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Study on the Color Characteristics of Korean Red (한국산 적포도주의 색도 변화에 관한 연구 (II))

  • Lee, Jang-Eun;Shin, Yong-Sub;Sim, Jun-Ki;Kim, Sung-Soo;Koh, Kyung-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.164-169
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    • 2002
  • Five kinds of red wine from three different grape varieties, such as Gerbong (G), Campbell (C), Moru (M), Gerbong+Moru (70:30, GM), and Gerbong+Campbell(70:30, GC) were prepared in the year of 2000. The total phenolic content and color changes were monitored using hunter colorimeter and spectrophotometry methods during wine processing. The total phenolic content of Gerbong (G), Campbell (C), Moru (M), Gerbong+Moru(70:30, GM), and Gerbong+Campbell(70:30, GC) were 712.6 mg/L, 3472.9 mg/L, 2209.4 mg/L, 2019.4 mg/L, and 1184.5 mg/L, respectively. Between total phenolic content and hunter colorimeter value (L, a, and b) of red wine showed no significant difference, but that of spectrophotometry color value (hue and intensity) were significantly different (p<0.001). The total phenolic content, hue, and intensity values represented significantly different between grape varieties (p<0.01, p<0.001). the hue showed a negative correlation relationship $(r^2=0.8660,\;p<0.0001)$, and that of intensity was a positive $(r^2=0.8304,\;p<0.0001)$ between total phenolic contents. The total phenolic content of red wine could be estimated simply using these equations, $Y_{Total\;phenolic\;content\;(mg/L)}=3319.3-X_{Hue}/2208.36,\;and\;Y_{Total\;phenolic\;content\;(mg/L)}=1230.97-X_{intensity}/98.93$

Effect of Pressing Methods on the Quality of Grape Juices (압착방법별 포도 착즙액의 품질특성)

  • 최희돈;김성수;김경탁;홍희도;김상희
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.203-208
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    • 2002
  • The physicochemical and sensory properties of Campbell Early and Gerbong juices prepared by various pressing methods were studied. The yields of these juices by mixed method were 83.5% and 87.5%, the highest value of various pressing methods. And soluble solids and amino nitrogens of them decreased as heating temperature increased and was lowest when mixed method was performed. Titratable acidities of Campbell Early juice was 0.86∼1.00%, higher than that of Gerbong juice, 0.60~o.69%. Also the strength of astringent taste and sour taste of Campbell Early and Gerbong juice increased as heating temperature increased, and increased strength of these tastes gave good sensory evaluation to grape juices.

The Chemical Characteristics of Korean Red Wine with Different Grape Varieties (포도품종을 달리한 적포도주의 이화학적 성분변화 (I))

  • Lee, Jang-Eun;Won, Yoo-Dong;Kim, Sung-Soo;Koh, Kyung-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.151-156
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    • 2002
  • Five kinds of red wine from three different grape varieties, Gerbong (G), Campbell (C), Moru (M), Gerbong+Moru (70:30, GM) and Gerbong+Campbell (70:30, GC), were prepared. Their chemical and microbiological changes were monitored during alcohol fermentation and aging. The changes of pH, brix and total acidity were $3.2{\sim}3.6,\;17.9{\sim}6.0$ and $2.4{\sim}4.6\;g/L$, respectively. The viable cell numbers of initial, stationary and death phases were $6.0{\times}10^6,\;1.0{\times}10^8$ and $7.0{\times}10^5\;cfu/mL$ during alcohol fermentation. The sugar fermentability, glucose and fructose contents were greatly decreased less than 0.2 g/L, and the final contents of ethanol and sulfur dioxide were $11.4{\sim}12.3%$ and $40{\sim}62\;mg/L$, respectively. The conversion ratios of malic acid to lactic acid were 23% (G), 67% (M), 28% (C), 33% (GM) and 39% (GC). The chemical characteristics of five red wine were significantly different in pH, total acidity, sulfur dioxide and lactic acid contents (p<0.05).

