• Title, Summary, Keyword: gelatinization

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Quality characteristics of noodles added with Houttuynia cordata Thunb. powder (어성초 분말을 첨가한 국수의 품질특성)

  • Park, Woo-Po
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.34-39
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    • 2014
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate appropriate concentrations of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. powder, which has various functions, to dried wheat flour noodles. The viscosity of the composite flour and cooking quality of the noodle samples were measured, and sensory evaluations were conducted in this study. When measured by the amylograph, the composite flour had lower viscosity in the gelatinization points, maximum viscosity, and viscosity at a temperature of $95^{\circ}C$ than those of control. However, the gap between the maximum viscosity and viscosity after 15 minutes at a temperature of $95^{\circ}C$ was not great among all of the samples. While cooked noodles containing H. cordata Thunb. powder had lower weight and lower volume than those of control, the weight of two cooked noodle samples with 0.5% and 1.5% of H. cordata Thunb. powder was insignificantly different. Cooked noodles had higher concentrations of H. cordata Thunb. powder; therefore, the L value of cooked noodles decreased, while a and b color values of the noodles increased. Color, flavor, taste, and overall acceptability of the samples with H. cordata Thunb. powder were lower than those of wheat flour noodles via sensory evaluation. In the overall acceptability, however, samples with 0.5% and 1.5% of H. cordata Thunb. powder were insignificantly different from control. As a result, it was finally suggested that optimum level of the H. cordata Thunb. powder in the product was below 0.5%.

Quality Characteristics of Wheat Flours from New Released Iksan370 with Long Spike and Domestic Wheat Cultivars (신육성 다수확 밀 익산370호의 원맥과 밀가루의 품질 특성)

  • Choi, Yong-Seok;Lee, Jae-Kang;Choi, Yong-Hyun;Kim, Young-Hwan;Kang, Chon-Sik;Shin, Malsik
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.551-556
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    • 2015
  • Iksan370 is a long-spike wheat developed by the Rural Development Administration yielding excellent features components such as cold resistance, disease resistance, and viviparous germination. The physicochemical and material properties of the raw wheat and milled flour of Iksan370 were analyzed to derive its appropriate uses. The raw wheat of Iksan370 showed high contents of ash and proteins at 1.71% and 13.7%, respectively. Its test weight of 763.0 g/L was similar to those of other varieties and its 1,000 kernel weight was high at 45.38 g. The milled flour of Iksan370 had an ash content of 0.45%, which corresponds with a class 1 flour, and its protein content is 12.18%, corresponding with strong flour. The damaged starch was 5.41%, which was lower than that of other varieties. The average grain size was $70.67{\mu}m$ and the grain distribution was at the level of a typical hard wheat. In the farinogram, the water absorption was 58.63%, which corresponded to the level of medium flour. The development time was 7.00 minutes, which was significantly lower than those of Jokyung and Keumkang. The degree of softening was 67.00 BU, similar to those of Yunbaek and Baekjoong. Among the physico-chemical characteristics, the high protein content and typical hard wheat grain distribution of Iksan370 were similar to those of strong wheat, usually used for bread making. However, in the farinogram, the dough development time was short and the degree of softening was high. As a result, Iksan370 was expected to have poor breadmaking properties and a small volume of the final bread product due to insufficient dough durability. On the other hand, Iksan370 showed the highest maximum gelatinization viscosity at 864.00 BU. Therefore, Iksan370 is expected to show glutinous texture when used for noodles and its flour appears to be appropriate for frying powders as well.

Effects of heat-moisture treatment on functional properties of high amylose rice starches with different crystalline types (결정형이 다른 고아밀로스 쌀 전분의 기능적 성질에 수분열처리 효과)

  • Huang, Mengyao;No, Junhee;Shin, Malshick
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.52 no.1
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    • pp.31-39
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    • 2020
  • The effects of heat-moisture treatment (HMT) on the functional properties of high amylose rice starches (HARSes) purified from Korean rice varieties (A-type Goami and Singil and B-type Dodamssal and Goami2) were investigated. HMT was accomplished with moisture contents of 18 and 27% and heated at 100℃ for 16 h. While the amylose content, swelling power and solubility decreased after HMT, the water binding capacity and resistant starch (RS) content increased with increasing moisture content after HMT. The X-ray diffraction patterns of all HARSes did not change after HMT, but a decrease in the intensity of peak at 2θ=5° was observed in B-type HMT HARSes. While the starch granules aggregated after HMT, their shape and size remained unchanged. B-type HARSes exhibited higher gelatinization temperatures and lower pasting viscosities than A-type HARSes following HMT. The results, thus, suggest that while the crystalline intensity of B-type Dodamssal and Goami2 rice starches did not change after HMT, the RS content, water binding capacity, and pasting temperatures of all HARSes increased with increasing moisture content after HMT.

