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Germination Characteristics and Daily Seed Germinating Pattern of 8 New Varieties of Perennial Ryegrass under Alternative Conditions Required by ISTA (ISTA 변온조건에서 퍼레니얼 라이그래스 신품종 8종류의 발아특성 및 일일 발아패턴)

  • Kim, Kyoung-Nam;Jung, Ki-Wan
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.72-82
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    • 2009
  • Research was initiated to investigate early establislment characteristics and germination pattern of perennial ryegrass (PR, Lolium perenne L.). Eight varieties of PR were evaluated in the study. An alternative environmental condition for a PR germination test required by International Seed Testing Association (ISTA) was applied in the experiment, consisting of 8-hr light at $25^{\circ}C$ and 16-hr dark at $15^{\circ}C$ (ISTA conditions). Daily and cumulative germination pattern were measured and analyzed daily for 30 days. Significant differences were observed in germination pattern, days to the first germination, days to 50% germination, days to 75% germination, and final germination rate. Germination rates were variable among the varieties, being 66.00 to 93.75% at the end of study. There were considerable variations in early germination characteristics and germination pattern among PR varieties. The first germination in all entries tested was initiated from 3 to 5 DAS (days after seeding) under ISTA conditions, being 2 days in differences among the varieties. It was 4 to 7 DAS in days to the 50% germination, being 1 to 3 days later from the first germination and three days were variable among them. Days to the 75% germination were 5.93 to 10.50 DAS under ISTA conditions, being 4.57 days in variety differences. Pennant II and Brightstar II were the fastest varieties. The slowest ones were Revenge GLX and Brightstar SLT. Considering days to the first germination, days to 75% germination, and germination pattern etc, Pennant II and Brightstar II were regarded as excellent varieties under ISTA conditions. From tills study, information on differences in germination characteristics and pattern would be usefully applied for golf course design and construction, when established with PR.

Comparison of Germination Characteristics and Daily Seed Germination Pattern in 15 New Cultivars of Kentucky Bluegrass under Alternative and Natural Conditions at Room Temperature (자연실온 및 변온환경에서 15종류의 켄터키 블루그래스 신품종의 발아특성 및 일일발아패턴 비교)

  • Kim, Kyoung-Nam
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.1-17
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    • 2014
  • Research was initiated to investigate early establishment characteristics and germination pattern of Kentucky bluegrass (KB, Poa pratensis L.) under natural room temperature and to analyze differences between alternative and natural conditions for a practical application. Fifteen cultivars of KB were evaluated in the study. Daily and cumulative germination pattern were measured and analyzed on a daily basis. Differences were observed in germination percentage, germination pattern, days to the first germination and days to 75% germination. Germination percentage was variable with cultivars at the end of study. It was 75.75 to 90.25% under natural condition. There were considerable variations in early germination characteristics and germination pattern among KB cultivars according to germination conditions. The first germination in all entries tested was initiated between 6 and 9 DAS (days after seeding) under ISTA (International Seed Testing Association) condition. But it was observed between 9 and 12 DAS under natural condition, being 3 to 5 days later as compared with ISTA condition. On the first date of a germinating process, the germination rate was 0.25% to 25.00% under ISTA condition, while 0.50% to 13.25% under natural condition. Days to the 75% germination were 15.08 to 28.80 DAS under ISTA condition and 17.78 to 28.75 DAS under natural condition. Midnight II, Excursion and Midnight were the fastest cultivars under ISTA condition, while Odyssey the fastest one under natural condition. Regardless of germination condition, the slowest cultivar was Voyager II, being over 4 weeks to 75% germination percentage. For the most cultivars, days to 75% germination under natural room temperature condition were 1 to 8 days slower than under ISTA condition. From this study information on differences in germination characteristics and pattern among cultivars would be usefully applied for KB establishment such as golf course construction. Prior to on-site seeding, a comprehensive germination test is practically recommended due to a possible decline in germination capability during domestic distribution and storage after import.

