• Title, Summary, Keyword: gelatinization

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A Medium-Maturing and Good Quality Japonica Rice Variety, "Cheongan" (벼 중생 고품질 신품종 "청안")

  • Yang, Sae-Jun;Kim, Yeon-Gyu;Choi, Im-Soo;Cho, Young-Chan;Hwang, Hung-Goo;Hong, Ha-Cheol;Kim, Myeong-Ki;Oh, Myung-Kyu;Shin, Young-Seop;Lee, Jeom-Ho;Choi, Yong-Hwan;Choi, In-Bea;Kang, Kyung-Ho;Yea, Jong-Doo;Lee, Jeong-Heui
    • Korean Journal of Breeding Science
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.649-653
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    • 2009
  • "Cheongan" is a new japonica rice variety developed from a cross between SR15225-B-22-1-2-1 and Iksan431 in summer season, 1997 by National Institute of Crop Science, RDA. The line SR15225-B-22-1-2-1 has good canopy architecture and multi-disease and insect resistance, and Iksan431 has translucent milled rice and good eating-quality. Heading date of Cheongan is August 13 in central lowland and mid-mountainous areas. "Cheongan" having culm length of 84 cm shows relatively semi-erect pubescent leaf blade and rigid culm, tolerance to lodging with and good canopy architecture. This variety has 14 tillers per hill and 126 spikelets per panicle. It shows tolerance to heading delay and spikelet sterility comparable to Hwaseongbyeo when exposed to cold stress. Leaf senescence of Cheongan progresses slowly during the ripening stage and the viviparous germination ratio was 59 %, similar to that of Hwaseongbyo. "Cheongan" shows moderately resistance to blast disease, but susceptible to stripe virus and brown planthopper. The milled rice of "Cheongan" exhibits translucent, clear non-glutinous endosperm and medium short grain. It shows similar amylose content of 18.7%, gelatinization temperature, and similar palatability of cooked rice compared to Hwaseongbyeo. The milled rice yield of this cultivar is about 5.54 MT/ha at ordinary season culture in local adaptability test for three years. Especially, "Cheongan" has better milling properties of higher 98.4% and 73.9% in the percentage of head rice in milled rice and milling recovery of head rice, respectively, than those of Hwaseongbyeo. "Cheongan" could be adaptable to the central and mid-southern plain area, and mid-western coastal area of Korea.

An Early-Maturing, Blast Resistant and High Quality Rice Cultivar "Pyeongwon" (벼 조생 단간 내도열병 고품질 신품종 "평원")

  • Ryu, Hae-Young;Jeon, Yong-Hee;Jung, Kuk-Hyun;Shin, Young-Seop;Hwang, Hung-Goo;Kim, Hong-Yeol;Kim, Myeong-Ki;Jung, O-Young;Won, Yong-Jae;Kim, Yeon-Gyu;Yang, Chang-In;Lee, Jeom-Ho;Lee, Jeong-Il;Lee, Jeong-Heui;Choi, Yoon-Hee;Yang, Sae-Jun;Ahn, Eok-Keun
    • Korean Journal of Breeding Science
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.177-181
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    • 2009
  • 'Pyeongwon' is a new japonica rice cultivar which is developed from a cross between Jinbu19 and Samjiyeon4 from North Korea by the rice breeding team of National Institute of Crop Science, RDA. Pyeongwon has about 107 days duration from seeding to heading in mid-northen plain, alpine, north-eastern coastal and southern alpine areas. It has about 67 cm culm length and tolerance to lodging. Pyeongwon has 13 tillers per hill and 82 spikelets per panicle. It showed tolerance to heading delay and spikelet sterility due to cold treatment similar to Odaebyeo. It also showed slow leaf senescence and moderate tolerance to viviparous germination during the ripening stage. Pyeongwon has resistance to blast disease but susceptible to stripe virus and brown planthopper. Milled rice of Pyeongwon has translucent kernels, relatively clear non-glutinous endosperm and medium short grain. It is characterized as a low gelatinization temperature and slightly lower amylose content (17.1%) variety compared to Odaebyeo (19.5%) and has good palatability of cooked rice. The milled rice yield performance of this cultivar was about 5.28 MT/ha by ordinary culture in local adaptability test for three years. This cultivar may be highly adaptable to the mid-northen plain, alpine, north-eastern coastal and southern alpine areas of Korea.

