• Title/Summary/Keyword: gelatinization degree

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Processing Conditions for Protein Enriched Jeung-Pyun (Korean Fermented Rice Cake) (전통증편의 단백질보강에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Byung-Ho;Ryu, Hong-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.21 no.5
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    • pp.525-533
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    • 1992
  • To improve the food quality of traditional Jeung-pyun(Korean fermenfed rice cake), effect of mixed ingredients on the quality of protein enriched product was studied. Changes were evaluated in chemical and textural properties of protein enriched Jeung-pyun altered by fermentation time, temperature, and steaming time. The maximum volume wxpansion was noted in dough mixed with rice flour(100 g), soy flour(25 g), sucrose(20 g), Tak-ju(50 ml) and water(10 ml), and then fermented at $35^{\circ}C$ for 3 hours. Soy protein isolate(SPI) enriched rice dough had a maximum expanded volume when 15g(w/w) of SPI, 20g(w/w) of sucrose, 60ml(v/w) of Tak-ju and 50ml(v/w) of water added into 100g rice flour, and then fermented at $30^{\circ}C$ for 2 hours. Steaming after fermentation made the smaller volume of bulk $45^{\circ}C$-50% of the initial volume be showed just after fermentation. Protein enriched Jeung-pyun prepared under the maximal volume endowing conditions showed the best protein quality(protein digestibility and protein efficiency ratio) and starch structure which was susceptible towards enzyme reaction. The improved starch quality of protein enriched Jeung-pyun could be confirmed by reducing power, gelatinization degree and amylose content. Jeung-pyun riched with soy flour at 20% level or with SPI at 5% showed the best overall quality by sensory and textural property but it had a problem in browning.

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Extrusion Process of Barley Flour for Snack Processing (스낵제조를 위한 보리의 압출성형공정)

  • Mok, Chul-Kyoon;Pyler, R.E.;Mcdonald, C.E.;Nam, Young-Jung;Min, Byong-Yong
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.429-436
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    • 1984
  • To expand the utility of barley the experiments on the extrusion characteristics of barley flour for snack processing were carried out and the effects of the extrusion conditions on the quality of the extrudates were investigated. The optimum moisture content of barley flour for snack processing was 20%. The moisture content and the density of the extrudates decreased with increasing extrusion temperature and decreasing die size. The die swell ranged from 0.98 to 2.18 according to various extrusion conditions and decreased with increasing temperature above $150^{\circ}C$. The lightness, redness and yellowness increased at higher temperature. The water absorption index and the water solubility index showed their maximum values at $180^{\circ}C$.The gelatinization degree of the extrudates increased with increasing temperature. The fracture fore, Young's modulus and maximum fiber stress decreased, but the deformation to fracture increased, with increasing temperature and decreasing die size. The yield force in puncture test showed lower values at higher temperature. The size and the fraction of the air cells increased with increasing temperature and decreasing die size. The optimum extrusion conditions of barley for snack processing were at the temperature of $180^{\circ}C$, with the die size of 4.5mm when processed at 160 rpm.

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Effect of parboiling on the physicochemical properties of immature barley kernels (Parboiling처리가 미숙보리곡립의 이화학적 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Seog, Ho-Moon;Kim, Jong-Sang;Hong, Hee-Do;Kim, Sung-Soo;Kim, Kyung-Tack
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.36 no.6
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    • pp.456-462
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    • 1993
  • Parboiling, a popular technology used to protect rice from nutrient loss during milling and to increase the shelf-life of rice, was applied to barley kernels, and its effect on nutrient retention and chemical composition was evaluated. Before 36 days after ear emergence, barley kernels showed water content higher than 40%, and parboiling without presoaking resulted in at least 43% of gelatinization degree. This implies that soaking, an important step of parboiling, is dispensable for barley at milky stage. Parboiling did make little change in the appearance of the kernel after 31 days from ear emergence. Nonreducing sugars such as sucrose and raffinose remained unchanged while reducing sugars of barley was decreased by parboiling, with exception that maltose increased. Pearling led to decrease in crude protein, fat, fiber and minerals of barley sampled and parboiled on 36th day from ear emergence. Free sugars in the parboiled barley also was reduced with increasing pearling rate. Vitamin $B_1$ content of the parboiled barley was $260\;{\mu}g\;per\;100\;g$ as dry basis at 50% pearling rate, compared to $36\;{\mu}g$ for raw barley at same pearling rate. Thus parboiling appeared to be very effective in the retention of vitamin $B_1$ during pearling.

