• Title/Summary/Keyword: gelatinization

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Effect of microwave radiation on physical special quality of normal, high amylose and waxy corn starches (마이크로웨이브를 조사한 옥수수전분의 물리적 특성변화)

  • Lee Su Jin;Choe Yeong Hui
    • Journal of Applied Tourism Food and Beverage Management and Research
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.113-125
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    • 2004
  • Effect of microwave radiation on physico-chemical properties of cor'n starches was studied. Waxy com, com and high amylose com starches of varying moisture content(20~35%) were subjected to microwave processing(2450MHz) at $120^{\circ}$ and the experimental starch samples were examined by a X-ray diffractometry, rapid viscosity analyzer(RVA) and. with the samples in temperature was observed and the peaks of high amylose com starches at $2^{\circ}$=5.0, 15.0 and $23.0^{\circ}$, were disappeared indicating the melting of crystallines while those of com and waxy com had not changed. A change in gelatinization pattern was observed in the case of corn starches from type A with nearly no peak-viscosity and breakdown to type C. Except a decreased viscosity, no change was observed in those of waxy com starches.

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Variation of Grain Quality and Grain Filling Rapidity Milyang 23 / Gihobyeo Recombinant Inbred Lines (벼 밀양 23호$\times$기호벼의 재조합 자식계통에서 초기급속등숙과 미질 특성)

  • 곽태순;여준환
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.49 no.3
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    • pp.160-166
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    • 2004
  • This study was carried out to get the basic informations regarding the varietal variations for the physicochemical properties such as protein content, amylose content, fatty acid content, grain quality values and color properties such as lightness value, chroma and hue for the 164 recombinant inbred lines(RILs) of Milyang 23 and Gihobyeo(M/G) at the experimental farm in the Sangji University. The principal component analysis and heritability study were conducted for this experiments. The rapidity of grain filling(RCF) for the 164 M/G RILs could be classified into four groups such as slow maturing group less than 41%, mid-slow maturing group 41∼60%, fast maturing group 61∼80% and very fast maturing group more than 81% based on the rapidity of grain filling rate. The slow maturing group of RGF showed a little bit higher protein content 9.1%, compared to the other RGF groups. However, the amylose content of all the RGF groups revealed the same content by the groups. The very fast maturing group of RGF showed longer grain length in brown rice compared to other RGF varietal groups, in case of grain width in brown rice showed shorter than any other groups. The alkali digestive value which was so much related to gelatinization temperature showed 3.40 degree at fast maturing group of RGF in M/G RILs. However, the very fast maturing group of RGF revealed 4.31 degree of alkali digestive value. The principal component analysis was performed by the chemical and color properties such as quality value, protein content, amylose content, alkali digestive value, fatty acid content, lightness value, chroma and hue for M/G RILs. The first principal component was able to explained upto 36% to total informations. It was corresponded to quality value, protein content, amylose content, fatty acid content, lightness value and a-value(green -1 red). The characters regarding grain quality showed high heritable properties more than 75% of heritability, but color characters appeared relatively lower heritability compared to grain quality.

An Early-Maturing, Blast Resistant and High Quality Rice Cultivar "Pyeongwon" (벼 조생 단간 내도열병 고품질 신품종 "평원")

  • Ryu, Hae-Young;Jeon, Yong-Hee;Jung, Kuk-Hyun;Shin, Young-Seop;Hwang, Hung-Goo;Kim, Hong-Yeol;Kim, Myeong-Ki;Jung, O-Young;Won, Yong-Jae;Kim, Yeon-Gyu;Yang, Chang-In;Lee, Jeom-Ho;Lee, Jeong-Il;Lee, Jeong-Heui;Choi, Yoon-Hee;Yang, Sae-Jun;Ahn, Eok-Keun
    • Korean Journal of Breeding Science
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.177-181
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    • 2009
  • 'Pyeongwon' is a new japonica rice cultivar which is developed from a cross between Jinbu19 and Samjiyeon4 from North Korea by the rice breeding team of National Institute of Crop Science, RDA. Pyeongwon has about 107 days duration from seeding to heading in mid-northen plain, alpine, north-eastern coastal and southern alpine areas. It has about 67 cm culm length and tolerance to lodging. Pyeongwon has 13 tillers per hill and 82 spikelets per panicle. It showed tolerance to heading delay and spikelet sterility due to cold treatment similar to Odaebyeo. It also showed slow leaf senescence and moderate tolerance to viviparous germination during the ripening stage. Pyeongwon has resistance to blast disease but susceptible to stripe virus and brown planthopper. Milled rice of Pyeongwon has translucent kernels, relatively clear non-glutinous endosperm and medium short grain. It is characterized as a low gelatinization temperature and slightly lower amylose content (17.1%) variety compared to Odaebyeo (19.5%) and has good palatability of cooked rice. The milled rice yield performance of this cultivar was about 5.28 MT/ha by ordinary culture in local adaptability test for three years. This cultivar may be highly adaptable to the mid-northen plain, alpine, north-eastern coastal and southern alpine areas of Korea.

