로그래프 특성을 조사한 결과 최고 점도는 적미가 가장 높았고 다음은 일반현미였으며 흑미가 가장 낮은 값을 나타내었고 그 중에서도 상해향혈나가 가장 낮았다.

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강황, 자색고구마, 톳을 첨가한 쌀국수의 품질 특성 (Quality Characteristics of Rice Noodles Supplemented with Turmeric, Purple Sweet Potato, or Seaweed (Hizikia fusiforme))

  • 황성연;강근옥
    • 동아시아식생활학회지
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.211-217
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    • 2013
  • We investigated the quality characteristics of rice noodles supplemented with turmeric, purple sweet potato, or seaweed (Hizikia fusiforme). RVA (Rapid Visco Analyser), color, water activity, texture, and cooking properties were tested. Initial gelatinization temperature of noodles containing turmeric were the highest. Peak viscosity, holding strength, break down, final viscosity, and set back of noodles containing purple sweet potato were highest, indicating that the gelatinization state was more unstable and retrogradation would occur faster. The L value of the seaweed noodle was the lowest, while the a and b value of the turmeric noodles were $7.3{\pm}0.3$ and $40.2{\pm}1.3$ respectively, higher values than turmeric and seaweed noodles. Water activity of the seaweed noodle was 0.665, higher than turmeric and purple sweet potato noodles. Cooking properties (including weight, volume, and water absorption) and turbidity of seaweed noodles showed the highest growth rate. In terms of texture, the hardness was highest in purple sweet potato noodles, and the cohesiveness and gumminess was highest in seaweed noodles. The quality characteristics of rice noodles supplemented with turmeric, purple sweet potato, or seaweed showed that seaweed noodles were stable in gelatinization and cooking properties.

홍삼박 분말을 첨가한 반죽의 특성 (Characteristics of Dough with Red Ginseng Marc Powder)

  • 한인준;김문용;전순실
    • 동아시아식생활학회지
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.371-378
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    • 2007
  • Red ginseng has been considered a functional food, and many studies on red ginseng and the prevention of cancer, hypertension, arteriosclerosis and constipation have been conducted. In this study, white bread dough with 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5% red ginseng marc powder was measured by a farinograph, extensograph, amylograph, as well as for pH to evaluate the development time, stability, extensibility, resistance to extension, gelatinization temperature, and maximum viscosity temperature. The ash content of the wheat flour increased with an increasing content of red ginseng marc powder. The gelatinization maximum and the temperature for the gelatinization maximum of the flour-water suspension in the amylograph were not affected by the addition of red ginseng marc powder. The moisture absorption of the wheat flour in the farinograph increased as the content of red ginseng marc powder increased. Also, as the content of red ginseng marc powder increased, dough development time decreased. The extensibility of the dough in the extensograph showed a negative relationship with the amount of red ginseng marc powder added.

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