Microbial Hazard Analysis of Manufacturing Processes for Starch Noodle (당면의 제조공정별 미생물학적 위해요소 분석)

  • Cheon, Jin-Young;Yang, Ji Hye;Kim, Min Jeong;Lee, Su-Mi;Cha, Myeonghwa;Park, Ki-Hwan;Ryu, Kyung
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.420-426
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of this study was to identify control points through microbiological hazard analysis in the manufacturing processes of starch noodles. Samples were collected from the ingredients, manufacturing processes, equipment and environment. Microbiological hazard assessments were performed using aerobic plate counts (APC), Enterobacteriaceae (EB), E. coli and five pathogens including B. cereus, E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., and S. aureus. The APC levels in raw materials were from 2.12 to 3.83 log CFU/g. The contamination levels after kneading were 4.31 log CFU/g for APCs and 2.88 log CFU/g for EB counts. APCs decreased to 1.63 log CFU/g and EB were not detected after gelatinization, but their levels slightly increased upon cooling, cutting, ripening, freezing, thawing, and separating. The reuse of cooling and coating water would be a critical source of microbial increase after cooling. After drying, APCs and EB counts decreased to 5.05 log CFU/g and 2.74 log CFU/g, respectively, and the levels were maintained to final products. These results suggest that the cooling process is a critical control point for microbiological safety, and the cooling water should be treated and controlled to prevent cross contamination by pre-requisite program.

Quality Characteristics of Pound Cake with Citrus mandarin Powder during Storage (감귤 분말을 첨가한 파운드케이크의 저장 중 품질 특성)

  • Park, Yeong-Sun;Shin, Sol;Shin, Gil-Man
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.1022-1031
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    • 2008
  • Pound cakes were prepared with Citrus mandarin powder(CMP) cultivated in JeJu Island, Korea. The impact of CMP amount level, which was incorporated into wheat flour by the ration of 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% based on a flour weight, on the rheology and sensory profile of the pound cakes was measured. Moisture content of 13.70%, crude protein 5.12%, crude lipid 1.30%, crud ash 1.92%, respectively. Also evaluation was performed on the changes in physicochemical properties of the pound cakes during storage at 4 and $30^{\circ}C$. According to the amylogram, gelatinization temperature of the control dough was $63.35^{\circ}C$ and those of the dough with CMP were $63.85{\sim}66.55^{\circ}C$. Maximum viscosity of the dough was 686 B.U in the control, those were 575 B.U, 553 B.U, 504 B.U and 401 B.U in the dough with 5, 10, 15, and 20% CMP, respectively. The retrogradation degree(setback value) of CMP dough was $31{\sim}57%$ lower than that of the control dough under the same conditions. Water holding capacity of pound cake was increased gradually in proportion to the amount of CMP. The CMP addition decreased the brightuess(L) of pound cakes but increased redness(a) and yellowness(b). Hardness of pound cakes was significantly increased by CMP addition, while springiness, adhesiveness and cohesiveness were decreased. Based on sensory evaluation, pound cakes added with CMP were not significantly different in color and texture, while that of 10% CMP was significantly high in taste, flavor, and overall preferences, compared to the control. pH of pound cake with CMP was decreased during storage, showing that pH of CMP samples was lower than the control. Titrated acidity of pound cake with CMP was increased rapidly from storage for 10 days, which the changes in degree was fast in accordance with CMP amount. The Hunter's color value of pound cake with CMP was decreased, as the storage time proceeded. In the samples prepared with CMP, the firmness, adhesiveness, gumminess and chewiness was increased as the storage time proceeded, while springiness and cohesiveness was decreased.

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Effect of Mushroom (Lentinus Tuber-Regium) Powder on the Bread Making Properties of Wheat Flour (버섯(Lentinus Tuber-Regium)분말 첨가가 제빵 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Min-Jeong;Kyung, Kyu-Hang;Chang, Hak-Gil
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.32-37
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    • 2004
  • Effects of mushroom powder on physicochemical characteristics of dough and bread-making properties were studied. In mixogram test, addition of 2-10% mushroom powder increased water absorption from 67,0 to 79%. Peak time, peak height, band width, and seven minute height of mushroom-wheat flour composite were similar to those of control. Sedimentation and P.K. values decreased with increasing amount of mushroom powder In amylogram test, no significant difference was observed in gelatinization temperature between control and mushroom powder-added dough. Peak viscosity increased with increasing amount of mushroom powder, Highest loaf volume was attained when 2 and 4% mushroom powders were added, whereas decreased above 6%. Bread weight and L value of crust increased with increasing amount of mushroom powder whereas 'a' value decreased. As the amount of mushroom powder increased, L value of crumb color decreased. No significant difference in springiness and adhesiveness was observed between control and mushroom-wheat composite flour bread whereas chewiness and gumminess, increased with increasing amount of mushroom powder, Hardness generally increased as the amount of mushroom powder increased. Mushroom powder caused bread staling at both storage temperatures ($4^{\circ}C\;and\;25^{\circ}C$). Although sensory value decreased with increasing mushroom powder, use of mushroom powder to replace up to 4% wheat flour is recommended in making bread.

