• Title, Summary, Keyword: gelatinization

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Quality Characteristics of Wheat Flours from New Released Iksan370 with Long Spike and Domestic Wheat Cultivars (신육성 다수확 밀 익산370호의 원맥과 밀가루의 품질 특성)

  • Choi, Yong-Seok;Lee, Jae-Kang;Choi, Yong-Hyun;Kim, Young-Hwan;Kang, Chon-Sik;Shin, Malsik
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.551-556
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    • 2015
  • Iksan370 is a long-spike wheat developed by the Rural Development Administration yielding excellent features components such as cold resistance, disease resistance, and viviparous germination. The physicochemical and material properties of the raw wheat and milled flour of Iksan370 were analyzed to derive its appropriate uses. The raw wheat of Iksan370 showed high contents of ash and proteins at 1.71% and 13.7%, respectively. Its test weight of 763.0 g/L was similar to those of other varieties and its 1,000 kernel weight was high at 45.38 g. The milled flour of Iksan370 had an ash content of 0.45%, which corresponds with a class 1 flour, and its protein content is 12.18%, corresponding with strong flour. The damaged starch was 5.41%, which was lower than that of other varieties. The average grain size was $70.67{\mu}m$ and the grain distribution was at the level of a typical hard wheat. In the farinogram, the water absorption was 58.63%, which corresponded to the level of medium flour. The development time was 7.00 minutes, which was significantly lower than those of Jokyung and Keumkang. The degree of softening was 67.00 BU, similar to those of Yunbaek and Baekjoong. Among the physico-chemical characteristics, the high protein content and typical hard wheat grain distribution of Iksan370 were similar to those of strong wheat, usually used for bread making. However, in the farinogram, the dough development time was short and the degree of softening was high. As a result, Iksan370 was expected to have poor breadmaking properties and a small volume of the final bread product due to insufficient dough durability. On the other hand, Iksan370 showed the highest maximum gelatinization viscosity at 864.00 BU. Therefore, Iksan370 is expected to show glutinous texture when used for noodles and its flour appears to be appropriate for frying powders as well.

Effects of heat-moisture treatment on functional properties of high amylose rice starches with different crystalline types (결정형이 다른 고아밀로스 쌀 전분의 기능적 성질에 수분열처리 효과)

  • Huang, Mengyao;No, Junhee;Shin, Malshick
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.52 no.1
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    • pp.31-39
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    • 2020
  • The effects of heat-moisture treatment (HMT) on the functional properties of high amylose rice starches (HARSes) purified from Korean rice varieties (A-type Goami and Singil and B-type Dodamssal and Goami2) were investigated. HMT was accomplished with moisture contents of 18 and 27% and heated at 100℃ for 16 h. While the amylose content, swelling power and solubility decreased after HMT, the water binding capacity and resistant starch (RS) content increased with increasing moisture content after HMT. The X-ray diffraction patterns of all HARSes did not change after HMT, but a decrease in the intensity of peak at 2θ=5° was observed in B-type HMT HARSes. While the starch granules aggregated after HMT, their shape and size remained unchanged. B-type HARSes exhibited higher gelatinization temperatures and lower pasting viscosities than A-type HARSes following HMT. The results, thus, suggest that while the crystalline intensity of B-type Dodamssal and Goami2 rice starches did not change after HMT, the RS content, water binding capacity, and pasting temperatures of all HARSes increased with increasing moisture content after HMT.

Cooking Properties of Waxy Varieties of Rice (통일(統一) 찹쌀의 가공(加工) 및 조리특성(調理特性)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Kim, Hyong-Soo;Moon, Soo-Jae;Sohn, Kyong-Hee;Heu, Mun-Hue
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.144-152
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    • 1977
  • The physiochemical properties of eight different cultivars or newly bred lines of glutionous rice were investigated and obtained following results; (1) The gelatinizing temperature, blue value and alkali number of starch separated from the sample cultivars or lines were similar to those of starch from conventional cultivar Olchal. The expansive power of three newly bred lines were somewhat weaker than that of starch from conventional cultivar, but the expansive power of other four lines were similar to that of conventional cultivar. (2) pH of cooked rice of the ten sample cultivars or breeding lines showed no discernible differences rangeing from 6.54 to 6.60. (3) The degree of gelatinization of cooked rice of newly bred lines were rather lower than that of conventional ones, but the degree of their retrogradation were somewhat higher than that of conventional cultivars. (4) In order to improve the palatability of cooked rice of Tongil (common rice), glutinous rice were mixed in different rate. The results showed that a mix ratio of six per cent glutinous rice was most favourable. The acceptability of common Tongil rice was improved when it was cooked with four to six per cent of glutinous rice mixed, and it showed no significant difference from that of Akibare alone cooked rice. Also no difference was noticed among newly bred glutinous lines in the acceptability when they cooked with common Tongil rice mixed. (5) Injolmi, Yaksik, Misitgaru, Twipap and Yugwa were prepared from glutinous rice of sample cultivars and or breeding lines to study their characteristics in processing and their acceptability. The results indicated that the acceptability score of newly bred lines were lower than that of conventional cultivar in cases of Twipap and Yugwa, but in cases of Injolmi, Yaksik and Misitgaru, identical score was obtained from both of newly bred lines and conventional cultivars.