Changes of Germination Rate of Pulses Seed Germplasm after Long-term Conservation

  • Baek, Hyung-jin;Lee, Young-yi;Jung, Yeon-ju;Yoon, Mun-seop
    • Proceedings of the Plant Resources Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.44-44
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    • 2018
  • The seeds of soybean (Glycine max), adzuki bean (Vigna angularis), mung bean (Vigna radiata), and kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were examined the germination rate after 10 years of long-term storage ($-18^{\circ}C$) conservation. For soybean seeds, 2,313 accessions were examined and germination rate of 1,082 accessions was decreased with below 15% of initial germination rate. For 227 accessions of soybean, germination rate was decreased with above 15% of initial germination rate after 10 years of long-term storage, which is needed to be rejuvenated. Germination rate of 589 accessions was increased and showed no change for 415 accessions after 10 years of long-term storage. For adzuki bean seeds, 2,058 accessions were examined and germination rate of 739 accessions was decreased with below 15% of initial germination rate. For 63 accessions of adzuki bean, germination rate was decreased with above 15% of initial germination rate after 10 years of long-term storage, which is needed to be rejuvenated. Germination rate of 535 accessions was increased and showed no change for 721 accessions after 10 years of long-term storage. For mung bean seeds, 438 accessions were examined and germination rate of 139 accessions was decreased with below 15% of initial germination rate. For 5 accessions of mung bean, germination rate was decreased with above 15% of initial germination rate after 10 years of long-term storage, which is needed to be rejuvenated. Germination rate of 155 accessions was increased and showed no change for 139 accessions after 10 years of long-term storage. For kdney bean seeds, 366 accessions were examined and germination rate of 7 accessions was decreased with below 15% of initial germination rate. For 65 accessions of kidney bean, germination rate was decreased with above 15% of initial germination rate after 10 years of long-term storage, which is needed to be rejuvenated. Germination rate of 201 accessions was increased and showed no change for 93 accessions after 10 years of long-term storage.

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The Increase of Seeds Germination in Albizzia julibrissin, Lespedeza cyrtobotrya and Lespedeza cuneata by Microbial Treatment (미생물에 의한 자귀나무·참싸리·비수리 종자의 발아촉진)

  • Cha, Go-Woon;Hur, Young-Jin;Ahn, Tae-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.107-115
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    • 2008
  • Herbs and plants widely used for the ecological restoration were selected for germination rate analysis under treatment of microorganisms to determine ideal treatment conditions and medium for enhanced germination rate. Albizzia julibrissin, when submerged in a nutrient medium or distilled water, presented a decrease in germination period rather than increase in germination rate. When treated with microorganism culture solution (JM-2) for 24 hours, 90% germination was achieved in two days, which is sufficient evidence to conclude that such treatment accelerates the germination of Albizzia julibrissin. Germination period decreased for Lespedeza cyrtobotrya samples submerged in microorganism solution for 15 and 48 hours, however, increases in germination rates were not observed. Sample treated in the solution for 24 hours had increased germination rate and enhanced germination period. Microorganism solution treatment had a negative effect on germination for Lespedeza cuneata, unlike Lespedeza cyrtobotrya and Albizzia julibrissin. Microorganism treated seeds of Lepsedeza cuneata had a lower germination rate than that of the control with no treatment. However, submerging treatments in a nutrient medium or distilled water for 24 to 48 hours were proven effective with higher germination rates than control sample with no treatment. Herbs and plants widely used for the ecological restoration were selected for germination rate analysis under treatment of microorganisms to determine ideal treatment conditions and medium for enhanced germination rate. Albizzia julibrissin, when submerged in a nutrient medium or distilled water, presented a decrease in germination period rather than increase in germination rate. When treated with microorganism culture solution (JM-2) for 24 hours, 90% germination was achieved in two days, which is sufficient evidence to conclude that such treatment accelerates the germination of Albizzia julibrissin. Germination period decreased for Lespedeza cyrtobotrya samples submerged in microorganism solution for 15 and 48 hours, however, increases in germination rates were not observed. Sample treated in the solution for 24 hours had increased germination rate and enhanced germination period. Microorganism solution treatment had a negative effect on germination for Lespedeza cuneata, unlike Lespedeza cyrtobotrya and Albizzia julibrissin. Microorganism treated seeds of Lepsedeza cuneata had a lower germination rate than that of the control with no treatment. However, submerging treatments in a nutrient medium or distilled water for 24 to 48 hours were proven effective with higher germination rates than control sample with no treatment.