Variation of Grain Quality and Grain Filling Rapidity Milyang 23 / Gihobyeo Recombinant Inbred Lines (벼 밀양 23호$\times$기호벼의 재조합 자식계통에서 초기급속등숙과 미질 특성)

  • 곽태순;여준환
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.49 no.3
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    • pp.160-166
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    • 2004
  • This study was carried out to get the basic informations regarding the varietal variations for the physicochemical properties such as protein content, amylose content, fatty acid content, grain quality values and color properties such as lightness value, chroma and hue for the 164 recombinant inbred lines(RILs) of Milyang 23 and Gihobyeo(M/G) at the experimental farm in the Sangji University. The principal component analysis and heritability study were conducted for this experiments. The rapidity of grain filling(RCF) for the 164 M/G RILs could be classified into four groups such as slow maturing group less than 41%, mid-slow maturing group 41∼60%, fast maturing group 61∼80% and very fast maturing group more than 81% based on the rapidity of grain filling rate. The slow maturing group of RGF showed a little bit higher protein content 9.1%, compared to the other RGF groups. However, the amylose content of all the RGF groups revealed the same content by the groups. The very fast maturing group of RGF showed longer grain length in brown rice compared to other RGF varietal groups, in case of grain width in brown rice showed shorter than any other groups. The alkali digestive value which was so much related to gelatinization temperature showed 3.40 degree at fast maturing group of RGF in M/G RILs. However, the very fast maturing group of RGF revealed 4.31 degree of alkali digestive value. The principal component analysis was performed by the chemical and color properties such as quality value, protein content, amylose content, alkali digestive value, fatty acid content, lightness value, chroma and hue for M/G RILs. The first principal component was able to explained upto 36% to total informations. It was corresponded to quality value, protein content, amylose content, fatty acid content, lightness value and a-value(green -1 red). The characters regarding grain quality showed high heritable properties more than 75% of heritability, but color characters appeared relatively lower heritability compared to grain quality.

Effect of microwave radiation on physical special quality of normal, high amylose and waxy corn starches (마이크로웨이브를 조사한 옥수수전분의 물리적 특성변화)

  • Lee Su Jin;Choe Yeong Hui
    • Journal of Applied Tourism Food and Beverage Management and Research
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.113-125
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    • 2004
  • Effect of microwave radiation on physico-chemical properties of cor'n starches was studied. Waxy com, com and high amylose com starches of varying moisture content(20~35%) were subjected to microwave processing(2450MHz) at $120^{\circ}$ and the experimental starch samples were examined by a X-ray diffractometry, rapid viscosity analyzer(RVA) and. with the samples in temperature was observed and the peaks of high amylose com starches at $2^{\circ}$=5.0, 15.0 and $23.0^{\circ}$, were disappeared indicating the melting of crystallines while those of com and waxy com had not changed. A change in gelatinization pattern was observed in the case of corn starches from type A with nearly no peak-viscosity and breakdown to type C. Except a decreased viscosity, no change was observed in those of waxy com starches.

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Cooking and textural properties of specialty germinated brown rices (기능성 쌀 품종 발아현미의 취반 및 식감특성)

  • Cho, Dong-Hwa;Park, Hye-Young;Lee, Seuk-Ki;Park, Jiyoung;Choi, Hye-Sun;Woo, Koan-Sik;Kim, Hyun-Joo;Sim, Eun-Yeong;Ahn, Eok-Keun;Oh, Sea-Kwan
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.49 no.6
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    • pp.575-583
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    • 2017
  • Germination is a well-known economical technique that has been utilized to enhance the nutritional value of brown rice. Owing to its higher nutritive quality, germinated brown rice has received significant attention in the past decade. In this study, the physicochemical and cooking properties of specialty brown rice (SBR) were analyzed before and after germination. Germination enhanced cooking properties such as water absorption, expanded volume, and increased solid solubility of cooked SBR. The SBR texture measured using tensipresser, was significantly improved by germination. The hardness of cooked SBR was decreased by germination, but stickiness was increased. Pasting analysis of the SBR flours revealed a decrease in all viscosity values (peak viscosity, breakdown, setback, and final viscosity) after germination. However, the gelatinization temperature remains unchanged upon germination. Additionally, amylose content and amylopectin chain length distribution of SBR starch were slightly changed by germination. These results indicate that germination leads to a substantial improvement in the cooking properties and texture of SBR.

