• Title, Summary, Keyword: germinated brown rice

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Stimulation of γ-Aminobutyric Acid Synthesis Activity in Brown Rice by a Chitosan/Glutamic Acid Germination Solution and Calcium/Calmodulin

  • Oh, Suk-Heung
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.319-325
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    • 2003
  • Changes in the concentrations of $\gamma$-aminobutyric acid (GABA), soluble calcium ions, glutamic acid, and the activity of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) were investigated in non-germinated vs. germinated brown rice. Brown rice was germinated for 72 h by applying each of the following solutions: (1) distilled water, (2) 5 mM lactic acid, (3) 50 ppm chitosan in 5 mM lactic acid, (4) 5 mM glutamic acid, and (5) 50 ppm chitosan in 5 mM glutamic acid. GABA concentrations were enhanced in all of the germinated brown rice when compared to the non-germinated brown rice. The GABA concentration was highest in the chitosan/glutamic acid that germinated brown rice at 2,011 nmol/g fresh weight, which was 13 times higher than the GABA concentration in the non-germinated brown rice at 154 nmol/g fresh weight. The concentrations of glutamic acid were significantly decreased in all of the germinated rice, regardless of the germination solution. Soluble calcium and GAD were higher in the germinated brown rice with the chitosan/glutamic acid solution when compared to the rice that was germinated in the other solutions. GAD that was partially purified from germinated brown rice was stimulated about 3.6-fold by the addition of calmodulin in the presence of calcium. These data show that the germination of brown rice in a chitosan/glutamic acid solution can significantly increase GABA synthesis activity and the concentration of GABA.

Comparison of GABA and Vitamin Contents of Germinated Brown Rice Soaked in Different Soaking Solution (침지액을 달리한 발아현미의 GABA와 비타민 함량의 비교)

  • Moon, Seung-Hee;Lee, Keun-Bo;Han, Myung-Kyu
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.511-515
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    • 2010
  • It was conducted to assess GABA(${\gamma}$-aminobutyric acid) producing capacity and vitamin contents of germinated brown rice soaked in different soaking solutions. For germination, samples were soaked in 5% glutamic acid solution and 5% lactic acid solution as test group to investigate GABA producing capacity, and samples soaked in the solution without glutamic acid and lactic acid were set as control groups(rice and non-germinated brown rice). The GABA contents of the samples were $44.80\;{\mu}g/g$ for rice, $59.90\;{\mu}g/g$ for non-germinated brown rice, $146.70\;{\mu}g/g$ for germinated brown rice, $203.20\;{\mu}g/g$ for germinated brown rice soaked in glutamic acid solution and $222.5\;{\mu}g/g$ for germinated brown rice soaked in lactic acid solution, resulting in a significant difference(p<0.05). GABA producing capacity was enhanced by the addition of glutamic acid and lactic acid in the soaking solution for brown rice germination. The GABA contents of the germinated brown rice soaked in lactic acid solution greatly increased, along with increases in niacin and vitamin E contents without losing vitamin $B_1$. In conclusion, the addition of lactic acid in soaking solution is most suitable for germination of brown rice.

Effects of Molecular Weight and Chitosan Concentration on GABA (${\gamma}$-Aminobutyric Acid) Contents of Germinated Brown Rice (키토산의 분자량과 농도에 따른 발아현미내 GABA함량증진 효과)

  • Ko, Jung-A;Kim, Kyoung-Ok;Park, Hyun-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.42 no.6
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    • pp.688-692
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    • 2010
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of molecular weight and concentrations of chitosan on the germination of brown rice. Brown rice was germinated at $30^{\circ}C$ for three days in various chitosan solutions. The germination rate of the brown rice increased with increasing concentrations of chitosan solution, and was higher in the chitosan solution than in water. GABA content increased with increasing germination time and chitosan solution concentration. As the molecular weight of the chitosan decreased, germination rate and GABA content increased in the brown rice. The GABA content of germinated brown rice using low molecular weight chitosan A in a 100 ppm solution was 5145.5 nmole/g. This is approximately a five times higher value than that of the water-germinated brown rice. Texture properties were enhanced in all the germinated brown rice samples in chitosan solution compared to the brown rice germinated in water. These results indicate that chitosan solution treatment can increase germination rate and GABA synthesis activity in brown rice during germination, and can also improve the texture properties of brown rice.

