• Title, Summary, Keyword: gelatinization

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The Effect of Heating Rate by Ohmic Heating on Rheological Property of Corn Starch Suspension (Ohmic Heating에 의한 가열속도 변화가 옥수수전분의 물성특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Seok-Hun;Jang, Jae-Kweon;Pyun, Yu-Ryang
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.438-442
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    • 2005
  • Granule swelling is essential phenomenon of starch gelatinization in excess water, and characteristic of heated starch dispersion depends largely on size and distribution of swelled starch granule. Although swelling characteristic of starch granules depends on type of starch, heating rate, and moisture content, influence of heating rate on swelling phenomenon of starch granule has not been fully discussed, because constant heating rate of starch dispersion cannot be obtained by conventional heating method. Ohmic heating, electric-resistant heat generation method, applies alternative current to food materials, through which heating rate can be easily controlled precisely and conveniently at wide range of constant heating rates. Starch dispersion heated at low heating rates below $7.5^{\circ}C/min$ showed Newtonian fluid behavior, whereas showed pseudoplastic behavior at heating rates above $16.4^{\circ}C/min$. Apparent viscosity of starch dispersion increased linearly with increasing heating rate, and yield stress was dramatically increased at heating rates above $16.4^{\circ}C/min$. Average diameter of corn starch granules during ohmic heating was dramatically increased from $30.97\;to\;37.88\;{\mu}m$ by increasing heating rate from $0.6\;to\;16.4^{\circ}C/min$ (raw corn starch: $13.7\;{\mu}m$). Hardness of starch gel prepared with 15% corn starch dispersion after heating to $90^{\circ}C$ at different heating rates decreased gradually with increasing heating rate, then showed nearly constant value from $9.4\;to\;23.2^{\circ}C/min$. Hardness increased with increase of heating rate higher than $23.2^{\circ}C/min$.

Optimizing Ingredients Mixing Ratio of Mungbean Pancake (빈대떡의 재료혼합비율의 최적화)

  • Lee, J.H.;Shin, E.S.;Kweon, B.M.;Ryu, H.S.;Jang, D.H.
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.34 no.8
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    • pp.1274-1283
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    • 2005
  • The sensory acceptability, texture profile analysis and nutritional evaluation were peformed in Korean traditional mungbean pancake (MPC) and modified MPC containing squid meat and soybean to standardize the recipes for healthy fast food market potentiality. Optimal ingredient formulations were revealed as mung-bean 55$\%$, pork 13$\%$ and vegetables 32$ \%$ for traditional MPC, and pork 3$\%$, squid 42$\%$ and soybean 55$\%$ for modified MPC using response surface methodology. Flavor and hardness correlated highly with overall accept-ability rather than appearance and color of traditional MPC. Higher squid levels raised adhesiveness, springi-ness and resiliences of modified MPC, but soybean decreased these textural attributes. Protein, lipid and total calorie of modified MPC were lower than those of traditional MPC. Computed protein efficiency ratio (C-PER) and degree of gelatinization of modified MPC were superior than traditional MPC.

Changes in Quality Properties of Fermented Waxy Rice Paste of Yakchobugak as Affected by Lactic Acid Bacteria and Waxy Rice Powder (유산균 종류와 찹쌀가루의 호화온도 및 발효시간에 따른 약초부각 발효풀의 품질특성 변화)

  • Ko, Young-Ran;Shon, Mi-Yae;Kim, Yun-Geun;Chung, Kyung-Sook;Wang, Su-Bin;Park, Seok-Kyu
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.201-210
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    • 2009
  • This study was undertaken to investigate the quality properties of yakchobugak as affected by lactic acid bacteria and waxy rice paste for improving palatability of yakchobugak of Agastache rugosa. Total sugar contents of lactic acid bacteria-fermenting waxy rice paste gelatinized at $90^{\circ}C$ were higher than that of $70^{\circ}C$. Reducing sugar contents were $2{\sim}5$ times higher in $70^{\circ}C$ waxy rice paste than in $90^{\circ}C$ waxy rice paste and increased as the fermentation progressed. Total acidity of waxy rice pastes gelatinized at $70^{\circ}C$ and fermented for 15 hours were $2.7{\sim}1.3$ times higher than at $90^{\circ}C$, and then Lactococcus lactis had the lowest total acidity during fermentation. Viscosity of fermented paste (VFP) were lower than those of raw paste. VFPs gelatinized at $90^{\circ}C$ were markedly higher than those at $70^{\circ}C$ over 28% concentration. In L. lactis and Lactobacillus plantarum, VFPs fermented for 15 hours were over $2{\sim}3$ times lower than those fermented for 40 hours. Hunter's color lightness (L) and yellowness (b) were decreased according to the elevation of gelatinization temperature and fermentation time. L. lactis and L. plantarum-producing waxy rice pastes were the uniform micell type with a large air-pore size and amorphous micell type with a small air-pore size, respectively. Based on these results, L. lactis was a lower lactic acid-producing bacteria as well as uniform air-pore distribution on waxy rice paste. It was found to be a good sourpaste-fermenting strain for enhancement of quality properties of yakchobugak, as revealed through viscosity, total acidity, Hunter's color b value and scanning electron micrographs.