A Study on the Sensory Characteristics of Korean Red Wine (한국산 적포도주의 관능적 특성에 관한 연구 (III))

  • Lee, Jang-Eun;Hong, Hee-Do;Choi, Hee-Don;Shin, Yong-Sub;Won, Yoo-Dong;Kim, Sung-Soo;Koh, Kyung-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.841-848
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    • 2003
  • The sensory characteristics of red wine Gerbong (G), Campbell (C), Moru (M), Gerbong + Moru (70 : 30, GM), Gerbong + Campbell (70 : 30, GC) and French wine (F, Carbernet Sauvignon, 1998) were evaluated. The preferences of color, flavor, taste and total evaluation were determined by a ranking test, and the organoleptic characteristics were evaluated by a quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) method. The mean color scores of C, GM, F, GC, M and G were 4.74, 3.94, 4.67, 3.70, 2.65 and 1.47, respectively (p<0.001). The order for the mean score for flavor was GM (4.12) = M (3.94) = C (3.76) = F (3.76) ${\geq}$ GC (3.12)>G (2.29) (p<0.01), and the order for taste was F (4.75) ${\geq}$ C (4.25) ${\geq}$ GM (3.37) = GC (3.50) ${\geq}$ G (2.75) = M (2.37) (p<0.001). The total evaluation of mean scores showed G, M, C, GM, GC and F were 237, 2.44, 4.06, 3.87, 3.64 and 4.81, respectively (p<0.001). Influences of sensory characteristics on the total evaluation, in percentages, were 69.3% for taste, 3.7% for color, and 1.5% for flavor. The influences of taste, color, and flavor in red wine were 17% for sweet, acid, bitter and salty taste, 28.9% for purple and red color, and 14.4% for grape flavor. The attributes of the purple and red colors showed a positive correlation with grape flavor, oak flavor, grape taste, and floral tastes, but a negative correlation with $SO_2$, flavor. The attribute of sweet taste showed a positive correlation with grape flavorand floral flavor, but a negative correlation with bitter and astringency tastes, according to Pearsons correlation analysis (p<0.01).

Contents of Resveratrol in Different Parts of Grapes (국내산 포도의 부위별 레스베라트롤 함량)

  • Cho, Yong-Jin;Kim, Jae-Eun;Chun, Hyang-Sook;Kim, Chong-Tai;Kim, Sung-Soo;Kim, Chul-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.306-308
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    • 2003
  • Contents of resveratrol in different parts of Gerbong, Campbell, and Sheridan grapes were measured through HPLC analysis. Resveratrol contents in the flesh, skin, seed, and fruit stem of each grape showed significant differences, whereas little difference was observed among the cultivars. In fruit stem, and skin and seed, resveratrol contents were 170 to 440 and 4 to $8\;{\mu}g/g-dry$ weight, respectively, an indication that the fruit stem may be a good resource for resveratrol production.

Incidence of Severe Crown Gall Disease on Tetraploid Cultivars of Grape in Korea

  • Park, Kwang-Hoon;Jeong, Kyu-Sik;Cha, Jae-Soon
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.290-293
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    • 2000
  • The main grape producing regions in Korea were surveyed for the occurrence and relative incidence of crown gall disease on grapevine. The results of the survey showed that the disease tended to affect tetraploid cultivars, which produce a large and sweet fruit but are very weak to cold weather. Incidence of crown gall disease was high on the tetraploid cultivars, Kyoho (Gerbong), Daebong, and Black Olympia while it was low on the diploid cultivars, Cambell Early and Sheridan. The disease incidence was very high on Anseong, Cheonan, and Chincheon, where the major growing areas of tetraploid cultivars and grapevines were burried in the winter to protect from freeze injury, whereas it was low in Yungdong, Kimcheon, and Nonsan. Crown gall disease did not increased with grapevine age on both Cambell Early and Kyoho. It remained low in Cambell Early, but high for all ages on Kyoho, Galls were found on the crown region and mid part of the trunk, but more galls were on small branches and canes on Kyoho grapevines. More than one third of ZKyoho grapevines inspected had galls on multiple locations on grapevines. On Kyoho, 56.3% of the galls covered more than 50% of the crown gall disease affects severely on the cultivar.