Effect of Added Sweet Potato Flour on the Quality Characteristics of the Korean Traditional Steamed Rice Cake, Backsulki (고구마가루 첨가가 백설기의 품질특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Ji Hyun;Kim, Byong Ki
    • Food Engineering Progress
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.135-145
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    • 2010
  • In order to enhance overall quality of the Backsulki, a sweet potato flour (SPF) which is rich in sugar and dietary fiber was added into the rice flour at 0, 5, 15, and 25% (w/w, db) ratios. Quality changes of the products were evaluated by storing at 5, 15, and 25$^{\circ}C$ for 4 days. Water binding capacity, swelling power, and solubility of the products increased as the SPF increased. Hunter colorimetric a- and b-value increased while L value of the products decreased as the SPF increased. Retarded retrogradation of the flour mixtures containing the SPF was shown from the DSC thermogram as indicated by the decreased $\Delta$H values. Increases in $T_{i}$ and $T_{p}$ values in relation with the starch gelatinization were shown from the DSC thermogram with a temperature margin of 15-20$^{\circ}C$ as the SPF increased. Increases in softness along with decreases in springiness and chewiness of the products were shown as the SPF increased. It was not so much the storage temperature as the added SPF affected the final texture of the products. Retarded growth of the total microbes of the products was noted by the added SPF during storage at 25$^{\circ}C$ for 3 days. Regarding the above and additional sensory preference scores of the products, a 15%(w/w) level of the SPF was suggested as optimum for the best Backsulki with improved qualities.

Cooking Properties of Waxy Varieties of Rice (통일(統一) 찹쌀의 가공(加工) 및 조리특성(調理特性)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Kim, Hyong-Soo;Moon, Soo-Jae;Sohn, Kyong-Hee;Heu, Mun-Hue
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.144-152
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    • 1977
  • The physiochemical properties of eight different cultivars or newly bred lines of glutionous rice were investigated and obtained following results; (1) The gelatinizing temperature, blue value and alkali number of starch separated from the sample cultivars or lines were similar to those of starch from conventional cultivar Olchal. The expansive power of three newly bred lines were somewhat weaker than that of starch from conventional cultivar, but the expansive power of other four lines were similar to that of conventional cultivar. (2) pH of cooked rice of the ten sample cultivars or breeding lines showed no discernible differences rangeing from 6.54 to 6.60. (3) The degree of gelatinization of cooked rice of newly bred lines were rather lower than that of conventional ones, but the degree of their retrogradation were somewhat higher than that of conventional cultivars. (4) In order to improve the palatability of cooked rice of Tongil (common rice), glutinous rice were mixed in different rate. The results showed that a mix ratio of six per cent glutinous rice was most favourable. The acceptability of common Tongil rice was improved when it was cooked with four to six per cent of glutinous rice mixed, and it showed no significant difference from that of Akibare alone cooked rice. Also no difference was noticed among newly bred glutinous lines in the acceptability when they cooked with common Tongil rice mixed. (5) Injolmi, Yaksik, Misitgaru, Twipap and Yugwa were prepared from glutinous rice of sample cultivars and or breeding lines to study their characteristics in processing and their acceptability. The results indicated that the acceptability score of newly bred lines were lower than that of conventional cultivar in cases of Twipap and Yugwa, but in cases of Injolmi, Yaksik and Misitgaru, identical score was obtained from both of newly bred lines and conventional cultivars.