The Effect of Heating Rate by Ohmic Heating on Rheological Property of Corn Starch Suspension (Ohmic Heating에 의한 가열속도 변화가 옥수수전분의 물성특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Seok-Hun;Jang, Jae-Kweon;Pyun, Yu-Ryang
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.438-442
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    • 2005
  • Granule swelling is essential phenomenon of starch gelatinization in excess water, and characteristic of heated starch dispersion depends largely on size and distribution of swelled starch granule. Although swelling characteristic of starch granules depends on type of starch, heating rate, and moisture content, influence of heating rate on swelling phenomenon of starch granule has not been fully discussed, because constant heating rate of starch dispersion cannot be obtained by conventional heating method. Ohmic heating, electric-resistant heat generation method, applies alternative current to food materials, through which heating rate can be easily controlled precisely and conveniently at wide range of constant heating rates. Starch dispersion heated at low heating rates below $7.5^{\circ}C/min$ showed Newtonian fluid behavior, whereas showed pseudoplastic behavior at heating rates above $16.4^{\circ}C/min$. Apparent viscosity of starch dispersion increased linearly with increasing heating rate, and yield stress was dramatically increased at heating rates above $16.4^{\circ}C/min$. Average diameter of corn starch granules during ohmic heating was dramatically increased from $30.97\;to\;37.88\;{\mu}m$ by increasing heating rate from $0.6\;to\;16.4^{\circ}C/min$ (raw corn starch: $13.7\;{\mu}m$). Hardness of starch gel prepared with 15% corn starch dispersion after heating to $90^{\circ}C$ at different heating rates decreased gradually with increasing heating rate, then showed nearly constant value from $9.4\;to\;23.2^{\circ}C/min$. Hardness increased with increase of heating rate higher than $23.2^{\circ}C/min$.

The Additional Effects of Various Materials on Microwave Heating Property of Frozen Dough (품질개량제 첨가가 냉동반죽의 Microwave 가열특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Eun-Mi;Han, Hye-Kyung;Kim, In-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.37 no.6
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    • pp.873-881
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    • 2005
  • This study was conducted to improve the properties of frozen dough foods (buns and noodles etc.) on the quality deterioration with microwave oven cooking. Microwave is a useful cooking method, but it quickly takes moisture from food surface and makes lowering food quality abruptly. For improvement of these problems, mixing doughs with addition of various additives of 34 types manufactured respectively; starches, modified starches, gums and emulsifiers etc. Each mixing dough produced in sheet type $(30{\times}30{\times}1mm)$ and steamed them, was quickly froze at $-70^{\circ}C$ and packed with polyethylene. Packed samples kept at $-20^{\circ}C$ for 48 hours. After they were steam or microwave treatment packed or non-packed with polyethylene, studied for improvement effects of quality as sensory evaluation and selected 6 type additives; modified starches (TA, ST), gums (AR, GA) and emulsifiers (E, S1) as improvement agent. Because moisture loss from microwave oven cooking leads to quality deterioration of frozen dough foods, additive, such as including starches, modified starch, gums, and emusifiers were added to improve dough properties. Amylogram, scanning electron microscopy, textural analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry revealed addition of additives improved textural properties including surface-hardening of frozen dough foods compared to the control.

Quality Enhancement of Vaccum Packaged Waxy Corns by Far Infrared Ray Drying (원적외선 건조처리에 의한 진공포장 찰옥수수의 품질확보)