Nutrient Composition and Physicochemical Properties of Korean Taro Flours According to Cultivars (품종별 국내산 토란 분말의 영양성분 및 이화학적 특성)

  • Moon, Ji-Hye;Kim, Ro-Sa;Choi, Hee-Don;Kim, Yoon-Sook
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.42 no.5
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    • pp.613-619
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    • 2010
  • Three varieties of taro flours (Altoran, Josaengjong, and Jaeraejong) were analyzed to evaluate their nutrient composition and physicochemical properties. Moisture contents of the three taro cultivars varied from 5.74-10.30%. Among the three cultivars, Altoran flour had higher protein and fat contents than other cultivars. There were 17 kinds of amino acids in the three taro flours. The major fatty acids in the three taro flours were linoleic acid (46.5-51.4%), palmitic acid (21.7-25.8%), and oleic acid (12.3-18.7%), and two thirds of the total fatty acids were unsaturated fatty acids. Potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, and calcium were the most plentiful minerals in the three taro flours, and the free sugars were glucose, fructose, and sucrose. The total dietary fiber contents of the three taro flours ranged from 12.97 to 17.60%. From these results, Altoran contained a high level of dietary fiber, minerals, essential amino acids, and free sugars. Jaeraejong showed the highest water absorption index. The water soluble index of Altoran was higher than that of the other cultivars. From the differential scanning calorimeter results, the gelatinization temperatures of the three taro flours were $84.98-89.91^{\circ}C$. The pasting temperature of the three taro flours was from 46.77 to $49.30^{\circ}C$ by rapid visco-analyzer. Among these varieties, Josaengjong had the highest peak viscosity and final viscosity, whereas Altoran had the lowest. These taro cultivars are expected to be potential material for application in taro processed foods, due to their gelatination and pasting properties.

Exploration of optimum conditions for production of saccharogenic mixed grain beverages and assessment of anti-diabetic activity (잡곡당화음료 제조 최적 조건 탐색 및 항당뇨 활성 평가)

  • Lee, Jae Sung;Kang, Yun Hwan;Kim, Kyoung Kon;Yun, Yeong Kyeong;Lim, Jun Gu;Kim, Tae Woo;Kim, Dae Jung;Won, Sang Yeon;Bae, Moo Hoan;Choi, Han Seok;Choe, Myeon
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.47 no.1
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    • pp.12-22
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: This study was conducted to establish the production conditions through optimization of the production process of beverages using Aspergillus oryzae CF1001, and to analyze volatile compounds and antidiabetic activity. Methods: The optimum condition was selected using the response surface methodology (RSM), through a regression analysis with the following independent variables gelatinization temperature (GT, $X_1$), saccharogenic time (ST, $X_2$), and dependent variable; ${\Delta}E$ value (y). The condition with the lowest ${\Delta}E$ value occurred with combined 45 min ST and $50^{\circ}C$ GT. The volatile compounds were analyzed quantitatively by GC-MS. Results: Assessment of antidiabetic activity of saccharogenic mixed grain beverage (SMGB) was determined by measurement of ${\alpha}$-glucosidase inhibition activity, and glucose uptake activity and glucose metabolic protein expression by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analysis. Results of volatile compounds analysis, 62 kinds of volatile compounds were detected in SMGB. Palmitic acid (9.534% ratio), benzaldehyde (8.948% ratio), benzyl ethyl ether (8.792% ratio), ethyl alcohol (8.35% ratio), and 2-amyl furan (4.826% ratio) were abundant in SMGB. We confirmed that ${\alpha}$-glucosidase inhibition activity, glucose uptake activity, and glucose-metabolic proteins were upregulated by SMGB treatment with concentration dependent manner. Conclusion: Saccharogenic mixed grain beverage (SMGB) showed potential antidiabetic activity. Further studies will be needed in order to improve the taste and functionality of SMGB.

Physicochemical properties of spray-dried rice flour with Lactobacillus plantarum CGKW3 (분무건조공정을 이용한 유산균포집 미분의 제조 및 물리화학적 특성)

  • Park, Hye-Mi;Lee, Dae-Hoon;Jeong, Yoo-Seok;Jung, Hee-Kyoung;Cho, Jae-Gon;Hong, Joo-Heon
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.392-398
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    • 2015
  • The physicochemical properties of spray-dried rice flour with Lactobacillus plantarum CGKW3 were investigated. Amylose and damaged starch contents of spray-dried rice flour (S10, S20, S30, and S50) with L. plantarum CGKW3 were 14.18~17.75% and 24.65~34.08%, respectively. The particle size of spray-dried rice flour was $82.28{\sim}131.17{\mu}m$. The rice flour with L. plantarum CGKW3 showed a good powder flowability. The water absorption and water solubility of spray-dried rice flour were 1.96~2.13 and 9.91~21.95%, respectively. Thermal properties measured by differential scanning calorimeter revealed that the enthalpy (${\Delta}H$) for starch gelatinization were highest in the rice flour (S50) with L. plantarum CGKW3. When compared, the viable cell number of spray-dried rice flour were found to be in the following order: S10 (5.78 log CFU/g) < S20 (6.38 log CFU/g) < S30 (6.69 log CFU/g) < S50 (7.11 log CFU/g). The survaival rate of L. plantarum CGKW3 was 60.02-73.85%, which reflected the improvement in the quality of rice flour with an increase in treatment concentration. Based on our results, spray-dried rice flour with L. plantarum CGKW3 could be used in various types of rice foods.