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Development of Composite Flours and Their Products Utilizing Domestic Raw Materials -Part VI. Effect of Additives on the Bread-making Quality with Composite Flours- (국산원료(國産原料)를 활용(活用)한 복합분(複合粉) 및 제품개발(製品開發)에 관한 연구(硏究) -제6보 복합분(複合粉)에 의한 제(製)빵에 있어서 첨가제(添加劑)의 영향(影響)-)

  • Kim, Hyong-Soo;Lee, Hee-Ja
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.106-115
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    • 1977
  • In order to study the baking properties of various composite flours, naked barley flour, corn flour, potato flour, and sweet potato flour were added to the hard wheat flour respectively in a ratio of 3 : 7. Using above composite flours, effects of glyceryl monosterate (GMS), sodium stearyl lactylate (SSL), calcium stearyl lactylate (CSL), xanthan gum (XG) and polysaccharide (PS) were also examined in terms of sedimentation test, viscosity by amylograph and baking test. The results are as follows: 1) Sedimentation value decreased in the order of hard wheat flour (58), corn flour (47), potato flour (46), sweet potato flour (33). and barley flour (23). Significant effects of additives were observed for all of flours as well as for the composite flours. The most prominant result of additives was obtained with the composite flour of barley and wheat. Among the additives, mixtures of GMS and SSL at 1% final concentration and that of GMS and SSL at the same concentration increased the sedimentation value considerably. No sedimentation measurement, however, was possible for XG since the compound was precipitated by acid during experiment of sedimentation. 2) Effects of additives on the viscosity were determined by amylograph. The mixtures of GMS 1%+SSL 1% and GMS 1%+CSL 1% increased gelatinization point,maximum viscosity and cooling viscosity. GMS 1%+XG 1% or GMS 1%+PS 1% showed less effects. 3) GMS 1%+CSL 0.5% increased the specific loaf volume of bread produced from the composite flour of naked barley and wheat, and appearance, taste and texture of the product were very similar to those of the standard bread produced from wheat flour. GMS 1%+SSL 0.5%, however, increased the loaf volume of bread produced from the composite flours of corn, potato and sweet potato, and wheat. No effects were obtained with XG and PS, except slight improvement of the texture of bread. 4) No specific loaf volume of bread produced from the composite flour of barley and wheat was increased when 1% of SSL, CSL, XG or PS was used separately.

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A comparative study on quality characteristics of Jook(traditional Korean rice gruel) made of imported and domestic rices(Chuchung byeo) (수입쌀과 국산쌀(추청벼)로 제조한 죽의 품질 특성 비교)

  • 한승희;오명숙
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.604-610
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    • 2001
  • Quality characteristics of Jook made of imported rice(Thai and Chinese rice, harvested in 1998) and domestic rice(Chuchung byeo, harvested in 1998 and 1997) were examined. After cooking, Thai rice granules in Jook gained more weight than other rices and had a higher degree of swelling(p<0.05). The hardness of Thai rice granules in Jook was the highest and the adhesiveness of that was the lowest(p<0.05). Thai rice granules in Jook had high cohesiveness, chewiness and gumminess. Results showed that Thai rice has improper characteristics for making Jook which must be swallowed easily. In Thai rice, the time needed for the liquid pan of Jook to flow was shortest with values of 4.33s(60$\^{C}$) and 4.97s(40$\^{C}$) and spreadability of Jook was highest with value of 7.37cm(p<0.05). It showed that Jook made of Thai rice had nonsticky properties. Lightness of Jook made of Thai rice had the highest value of 66.3(p<0.05) and yellowness of Jook made of imported rice were higher than those made of domestic rices. Yields of reducing sugar by $\beta$-amylase reaction was highest in Jook made of Korean rice harvested in 1998 and lowest in Jook made of Thai rice(p<0.05). It showed That gelatinization of Korean rice harvested in 1998 was highest and that of Thai rice retarded. In sensory tests, Jook made of Korean rice harvested in 1997 had the highest acceptability and that made of Thai rice showed the lowest acceptability due to its strong off odor, low consistency and low smoothness in the mouth(p<0.05) There were no significant differences between the Jook made of Korean rice harvested in 1998 and that of Chinese rice.

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Quality Enhancement of Vaccum Packaged Waxy Corns by Far Infrared Ray Drying (원적외선 건조처리에 의한 진공포장 찰옥수수의 품질확보)