The Additional Effects of Various Materials on Microwave Heating Property of Frozen Dough (품질개량제 첨가가 냉동반죽의 Microwave 가열특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Eun-Mi;Han, Hye-Kyung;Kim, In-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.37 no.6
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    • pp.873-881
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    • 2005
  • This study was conducted to improve the properties of frozen dough foods (buns and noodles etc.) on the quality deterioration with microwave oven cooking. Microwave is a useful cooking method, but it quickly takes moisture from food surface and makes lowering food quality abruptly. For improvement of these problems, mixing doughs with addition of various additives of 34 types manufactured respectively; starches, modified starches, gums and emulsifiers etc. Each mixing dough produced in sheet type $(30{\times}30{\times}1mm)$ and steamed them, was quickly froze at $-70^{\circ}C$ and packed with polyethylene. Packed samples kept at $-20^{\circ}C$ for 48 hours. After they were steam or microwave treatment packed or non-packed with polyethylene, studied for improvement effects of quality as sensory evaluation and selected 6 type additives; modified starches (TA, ST), gums (AR, GA) and emulsifiers (E, S1) as improvement agent. Because moisture loss from microwave oven cooking leads to quality deterioration of frozen dough foods, additive, such as including starches, modified starch, gums, and emusifiers were added to improve dough properties. Amylogram, scanning electron microscopy, textural analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry revealed addition of additives improved textural properties including surface-hardening of frozen dough foods compared to the control.

The Comparative Understanding between Red Ginseng and White Ginsengs, Processed Ginsengs (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) (홍삼과 백삼의 비교 고찰)

  • Nam, Ki-Yeul
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.1-18
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    • 2005
  • Ginseng Radix, the root of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer has been used in Eastern Asia for 2000 years as a tonic and restorative, promoting health and longevity. Two varieties are commercially available: white ginseng(Ginseng Radix Alba) is produced by air-drying the root, while red ginseng(Ginseng Radix Rubra) is produced by steaming the root followed by drying. These two varieties of different processing have somewhat differences by heat processing between them. During the heat processing for preparing red ginseng, it has been found to exhibit inactivation of catabolic enzymes, thereby preventing deterioration of ginseng quality and the increased antioxidant-like substances which inhibit lipid peroxide formation, and also good gastro-intestinal absorption by gelatinization of starch. Moreover, studies of changes in ginsenosides composition due to different processing of ginseng roots have been undertaken. The results obtained showed that red ginseng differ from white ginseng due to the lack of acidic malonyl-ginsenosides. The heating procedure in red ginseng was proved to degrade the thermally unstable malonyl-ginsenoside into corresponding netural ginsenosides. Also the steaming process of red ginseng causes degradation or transformation of neutral ginsenosides. Ginsenosides $Rh_2,\;Rh_4,\;Rs_3,\;Rs_4\;and\;Rg_5$, found only in red ginseng, have been known to be hydrolyzed products derived from original saponin by heat processing, responsible for inhibitory effects on the growth of cancer cells through the induction of apoptosis. 20(S)-ginsenoside $Rg_3$ was also formed in red ginseng and was shown to exhibit vasorelaxation properties, antimetastatic activities, and anti-platelet aggregation activity. Recently, steamed red ginseng at high temperature was shown to provide enhance the yield of ginsenosides $Rg_3\;and\;Rg_5$ characteristic of red ginseng Additionally, one of non-saponin constituents, panaxytriol, was found to be structually transformed from polyacetylenic alcohol(panaxydol) showing cytotoxicity during the preparation of red ginseng and also maltol, antioxidant maillard product, from maltose and arginyl-fructosyl-glucose, amino acid derivative, from arginine and maltose. In regard to the in vitro and in vivo comparative biological activities, red ginseng was reported to show more potent activities on the antioxidant effect, anticarcinogenic effect and ameliorative effect on blood circulation than those of white ginseng. In oriental medicine, the ability of red ginseng to supplement the vacancy(허) was known to be relatively stronger than that of white ginseng, but very few are known on its comparative clinical studies. Further investigation on the preclinical and clinical experiments are needed to show the differences of indications and efficacies between red and white ginsengs on the basis of oriental medicines.