Comparison on Physicochemical and Cooking Properties of Milled Kernel in Waxy Corn Hybrids (찰옥수수쌀의 품종별 이화학특성 및 취반특성)

  • Lee, Yu Young;Lee, Choon-Ki;Lee, Jin-Suk;Kim, Mi-Jung;Kim, Sun-Lim;Kim, Yul-Ho;Park, Hyang Mi;Kim, Wook-Han;Kwon, Young-Up;Kim, Sung Kook
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.58 no.4
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    • pp.424-431
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    • 2013
  • Consumption of waxy corn is steadily increasing due to consumer preference for natural food. However, availability of waxy corn is limited because most of them are used for steamed waxy corn. It is therefore important to create new demands of waxy corn using food processing technology. There is little prior research about characteristics of milled kernel in waxy corn. This study examined the physicochemical and cooking properties of milled kernel using nine waxy corn hybrids. Colored hybrids (Heukjinju, Miheukchal, and Eolrukchal1) showed high milling yield and low change of grain length after milling process compared to other hybrids. The total starch content ranged from 62.1 to 68.4% and the gelatinization temperature of starch was lowest in Yeonnong1 ($69.9^{\circ}C$). The breakdown viscosity of Yeonnong1, Miheukchal and Heukjinju was higher than those of tested hybrids, whereas setback viscosity of those hybrids was lower. In cooking properties of milled waxy corn, water absorption and volume expansion rate were high in Yeonnong2 (84.9, 219.3%), Miheukchal (85.9, 211.4%), and Heukjinju (80.9, 203.7%). In the sensory test, the overall preference was significantly higher in Heukjinju and Miheukchal. Thus, Heukjinju, Yeonnong2, and Miheukchal showed good scores in milling yield, cooking properties, and the preference of sensory test. These results will provide fundamental information to extend milled waxy corns usage.

Changes of Physical Characteristics of Cooked Rice by Pressure Cooking (가압취반시(加壓炊飯時) 미반(米飯)의 물성변화(物性變化)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Kim, Dong Woo;Chang, Kyu Seob
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.97-107
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    • 1981
  • This study was carried out in order to provide the basic data necessary to develop the effective and desirable cooking method on large scale for investigating the physical characteristics of cooked rices and studying optimum cooking conditions by pressure in kettle cooking rices. Milyang-15, local Japonica type and Milyang-23, high yielding Indica type major varieties cultivated in Korea were used as cooking sample after polishing 70% and 90% respectively, and the results obtained are summarized as follows. 1. The average moisture content of cooked rice by open kettle and pressure kettle method in typical households were 65.17% and 64.52%, respectively. 2. In water absorption capacity of rice grain Milyang-23 was 4.5% higher than Milyang-15, and maximum water content after absorption in Milyang-23 was 29.14%. 3. The expansion volume of cooked rice was changed proportionally by water absorption, heating temperature and time, and maximum expansion volume of cooked rice was 3.2 times greater than rice grain. 4. The gelatinization degree of cooked rice intensively concerning in hardness of rice grain was increased as water-to-rice ratio, heating temperature and time increased, and it was 0.44 in Milyang-23 and 0.64 in Milyang-15 under the optimum cooking conditions as 160% water-to-rice ratio, $0.2kg/cm^2$ cooking pressure and 25 minutes cooking time. 5. The hardness of cooked rice was decreased as water-to-rice ratio, heating temperature and time increased, and it showed 2.35kg/wt in 90% polished Milyang-23 and 2.0kg/wt in 90 polished Milyang-15 under optimum cooking conditions. For maintaining the same level of hardness of cooking rice Milyang-23 required 25% much more water than Milyang-15. 6. The elasticity of cooked rice was changed proportionally by water-to-rice ratio, heating temperature and time, and it appeared 19.2mm and 15.7mm in 90% polished Milyang-15 and Milyang-23 respectively. 7. The gumminess of cooked rice was decreased as water-to-rice ratio, heating temperature and time increased, and it showed 60 and 73 in 90% polished Milyang-23 and Milyang-15, respectively. 8. The optimum cooking time on differerent pressure in kettle took 25 minutes at $0.2kg/cm^2$, 20 minutes at $0.4kg/cm^2$, 15 minutes at $0.6kg/cm^2$, and 10 minutes at $0.8kg/cm^2$.

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