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Development of Composite Flours and Their Products Utilizing Domestic Raw Materials -Part VI. Effect of Additives on the Bread-making Quality with Composite Flours- (국산원료(國産原料)를 활용(活用)한 복합분(複合粉) 및 제품개발(製品開發)에 관한 연구(硏究) -제6보 복합분(複合粉)에 의한 제(製)빵에 있어서 첨가제(添加劑)의 영향(影響)-)

  • Kim, Hyong-Soo;Lee, Hee-Ja
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.106-115
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    • 1977
  • In order to study the baking properties of various composite flours, naked barley flour, corn flour, potato flour, and sweet potato flour were added to the hard wheat flour respectively in a ratio of 3 : 7. Using above composite flours, effects of glyceryl monosterate (GMS), sodium stearyl lactylate (SSL), calcium stearyl lactylate (CSL), xanthan gum (XG) and polysaccharide (PS) were also examined in terms of sedimentation test, viscosity by amylograph and baking test. The results are as follows: 1) Sedimentation value decreased in the order of hard wheat flour (58), corn flour (47), potato flour (46), sweet potato flour (33). and barley flour (23). Significant effects of additives were observed for all of flours as well as for the composite flours. The most prominant result of additives was obtained with the composite flour of barley and wheat. Among the additives, mixtures of GMS and SSL at 1% final concentration and that of GMS and SSL at the same concentration increased the sedimentation value considerably. No sedimentation measurement, however, was possible for XG since the compound was precipitated by acid during experiment of sedimentation. 2) Effects of additives on the viscosity were determined by amylograph. The mixtures of GMS 1%+SSL 1% and GMS 1%+CSL 1% increased gelatinization point,maximum viscosity and cooling viscosity. GMS 1%+XG 1% or GMS 1%+PS 1% showed less effects. 3) GMS 1%+CSL 0.5% increased the specific loaf volume of bread produced from the composite flour of naked barley and wheat, and appearance, taste and texture of the product were very similar to those of the standard bread produced from wheat flour. GMS 1%+SSL 0.5%, however, increased the loaf volume of bread produced from the composite flours of corn, potato and sweet potato, and wheat. No effects were obtained with XG and PS, except slight improvement of the texture of bread. 4) No specific loaf volume of bread produced from the composite flour of barley and wheat was increased when 1% of SSL, CSL, XG or PS was used separately.

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A comparative study on quality characteristics of Jook(traditional Korean rice gruel) made of imported and domestic rices(Chuchung byeo) (수입쌀과 국산쌀(추청벼)로 제조한 죽의 품질 특성 비교)

  • 한승희;오명숙
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.604-610
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    • 2001
  • Quality characteristics of Jook made of imported rice(Thai and Chinese rice, harvested in 1998) and domestic rice(Chuchung byeo, harvested in 1998 and 1997) were examined. After cooking, Thai rice granules in Jook gained more weight than other rices and had a higher degree of swelling(p<0.05). The hardness of Thai rice granules in Jook was the highest and the adhesiveness of that was the lowest(p<0.05). Thai rice granules in Jook had high cohesiveness, chewiness and gumminess. Results showed that Thai rice has improper characteristics for making Jook which must be swallowed easily. In Thai rice, the time needed for the liquid pan of Jook to flow was shortest with values of 4.33s(60$\^{C}$) and 4.97s(40$\^{C}$) and spreadability of Jook was highest with value of 7.37cm(p<0.05). It showed that Jook made of Thai rice had nonsticky properties. Lightness of Jook made of Thai rice had the highest value of 66.3(p<0.05) and yellowness of Jook made of imported rice were higher than those made of domestic rices. Yields of reducing sugar by $\beta$-amylase reaction was highest in Jook made of Korean rice harvested in 1998 and lowest in Jook made of Thai rice(p<0.05). It showed That gelatinization of Korean rice harvested in 1998 was highest and that of Thai rice retarded. In sensory tests, Jook made of Korean rice harvested in 1997 had the highest acceptability and that made of Thai rice showed the lowest acceptability due to its strong off odor, low consistency and low smoothness in the mouth(p<0.05) There were no significant differences between the Jook made of Korean rice harvested in 1998 and that of Chinese rice.