Germination Characteristics and Daily Seed Germinating Pattern in New Varieties of the Third Generation of Creeping Bentgrass Under ISTA Conditions (ISTA 생육환경에서 제3세대 크리핑 벤트그래스 신품종의 발아특성 및 일일 발아패턴)

  • Kim, Kyoung-Nam;Cho, Chi-Uong;Bae, Yoon-Hwan;Park, So-Hyang
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.30-41
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    • 2010
  • Research was initiated to investigate germination characteristics and germination pattern of creeping bentgrass (CB, Agrostis palustris Huds.). Seven varieties of CB were evaluated in the study. An alternative condition for a CB germination test required by International Seed Testing Association (ISTA) was applied in the experiment, consisting of 8-hr light at $25^{\circ}C$ and 16-hr dark at $15^{\circ}C$ (ISTA conditions). Daily and cumulative germination patterns were measured and analyzed on a daily basis. Significant differences were observed in germination pattern, days to the first germination, days to 50% germination, days to 85% germination, and germination percentage. Germination rates were different among the treatments at the end of study. There were significantly considerable variations in early germination characteristics and germination pattern among CB varieties. The first germination in all entries was initiated between 4 and 5 DAS (days after seeding) under ISTA conditions. Generally, the first germination percentage was 5 to 25%. However, such Penn-series varieties as Penn A-1, Penn A-4 and Penncross were much more vigorous over others, resulting in 50 to 75% in the first germination percentage. It took 4 to 10 DAS in reaching to days to the 50% germination, being 5 days in difference among the varieties. Days to the 85% germination were 5.90 to 11.75 DAS under ISTA conditions, being 5.85 days in variety difference. It means 1 to 2 days after days to 50% germination. Penn A-1 was the fastest variety, while T-1 the slowest one. Considering days to the first germination, days to 85% germination, and germination pattern etc, Penn A-1, Penn A-4, Penncross and L-93 were regarded as excellent varieties under ISTA conditions. From this study, in-depth information on germination characteristics and pattern would be usefully applied for golf course design and construction, when established with CB.

Germination Percentage and Speed under International Seed Testing Association Conditions of Main Herbaceous Plants Used on the Slope (국제종자검정협회(ISTA) 변온조건에서 비탈면 복원용 주요 초화류의 발아율 및 발아속도)

  • Park, Jin-A;Shim, Sang-Ryul
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.47-56
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    • 2018
  • Research was initiated to investigate germination characteristics and germination pattern of 14 herbaceous plant entries used on the road slope during 30 days. An alternative germination condition for 14 herbaceous plant entries required by International Seed Testing Association(ISTA) was applied in the experiment, consisting of 8-hr light at $25^{\circ}C$ and 16-hr dark at $15^{\circ}C$. Significant differences were observed in the first germination rate(0.3%~40.7%)and in the final germination rate(7.7%~93.3%). Days to the first germination(2~8days), days to the 30% germination(2~6days) and days to the peak germination(6~18days) were different among 14 herbaceous plant entries in the study. From this result, we could find out higher final germination rate of 14 herbaceous plant entries in the following order; First, forage crops and cool-season turfgrasses; Second, herbeceous flowers; Third, wild plants. We could also divide germination rate among 14 herbaceous plant entries as 6 groups(I;very high, II;high, III;medium high, IV;medium low, V;low, VI;very low) based on the final germination rate and divide germination speed as 5 groups(A;very fast, B;fast, C;normal, D;slow, E;very slow)based on days to the peak germination. Considering germination characteristics and pattern of 14 herbaceous plant entries Medicago sativa, Lolium perenne, Festuca arundinacea and Cosmos sulphureus were regard as dominating species while Lespedeza cuneata, Silene armeria, Lotus corniculatus var.japonicus, Coreopsis tinctoria and Centaurea cyanus as competitive species following dominating species. However, Chrysanthemum burbankii, Pennisetum alopecuroides, Chrysanthemum boreale., Artemisia princeps var. orientalis and Arundinella hirta were not almost expected to emerge.