  • Choi, Jae-Ho;Im, Ji-Soon;Oh, Deog-Hwan
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.635-640
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    • 2006
  • This study was conducted to determine the effect of far infrared ray drying on the microbial and quality changes of vacuum packaged waxy corns, such as microbial growth, rehydration, color differences, weight loss and hardness during the storage at $4^{\circ}C$ and $25^{\circ}C$ for 7 months. After far infrared ray drying for 6 hours at $60^{\circ}C$, 2.32 log CFU/g of total microbial counts in raw waxy corns was enumerated, but no microorganism was detected in steamed or sugar-treated waxy corns. However, no microorganism was observed in all treatments except for control samples until 3 month storage at $4^{\circ}C$, whereas steamed and sugar-treated waxy corns showed 2 and 2.7 log reduction compared to that of control after 3 month storage. Yeasts and molds were more resistant than bacteria against far infrared ray drying at the same conditions. Similar results were observed in $25^{\circ}C$ storage. The degree of gelatinization in raw waxy corns far infrared ray drying changed from 98% to 96.2% after 7 month storage at $4^{\circ}C$, whereas steamed waxy corns with far infrared ray drying changed from 81.14% to 58.73%. Water contents in sugar-treated waxy corns with far infrared ray drying gradually reduced compared to steamed waxy corns as drying time increased. The L values in raw waxy corns far infrared ray drying increased as drying time increased, but L values in steamed or sugar-treated waxy corns significantly reduced after 12 hour far infrared ray drying. Hardness in raw waxy corns was higher than in steamed or sugar-treated waxy corns before storage, but similar hardness was observed between raw- and sugar-treated waxy corns after 9 hour drying. This results showed that the microbial reduction, the enhancement of shelf life and quality establishment of steamed or sugar-treated waxy corns could be maximized by using far infrared ray drying.

A comparative study on quality characteristics of Jook(traditional Korean rice gruel) made of imported and domestic rices(Chuchung byeo) (수입쌀과 국산쌀(추청벼)로 제조한 죽의 품질 특성 비교)

  • 한승희;오명숙
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.604-610
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    • 2001
  • Quality characteristics of Jook made of imported rice(Thai and Chinese rice, harvested in 1998) and domestic rice(Chuchung byeo, harvested in 1998 and 1997) were examined. After cooking, Thai rice granules in Jook gained more weight than other rices and had a higher degree of swelling(p<0.05). The hardness of Thai rice granules in Jook was the highest and the adhesiveness of that was the lowest(p<0.05). Thai rice granules in Jook had high cohesiveness, chewiness and gumminess. Results showed that Thai rice has improper characteristics for making Jook which must be swallowed easily. In Thai rice, the time needed for the liquid pan of Jook to flow was shortest with values of 4.33s(60$\^{C}$) and 4.97s(40$\^{C}$) and spreadability of Jook was highest with value of 7.37cm(p<0.05). It showed that Jook made of Thai rice had nonsticky properties. Lightness of Jook made of Thai rice had the highest value of 66.3(p<0.05) and yellowness of Jook made of imported rice were higher than those made of domestic rices. Yields of reducing sugar by $\beta$-amylase reaction was highest in Jook made of Korean rice harvested in 1998 and lowest in Jook made of Thai rice(p<0.05). It showed That gelatinization of Korean rice harvested in 1998 was highest and that of Thai rice retarded. In sensory tests, Jook made of Korean rice harvested in 1997 had the highest acceptability and that made of Thai rice showed the lowest acceptability due to its strong off odor, low consistency and low smoothness in the mouth(p<0.05) There were no significant differences between the Jook made of Korean rice harvested in 1998 and that of Chinese rice.

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Changes in Quality Properties of Fermented Waxy Rice Paste of Yakchobugak as Affected by Lactic Acid Bacteria and Waxy Rice Powder (유산균 종류와 찹쌀가루의 호화온도 및 발효시간에 따른 약초부각 발효풀의 품질특성 변화)

  • Ko, Young-Ran;Shon, Mi-Yae;Kim, Yun-Geun;Chung, Kyung-Sook;Wang, Su-Bin;Park, Seok-Kyu
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.201-210
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    • 2009
  • This study was undertaken to investigate the quality properties of yakchobugak as affected by lactic acid bacteria and waxy rice paste for improving palatability of yakchobugak of Agastache rugosa. Total sugar contents of lactic acid bacteria-fermenting waxy rice paste gelatinized at $90^{\circ}C$ were higher than that of $70^{\circ}C$. Reducing sugar contents were $2{\sim}5$ times higher in $70^{\circ}C$ waxy rice paste than in $90^{\circ}C$ waxy rice paste and increased as the fermentation progressed. Total acidity of waxy rice pastes gelatinized at $70^{\circ}C$ and fermented for 15 hours were $2.7{\sim}1.3$ times higher than at $90^{\circ}C$, and then Lactococcus lactis had the lowest total acidity during fermentation. Viscosity of fermented paste (VFP) were lower than those of raw paste. VFPs gelatinized at $90^{\circ}C$ were markedly higher than those at $70^{\circ}C$ over 28% concentration. In L. lactis and Lactobacillus plantarum, VFPs fermented for 15 hours were over $2{\sim}3$ times lower than those fermented for 40 hours. Hunter's color lightness (L) and yellowness (b) were decreased according to the elevation of gelatinization temperature and fermentation time. L. lactis and L. plantarum-producing waxy rice pastes were the uniform micell type with a large air-pore size and amorphous micell type with a small air-pore size, respectively. Based on these results, L. lactis was a lower lactic acid-producing bacteria as well as uniform air-pore distribution on waxy rice paste. It was found to be a good sourpaste-fermenting strain for enhancement of quality properties of yakchobugak, as revealed through viscosity, total acidity, Hunter's color b value and scanning electron micrographs.