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Quality Enhancement of Vaccum Packaged Waxy Corns by Far Infrared Ray Drying (원적외선 건조처리에 의한 진공포장 찰옥수수의 품질확보)

  • Choi, Jae-Ho;Im, Ji-Soon;Oh, Deog-Hwan
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.635-640
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    • 2006
  • This study was conducted to determine the effect of far infrared ray drying on the microbial and quality changes of vacuum packaged waxy corns, such as microbial growth, rehydration, color differences, weight loss and hardness during the storage at $4^{\circ}C$ and $25^{\circ}C$ for 7 months. After far infrared ray drying for 6 hours at $60^{\circ}C$, 2.32 log CFU/g of total microbial counts in raw waxy corns was enumerated, but no microorganism was detected in steamed or sugar-treated waxy corns. However, no microorganism was observed in all treatments except for control samples until 3 month storage at $4^{\circ}C$, whereas steamed and sugar-treated waxy corns showed 2 and 2.7 log reduction compared to that of control after 3 month storage. Yeasts and molds were more resistant than bacteria against far infrared ray drying at the same conditions. Similar results were observed in $25^{\circ}C$ storage. The degree of gelatinization in raw waxy corns far infrared ray drying changed from 98% to 96.2% after 7 month storage at $4^{\circ}C$, whereas steamed waxy corns with far infrared ray drying changed from 81.14% to 58.73%. Water contents in sugar-treated waxy corns with far infrared ray drying gradually reduced compared to steamed waxy corns as drying time increased. The L values in raw waxy corns far infrared ray drying increased as drying time increased, but L values in steamed or sugar-treated waxy corns significantly reduced after 12 hour far infrared ray drying. Hardness in raw waxy corns was higher than in steamed or sugar-treated waxy corns before storage, but similar hardness was observed between raw- and sugar-treated waxy corns after 9 hour drying. This results showed that the microbial reduction, the enhancement of shelf life and quality establishment of steamed or sugar-treated waxy corns could be maximized by using far infrared ray drying.

Changes in Physicochemical Properties in Wheat Grains as Influenced by Average Temperature Rise during Ripening Stage (등숙기 평균기온 상승에 따른 밀 종실의 이화학적 특성 변화)

  • Ahn, Seung-Hyun;Kim, Dea-Wook;Lee, Hyeon-Seok;Jeong, Jae-Hyeok;Jeong, Han-Yong;Hwang, Woon-Ha;Baek, Jung-Sun;Choi, Kyung-Jin;Choi, In-Bea;Park, Hong-Kyu;Youn, Jong-Tag;Kim, Geun-Joong
    • The Journal of the Korean Society of International Agriculture
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.50-55
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    • 2017
  • We investigated the changes in the physicochemical properties of wheat grains during ripening stage to determine the effect of the rise in average temperature on that of wheat grains. The treated average temperatures were $18.3^{\circ}C$(control), $19.9^{\circ}C$($1.6^{\circ}C$ increase), $21.5^{\circ}C$($3.2^{\circ}C$ increase) in artificial climate room from heading time to harvest. Results showed that the ripening period from heading to maturity tended to be shorter during higher temperature treatment condition. The 1,000-grain weight, grain width, number of florets per spike, and number of grains per spike decreased as the ripening period was shortened. Gelatinization properties were affected by high temperature due to the reduction of starch and amylose contents. As the grain filling period was shortened by high temperature treatments, the crude protein content increased. As the grain filling period was shortened by 6 days, the starch and amylose contents decreased by 10.8% and 5.4%, respectively. However, the crude protein content increased by 1.7% in such a condition. Starch content showed positive correlations between amylose and breakdown. Meanwhile, it showed negative correlations between electric conductivity of leaching water from seeds, crude protein content, peak viscosity, trough viscosity, final viscosity, and setback.

A Very Early-Maturing, Cold Tolerant and High Quality japonica Rice Variety 'Hanseol' (극조숙 고품질 내냉성 벼 신품종 '한설')