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Development of Korean Red Wines Using Various Grape Varieties and Preference Measurement (포도 품종을 달리한 한국산 포도주의 제조 및 기호도 분석)

  • Lee, Seung-Joo;Lee, Jang-Eun;Kim, Sung-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.36 no.6
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    • pp.911-918
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    • 2004
  • Three dry red, four sweet red, and two white wines were prepared with domestic grape varieties: Gerbong (G), Campbell Early (C), Muscat Bailey A (M), Seredan (Sd), Seibel (Sb), and Neo-muscat (N). Sample wines were analyzed for titratable acidity, ethanol, pH, sugar content, color intensity and hue, and total phenolic content. Preferences of color, aroma, and overall acceptability were determined by 97 panelists using 9-point hedonic scale. Sweetness, sourness, astringency levels of developed wines were evaluated using 9-point just-about-right (JAR) scale. Mean overall acceptability score of C (6.49) was highest among dry red wines (p<0.05). Among sweet red wines, mean overall acceptability score of Sd (3.27) was significantly lower than those of other wines (p<0.05). In white wines, overall acceptability score of Sb (5.20) was slightly higher than that of N (4.92). Overall sourness levels in dry red wines were higher than optimum level. Based on the results, should be lowered, and sweetness and sourness levels of white wines need to be adjusted sweetness levels of C, G, and Sd for the production of sweer redwines. C and M varieties were considered to be suitable for Korean red wine production.

Enrichment of Resveratrol Content in Harvested Grape using Modulation of Cell Metabolism with UV Treatment (수확 후 포도의 UV 처리 세포대사조절에 의한 레스베라트롤 함량 강화)

  • Cho, Yong-Jin;Maeng, Jin-Soo;Kim, Chong-Tai;Pyee, Jae-Ho
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.21 no.5
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    • pp.739-745
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    • 2011
  • This study was performed to investigate the enrichment of resveratrol content in harvested grapes using the modulation of cell metabolism with ultra-violet (UV) irradiation. Resveratrol, a phytoalexin, is produced by stilbene synthase (STSY) from malonyl-CoA and ${\rho}$-coumaroyl-CoA. Its biosynthesis has been reported to be induced by UV and other environmental factors. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that STSY Promoter 1 in grapes was very highly expressed by treatment with UV. Grapes were harvested and treated for post-harvest induction of STSY gene expression with UV, and then their resveratrol content was analyzed. UV treatment for 5 minutes provided the best condition for the induction of STSY gene expression. When harvested Gerbong and MBA grapes were treated with a prototype UV radiator, their resveratrol content was enriched upto 5 times compared with untreated grapes. These results suggest that a post-harvest UV treatment can be applied to enrich resveratrol content in grapes and add value to them.

Changes of Physicochemical Properties and Antioxidant Activities of Red Wines during Fermentation and Post-fermentation (적포도주들의 발효와 후발효 중 물리화학적 성질과 항산화활성의 변화)

  • No, Jae-Duck;Lee, Dae-Hyoung;Hwang, Young-Soo;Lee, Sang-Han;Lee, Jong-Soo
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.67-71
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    • 2008
  • The goal of this study was to vinify four varieties of grapes, namely Vitis labrusca L (Gerbong), Vitis labrusca B (Campbell Early), Vitis labrusca (Muscat Bailey A) and Vitis hybrid (Sheridan), and to investigate the changes in the physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity of the red wines during fermentation and post-fermentation. The ethanol content of the four red wines varied only slightly from 11.4%-12.8%, indicating that no significant change occurred during the fermentation and post-fermentation. The total anthocyanin and phenol contents as bioactive compounds were the highest level in the Vitis labrusca B red wine. The antioxidant activity was also the highest of 88.9% after 10 days fermentation in the Vitis labrusca B red wine and showed from only 36.6% to 61.7% in the other red wines, though the range decreased to 33.1%-64.1% during post-fermentation for 120 days at $4^{\circ}C$. Our results show that the vitis labrusca B red wine has the potential to become a functional red wine because of its high antioxidant activity.