Quality Characteristics and Changes in GABA Content and Antioxidant Activity of Noodle Prepared with Germinated Brown Rice (발아현미 첨가에 따른 국수의 제조 특성과 GABA 함량 및 항산화 활성 변화)

  • Kong, Su-Hyun;Lee, Jun-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.274-280
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    • 2010
  • This study was to investigate the quality characteristics of noodles prepared with germinated brown rice and rice bran, and to determine the changes in GABA content and antioxidant activity of the noodles. These noodles were evaluated for cooking properties (cooking loss, swelling index, water holding capacity), total polyphenols, antioxidant activities (radical scavenging of ABTS and DPPH), and GABA contents. The addition of germinated rice bran in the range of 5, 10, and 15% showed a significant influence on cooking loss, although no effect on swelling index was observed. The raw and cooked noodles containing germinated brown rice and rice bran contained more GABA contents (2751.6~4176.7 and 5522.0~9617.8 nmol/20 g of fresh noodle, respectively) than those of non-germinated brown rice and rice bran. Noodles made with germinated brown rice and rice bran had similar total polyphenolics contents and antioxidant activities compared to noodles made with non-germinated brown rice and rice bran. Overall, the germinated brown rice could be used as a good ingredient to increase the nutritional value and antioxidant properties of wheat flour noodle without affecting the cooking properties.

Changes in Quality Properties of Brown Rice after Germination (발아에 따른 현미의 품질 변화)

  • Kim, Dae-Jung;Oh, Sea-Kwan;Lee, Jeong-Heui;Yoon, Mi-Ra;Choi, Im-Soo;Lee, Dong-Hyen;Kim, Yeon-Gyu
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.300-305
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    • 2012
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate quality properties, including amylose, alkali digestion value (ADV), and amylogram, of brown rice and germinated brown rice of some cultivars in Korea for rice processing products. The protein content of brown rice was significantly higher than those of germinated brown rice. The amylose content of the samples ranged from 17.09 to 18.85%. Alkali digestion value (ADV) of brown rice and germinated brown rice were described as a grade of 2-5 and 4-7, respectively. In a rapid visco analyzer (RVA) examination, pasting temperature of brown rice and germinated brown rice was $67.93-68.05^{\circ}C$. In addition, the pasting characteristics of brown rice were significantly higher than those of germinated brown rice. A texture analysis test showed that germinated brown rice Haiami had the lowest hardness and germinated brown rice Samkwang had the highest adhesiveness.

Changes of Physicochemical Properties According to the Shoot Length in Germinated Brown Rice (발아현미의 싹 길이에 따른 품질변화)

  • Oh, Sea-Kwan;Lee, Jeong-Heui;Won, Yong-Jae;Lee, Dong-Hyun;Kim, Chung-Kon
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.59 no.3
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    • pp.223-229
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    • 2014
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate quality properties including amylose, alkali digestion value (ADV), texture and GABA (Gamma Amino-Butyric Acid) of brown rice and 1~5 mm germinated brown rice of Keunnun and Samkwang culitvars. The protein content of germinated brown rice showed increasing tendency according to shoot length, however, the difference was not statistically significant. The amylose content of all samples ranged from 15.0% to 16.0% in Keunnun and 17.0% to 18.0% in Samkwang, without significant differences. Compared to regular brown rice, germinated brown rice from both cultivars demonstrated reduced gel consistency, which contributed to the improved cooked rice texture. Especially, germinated brown rice had significantly lower setback values, which is correlated with high palatability of cooked rice. However, there was no significant difference in gel consistency between 1 mm and 2~5 mm germinated brown rice. GABA content in Keunnun increased by 3~5 times after germination process. In Samkwang, GABA content increased by 50 times (from $0.005{\mu}g/g$ to $0.243{\sim}0.247{\mu}g/g$) after germination. The hardness of germinated brown rice was significantly lower than that of brown rice. However, there was no significant difference in hardness according to shoot length. Consequently, when processing germinate brown rice, it is recommended to maximize functional ingredients by germination while maintaining shoot length less than 2 mm.