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Determination of the energy contents and nutrient digestibility of corn, waxy corn and steam-flaked corn fed to growing pigs

  • Ma, Dongli;Li, Juntao;Huang, Chengfei;Yang, Fengjuan;Wu, Yi;Liu, Ling;Jiang, Wei;Jia, Zhicheng;Zhang, Peijun;Liu, Xuezhen;Zhang, Shuai
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.10
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    • pp.1573-1579
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    • 2019
  • Objective: The research was conducted to determine the digestible (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) contents as well as the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients in corn, waxy corn and steam-flaked corn fed to growing pigs. Methods: Eighteen growing pigs with initial body weight of $15.42{\pm}1.41kg$ were randomly allotted to three diets including a corn diet, a waxy corn diet and a steam-flaked corn diet in a completely randomized design. Each treatment contained six replicates. The experiment lasted for 12 days, which comprised 7-d adaptation to diets followed by a 5-d total collection of feces and urine. The energy contents and the nutrient digestibility in three ingredients were calculated using direct method. Results: Compared to normal corn, both the amylose and dietary fiber contents in waxy corn were numerically lower, but the starch gelatinization degree was numerically greater. Moreover, the DE and ME contents as well as the ATTD of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber (ADF) in waxy corn were significantly greater (p<0.05) than those in normal corn when fed to growing pigs. Furthermore, the steam-flaked corn had greater (p<0.05) DE and ME contents, and ATTD of ether extract and ADF compared to normal corn. Conclusion: Both variety and processing procedure have influence on chemical compositions, energy contents and nutrient digestibility of corn. The waxy corn and steam-flaked corn had greater degree of starch gelatinization and DE and ME contents compared to normal corn when fed to growing pigs.

Changes of Physical Characteristics of Cooked Rice by Pressure Cooking (가압취반시(加壓炊飯時) 미반(米飯)의 물성변화(物性變化)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Kim, Dong Woo;Chang, Kyu Seob
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.97-107
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    • 1981
  • This study was carried out in order to provide the basic data necessary to develop the effective and desirable cooking method on large scale for investigating the physical characteristics of cooked rices and studying optimum cooking conditions by pressure in kettle cooking rices. Milyang-15, local Japonica type and Milyang-23, high yielding Indica type major varieties cultivated in Korea were used as cooking sample after polishing 70% and 90% respectively, and the results obtained are summarized as follows. 1. The average moisture content of cooked rice by open kettle and pressure kettle method in typical households were 65.17% and 64.52%, respectively. 2. In water absorption capacity of rice grain Milyang-23 was 4.5% higher than Milyang-15, and maximum water content after absorption in Milyang-23 was 29.14%. 3. The expansion volume of cooked rice was changed proportionally by water absorption, heating temperature and time, and maximum expansion volume of cooked rice was 3.2 times greater than rice grain. 4. The gelatinization degree of cooked rice intensively concerning in hardness of rice grain was increased as water-to-rice ratio, heating temperature and time increased, and it was 0.44 in Milyang-23 and 0.64 in Milyang-15 under the optimum cooking conditions as 160% water-to-rice ratio, $0.2kg/cm^2$ cooking pressure and 25 minutes cooking time. 5. The hardness of cooked rice was decreased as water-to-rice ratio, heating temperature and time increased, and it showed 2.35kg/wt in 90% polished Milyang-23 and 2.0kg/wt in 90 polished Milyang-15 under optimum cooking conditions. For maintaining the same level of hardness of cooking rice Milyang-23 required 25% much more water than Milyang-15. 6. The elasticity of cooked rice was changed proportionally by water-to-rice ratio, heating temperature and time, and it appeared 19.2mm and 15.7mm in 90% polished Milyang-15 and Milyang-23 respectively. 7. The gumminess of cooked rice was decreased as water-to-rice ratio, heating temperature and time increased, and it showed 60 and 73 in 90% polished Milyang-23 and Milyang-15, respectively. 8. The optimum cooking time on differerent pressure in kettle took 25 minutes at $0.2kg/cm^2$, 20 minutes at $0.4kg/cm^2$, 15 minutes at $0.6kg/cm^2$, and 10 minutes at $0.8kg/cm^2$.

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