  • Choi, Jae-Ho;Im, Ji-Soon;Oh, Deog-Hwan
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.635-640
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    • 2006
  • This study was conducted to determine the effect of far infrared ray drying on the microbial and quality changes of vacuum packaged waxy corns, such as microbial growth, rehydration, color differences, weight loss and hardness during the storage at $4^{\circ}C$ and $25^{\circ}C$ for 7 months. After far infrared ray drying for 6 hours at $60^{\circ}C$, 2.32 log CFU/g of total microbial counts in raw waxy corns was enumerated, but no microorganism was detected in steamed or sugar-treated waxy corns. However, no microorganism was observed in all treatments except for control samples until 3 month storage at $4^{\circ}C$, whereas steamed and sugar-treated waxy corns showed 2 and 2.7 log reduction compared to that of control after 3 month storage. Yeasts and molds were more resistant than bacteria against far infrared ray drying at the same conditions. Similar results were observed in $25^{\circ}C$ storage. The degree of gelatinization in raw waxy corns far infrared ray drying changed from 98% to 96.2% after 7 month storage at $4^{\circ}C$, whereas steamed waxy corns with far infrared ray drying changed from 81.14% to 58.73%. Water contents in sugar-treated waxy corns with far infrared ray drying gradually reduced compared to steamed waxy corns as drying time increased. The L values in raw waxy corns far infrared ray drying increased as drying time increased, but L values in steamed or sugar-treated waxy corns significantly reduced after 12 hour far infrared ray drying. Hardness in raw waxy corns was higher than in steamed or sugar-treated waxy corns before storage, but similar hardness was observed between raw- and sugar-treated waxy corns after 9 hour drying. This results showed that the microbial reduction, the enhancement of shelf life and quality establishment of steamed or sugar-treated waxy corns could be maximized by using far infrared ray drying.

Waxy Rice Variety-dependent Variations in Physicochemical Characteristics of Sogokju, a Korean Traditional Rice Wine (찰벼 품종에 따른 소곡주의 이화학적 특성)

  • Lee, Jin-Seok;Woo, Koan-Sik;Chun, Ar-Eum;Na, Jang-Yeon;Kim, Kee-Jong
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.54 no.2
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    • pp.172-180
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    • 2009
  • This study was carried out to compare the physicochemical characteristics and sensory quality of Sogokju (Korean traditional rice wine) prepared with waxy rice varieties. Among tested waxy rice varieties, highest protein contents (8.11%) was observed in cv. Sangjuchal, and highest whiteness and L-value were observed in cv. Hwaseonchal, while no significant differences in gelatinization temperature could be observed among tested varieties, and cv. Boseokchal and Sinseonchal exhibited higher breakdown viscosity compared to the others. The alcohol contents of Sogokju with waxy rice varieties ranges from 13.0 to 13.4%, and the brix degree and turbidity were within the range of 20.5 to 24.6 $^{\circ}Bx$, and 0.0344 to 0.0530, respectively. The highest L-value (6.90), b-value (l.45), pH (4.79), total acidity (0.8384%), and glucose content (10.843 g/100 ml) could be observed in Sogokju made with cv. Sangjuchal. The organic acids such as succinic acid, malic acid, citric acid and oxalic acid could be detected in Sogokju. Although no variety-dependant differences in appearance, aroma, and taste could be found in sensory evaluation, Sogokju made with cvs. Sinseonchal, Haepyeongchal, and Hwaseonchal showed higher overall quality than Sogokju made with cv. Dongjinchal, which is most widely used for Sogokju used for Sogokju production nowadays.

Microbial Hazard Analysis of Manufacturing Processes for Starch Noodle (당면의 제조공정별 미생물학적 위해요소 분석)

  • Cheon, Jin-Young;Yang, Ji Hye;Kim, Min Jeong;Lee, Su-Mi;Cha, Myeonghwa;Park, Ki-Hwan;Ryu, Kyung
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.420-426
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of this study was to identify control points through microbiological hazard analysis in the manufacturing processes of starch noodles. Samples were collected from the ingredients, manufacturing processes, equipment and environment. Microbiological hazard assessments were performed using aerobic plate counts (APC), Enterobacteriaceae (EB), E. coli and five pathogens including B. cereus, E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., and S. aureus. The APC levels in raw materials were from 2.12 to 3.83 log CFU/g. The contamination levels after kneading were 4.31 log CFU/g for APCs and 2.88 log CFU/g for EB counts. APCs decreased to 1.63 log CFU/g and EB were not detected after gelatinization, but their levels slightly increased upon cooling, cutting, ripening, freezing, thawing, and separating. The reuse of cooling and coating water would be a critical source of microbial increase after cooling. After drying, APCs and EB counts decreased to 5.05 log CFU/g and 2.74 log CFU/g, respectively, and the levels were maintained to final products. These results suggest that the cooling process is a critical control point for microbiological safety, and the cooling water should be treated and controlled to prevent cross contamination by pre-requisite program.