A Medium-Maturing and Good Quality Japonica Rice Variety, "Cheongan" (벼 중생 고품질 신품종 "청안")

  • Yang, Sae-Jun;Kim, Yeon-Gyu;Choi, Im-Soo;Cho, Young-Chan;Hwang, Hung-Goo;Hong, Ha-Cheol;Kim, Myeong-Ki;Oh, Myung-Kyu;Shin, Young-Seop;Lee, Jeom-Ho;Choi, Yong-Hwan;Choi, In-Bea;Kang, Kyung-Ho;Yea, Jong-Doo;Lee, Jeong-Heui
    • Korean Journal of Breeding Science
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.649-653
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    • 2009
  • "Cheongan" is a new japonica rice variety developed from a cross between SR15225-B-22-1-2-1 and Iksan431 in summer season, 1997 by National Institute of Crop Science, RDA. The line SR15225-B-22-1-2-1 has good canopy architecture and multi-disease and insect resistance, and Iksan431 has translucent milled rice and good eating-quality. Heading date of Cheongan is August 13 in central lowland and mid-mountainous areas. "Cheongan" having culm length of 84 cm shows relatively semi-erect pubescent leaf blade and rigid culm, tolerance to lodging with and good canopy architecture. This variety has 14 tillers per hill and 126 spikelets per panicle. It shows tolerance to heading delay and spikelet sterility comparable to Hwaseongbyeo when exposed to cold stress. Leaf senescence of Cheongan progresses slowly during the ripening stage and the viviparous germination ratio was 59 %, similar to that of Hwaseongbyo. "Cheongan" shows moderately resistance to blast disease, but susceptible to stripe virus and brown planthopper. The milled rice of "Cheongan" exhibits translucent, clear non-glutinous endosperm and medium short grain. It shows similar amylose content of 18.7%, gelatinization temperature, and similar palatability of cooked rice compared to Hwaseongbyeo. The milled rice yield of this cultivar is about 5.54 MT/ha at ordinary season culture in local adaptability test for three years. Especially, "Cheongan" has better milling properties of higher 98.4% and 73.9% in the percentage of head rice in milled rice and milling recovery of head rice, respectively, than those of Hwaseongbyeo. "Cheongan" could be adaptable to the central and mid-southern plain area, and mid-western coastal area of Korea.

Waxy Rice Variety-dependent Variations in Physicochemical Characteristics of Sogokju, a Korean Traditional Rice Wine (찰벼 품종에 따른 소곡주의 이화학적 특성)

  • Lee, Jin-Seok;Woo, Koan-Sik;Chun, Ar-Eum;Na, Jang-Yeon;Kim, Kee-Jong
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.54 no.2
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    • pp.172-180
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    • 2009
  • This study was carried out to compare the physicochemical characteristics and sensory quality of Sogokju (Korean traditional rice wine) prepared with waxy rice varieties. Among tested waxy rice varieties, highest protein contents (8.11%) was observed in cv. Sangjuchal, and highest whiteness and L-value were observed in cv. Hwaseonchal, while no significant differences in gelatinization temperature could be observed among tested varieties, and cv. Boseokchal and Sinseonchal exhibited higher breakdown viscosity compared to the others. The alcohol contents of Sogokju with waxy rice varieties ranges from 13.0 to 13.4%, and the brix degree and turbidity were within the range of 20.5 to 24.6 $^{\circ}Bx$, and 0.0344 to 0.0530, respectively. The highest L-value (6.90), b-value (l.45), pH (4.79), total acidity (0.8384%), and glucose content (10.843 g/100 ml) could be observed in Sogokju made with cv. Sangjuchal. The organic acids such as succinic acid, malic acid, citric acid and oxalic acid could be detected in Sogokju. Although no variety-dependant differences in appearance, aroma, and taste could be found in sensory evaluation, Sogokju made with cvs. Sinseonchal, Haepyeongchal, and Hwaseonchal showed higher overall quality than Sogokju made with cv. Dongjinchal, which is most widely used for Sogokju used for Sogokju production nowadays.