  • Lee, Jeong-Heui;Shin, Young-Seop;Jeong, O-Young;Kim, Myeong-Ki;Kim, Yeon-Gyu;Kim, Hong-Yeol;Lee, Jeom-Ho;Lee, Jeong-Il;Cho, Young-Chan;Jeon, Yong-Hee;Choi, Yong-Hwan;Yang, Chang-Ihn;Hong, Ha-Cheol;Won, Yong-Jae;Shin, Jin-Chul;Kim, Hyung-Yoon;Seo, Dae-Ha;Hwang, Hung-Goo;Yea, Jong-Doo
    • Korean Journal of Breeding Science
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    • v.42 no.6
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    • pp.632-637
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    • 2010
  • 'Hanseol' is a new very early-maturing, cold tolerant and high quality japonica rice variety developed from a cross of 'Jinbu24' and 'Jinbu25' by the rice breeding team of National Institute of Crop Science (NICS), Rural Development Administration (RDA) in 2009. The heading date of this variety is July 25, which is four days earlier than check variety, 'Jinbubyeo'. 'Hanseol' has 65 cm of culm length, 99 spikelets per panicle, 82.9% of ripened grain rate, and 21.5 g of 1,000 grain-weight of brown rice. This variety shows susceptibility to bacterial leaf blight and virus diseases, and insect pests. It is tolerant to cold stress in terms of less heading delay and high fertility in cold water irrigated cultivation. This variety shows delayed leaf senescence and considerable tolerance to viviparous germination at ripening stage. The milled rice of this variety exhibits translucent, clear non-glutinous endosperm and medium-short grain. 'Hanseol' showed low gelatinization temperature and 6.1% protein content, 19.1% amylose content and good palatability of cooked rice. The milled rice yield of this variety is about 5.43 MT/ha at ordinary culture in local adaptability test for three years. 'Hanseol' would be highly adaptable to mid-north and mid-mountainous areas, and mid-northern alpine area in Korea.

A New Sweetpotato Cultivar for Use of Bioethanol 'Daeyumi' (바이오에탄올용 고구마 신품종 '대유미')

  • Lee, Joon-Seol;Ahn, Young-Sup;Chung, Mi-Nam;Kim, Hag-Sin;Jeong, Kwang-Ho;Bang, Jin-Ki;Song, Yeon-Sang;Shim, Hyeong-Kwon;Han, Seon-Kyeong;Suh, Sae-Jung
    • Korean Journal of Breeding Science
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    • v.42 no.6
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    • pp.674-678
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    • 2010
  • A new sweetpotato variety, 'Daeyumi', was developed by Bioenergy Crop Research Center, National Institute of Crop Science (NICS), RDA in 2008. This variety was obtained from the cross between 'Jinhongmi' and 'Xusju 18' in 2000. The seedling and line selections were performed from 2001 to 2003, preliminary and advanced yield trials were carried out from 2004 to 2005, and the regional yield trials were conducted at six locations from 2006 to 2008. 'Daeyumi' has cordate leaf, green vine and petiole, elliptic storage root, red skin and yellow flesh color of storage root. This variety is also resistant to Fusarium wilt and nematode. The starch value was 25.9%, ethanol yield was 418 L/Ton, which was 7% higher than that of 'Yulmi' variety, and the total sugar content was 2.47 g/100g, dry weight. 'Daeyumi's initial temperature of starch gelatinization was lower, 76.2$^{\circ}C$, and the retrogradation process was earlier than 'Yulmi'. The average yield of storage root was 27.8 ton/ha in the regional yield trials, which was 36% higher than that of 'Yulmi' variety. Number of storage roots over 50 gram per plant was 3.0, and the average weight of one storage root was 152 gram. This variety can be used for the production of bioethanol and starch processing.

Waxy Rice Variety-dependent Variations in Physicochemical Characteristics of Sogokju, a Korean Traditional Rice Wine (찰벼 품종에 따른 소곡주의 이화학적 특성)

  • Lee, Jin-Seok;Woo, Koan-Sik;Chun, Ar-Eum;Na, Jang-Yeon;Kim, Kee-Jong
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.54 no.2
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    • pp.172-180
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    • 2009
  • This study was carried out to compare the physicochemical characteristics and sensory quality of Sogokju (Korean traditional rice wine) prepared with waxy rice varieties. Among tested waxy rice varieties, highest protein contents (8.11%) was observed in cv. Sangjuchal, and highest whiteness and L-value were observed in cv. Hwaseonchal, while no significant differences in gelatinization temperature could be observed among tested varieties, and cv. Boseokchal and Sinseonchal exhibited higher breakdown viscosity compared to the others. The alcohol contents of Sogokju with waxy rice varieties ranges from 13.0 to 13.4%, and the brix degree and turbidity were within the range of 20.5 to 24.6 $^{\circ}Bx$, and 0.0344 to 0.0530, respectively. The highest L-value (6.90), b-value (l.45), pH (4.79), total acidity (0.8384%), and glucose content (10.843 g/100 ml) could be observed in Sogokju made with cv. Sangjuchal. The organic acids such as succinic acid, malic acid, citric acid and oxalic acid could be detected in Sogokju. Although no variety-dependant differences in appearance, aroma, and taste could be found in sensory evaluation, Sogokju made with cvs. Sinseonchal, Haepyeongchal, and Hwaseonchal showed higher overall quality than Sogokju made with cv. Dongjinchal, which is most widely used for Sogokju used for Sogokju production nowadays.