Effect of Air-Phase Germination with Anion Radiation and Water-Spraying on Germination Ratio, Sprout Growth, and GABA Contents of Germinated Brown Rice

  • Lim, K.T.;Chung, J.H.;Hong, J.H.;Kim, J.H.;Lee, E.T.;Im, A.L.
    • Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.42-47
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    • 2006
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of air-phase germination with water-spraying and anion stimuli on germination ratio, sprout growth and ${\gamma}$-aminobutyric acid (GABA) of brown rice. Air-phase germination method with intermittent spraying water improved germination ratio and sprout growth by about 100% compared with the conventional water-soaking method. Anion radiation was applied during the germination process and improved the germination ratio, sprout growth and color quality of the germinated brown rice. Germination ratio and sprout growth were improved up to 9% with anion radiation, and its brightness was higher than brown rice germinated with no anion radiation. The air-phase germination with water-spraying improved the GABA content of germinated brown rice by about 8-9 times compared with that of brown rice.

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Preparation of Sikhe with Brown Rice (현미를 이용한 식혜의 제조)

  • Lee, Won-Jong;Kim, Suk-Shin
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.146-150
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    • 1998
  • This study was conducted to investigate the possibility of using brown rice as a raw material for preparation of sikhe. The ${\alpha}-amylase$ activity of germinated brown rice was much lower than that of germinated barley; however, the extract and its sugar content of extract prepared from germinated brown rice was similar to those of germinated barley. The extract of sikhe prepared with brown rice at $60^{\circ}C$ for 4 hr was similar to that of milled rice for 1 hr. Sikhe prepared with brown rice did not differ from sikhe prepared from milled rice in sweetness, pH and acidity. Sensory evaluation of sikhe prepared with brown rice showed increase in aroma and decrease in texture compared with sikhe prepared with milled rice.

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Hypotensive Effect of Germinated Brown Rice on Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (발아현미의 본태성 고혈압쥐에 대한 혈압강하 효과)

  • Choi, Hee-Don;Kim, Yun-Sook;Choi, In-Wook;Park, Yong-Kon;Park, Young-Do
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.448-451
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    • 2006
  • To investigate the hypotensive effect of germinated brown rice, spontaneously hypertensive rats were randomly divided into 4 groups and fed with experimental diets for 6 weeks; control group fed with standard diet, rice group fed with diet containing 50% rice, brown rice group fed with diet containing 50% brown rice and germinated brown rice group fed with diet containing 50% germinated brown rice. Body weight gain and FER (food efficiency ratio) of germinated brown rice group, $86.3\;{\pm}\;11.1\;g$ and $10.4\;{\pm}\;1.4%$, were significantly lower than those of other groups. Systolic blood pressure of germinated brown rice group after feeding for 6 weeks was $169.2\;{\pm}\;6.2\;mmHg$, which was significantly lower than those of other groups and decreased largely compared to that of beginning stage. And blood triglyceride of germinated brown rice group, $138.4\;{\pm}\;29.5\;mg/dL$, was significantly lower than those of other groups, but all groups didn't s show significantly difference in total and HDL-cholesterol of blood. These results suggested that germ mated brown rice had hypotensive effect on spontaneously hypotensive rats.

Effect of Mixing Ratio of White and Germinated Brown Rice on the Physicochemical Properties of Extruded Rice Flours (백미와 발아현미의 혼합비율이 압출성형 멥쌀가루의 이화학적 특성에 미치는 효과)

  • Kim, Ji Myoung;Yu, Mengying;Shin, Malshick
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.813-820
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    • 2012
  • To develop the high quality gluten-free rice products with health functionality and desirable texture with moistness, the physicochemical properties of extruded rice flours prepared from the mixture of germinated brown and white rices were investigated. The domestic organic Samgwangbyeo was used to make white and germinated brown rices. White rice (WR) was dried after soaked for 6 h at $15{\pm}3^{\circ}C$ and mixed with germinated brown rice (GBR) with different mixing ratios (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, 0:100). The operating conditions of twin screw extruder were 250 rpm of screw speed, $120^{\circ}C$ of barrel temperature, and 25% moisture content of rice flour. The ash, crude protein and crude lipid contents were significantly different (p<0.05) and those of extruded GBR were the highest values, but those of extruded WR were the lowest. The color difference of extruded WR based on white plate showed the lowest among them. The water binding capacity (334.16%), swelling power (8.83 g/g), solubility (33.13%), and total starch (79.50%) were the lowest in extruded GBR. The viscosities of all extruded rice flours by RVA were maintained during heating. The peak and total setback viscosities of extruded rice flours ranged 127-352 and 58.0-85.5 cP, respectively. The novel food biomaterial from germinated brown rice as well as white rice was developed by twin screw extruder. The extruded rice flours control the moistness to improve the texture and also have functional materials, dietary fiber, GABA, and ferulic acid, etc to increase quality of gluten free rice products.