Effect of Air-Phase Germination with Anion Radiation and Water-Spraying on Germination Ratio, Sprout Growth, and GABA Contents of Germinated Brown Rice

  • Lim, K.T.;Chung, J.H.;Hong, J.H.;Kim, J.H.;Lee, E.T.;Im, A.L.
    • Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.42-47
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    • 2006
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of air-phase germination with water-spraying and anion stimuli on germination ratio, sprout growth and ${\gamma}$-aminobutyric acid (GABA) of brown rice. Air-phase germination method with intermittent spraying water improved germination ratio and sprout growth by about 100% compared with the conventional water-soaking method. Anion radiation was applied during the germination process and improved the germination ratio, sprout growth and color quality of the germinated brown rice. Germination ratio and sprout growth were improved up to 9% with anion radiation, and its brightness was higher than brown rice germinated with no anion radiation. The air-phase germination with water-spraying improved the GABA content of germinated brown rice by about 8-9 times compared with that of brown rice.

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Effects of several factors on pollen germination in Platycodon grandiflorum

  • Kwon, Soo Jeong;Lee, Ui Gun;Moon, Young Ja;Cho, Gab Yeon;Woo, Sun Hee;Boo, Hee Ock;Koo, Jin-Woog;Kim, Hag Hyun
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
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    • pp.172-172
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    • 2017
  • Pollen germination and its' viability in bellflower hybrid system are of great importance. The present study was conducted to investigate the several factors underlying the pollen germination of Platycodon grandiflorum and obtain the basic data for effective artificial pollination for the production of sound specifies. The pollens of Platycodon grandiflorum started germination from one hour after planting, and the germination was actively progressed as time dependent manner. For lighting conditions, the germination of pollens under the light was faster by more than twice than that without the light. Furthermore, the germination was better in the high temperature rather than in the low temperature. The germination rate was higher in the $30^{\circ}C$. For the carbon source, the germination rate was better at the concentration of 15% regardless of the kinds. In particular, the highest value was observed with glucose. The germination rate was decreased substantially as the increasing with the higher pH. The dynamic germination of pollens was observed at the pH 5. With respect to the growth regulator, the higher concentration of NAA induced the higher the germination rate. $GA_3$ showed a good germination rate in $0.05mg{\cdot}L^{-1}$. Meanwhile, for kinetin, lower concentration increased the germination rate, unlike NAA. The higher concentrations of boric acid degraded the germination rate, and the addition of boric acid of $10mg{\cdot}L^{-1}$ demonstrated higher germination rate than the addition of other growth regulators. Notably, the addition of asparaginic acid exhibited the similar results in all test sectors regardless of concentration, whereas a little higher result was observed in the high concentration sector. Taken together, the results concluded that the boric acid was considered as one of the essential minerals that played an important role on the germination of pollens.

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Varietal Difference in Salinity Tolerance during Germination Stage of Rice

  • Lee, Kang-Soo;Choi, Sun-Young;Choi, Won-Yul
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.11-14
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    • 1998
  • This study was conducted to find out a desirable screening condition for the salinity tolerance in germination of rice. Seeds of 33 rice varieties were tested in NaCl solutions with various concentration levels. The germination percentage had a decreasing tendency with increasing NaCl concentration and inhibition concentration of 50% germination was 320mM. Standard deviation of germination percentage was highest (28.6) under 300mM NaCl. There was a highly significant correlation between the 50% germination concentration and the germination percentage at 20th day after seeding in 300mM NaCl. Also in 300mM NaCl, the germination percentage at 20th day after seeding was significantly correlated with the germination percentage at the 6th day after seeding. The salinity tolerance on the basis of germination percentage at 6th day after seeding in 300mM NaCl, was strong in 'Hyangnambyeo', 'Ilmibyeo', 'Kancheogbyeo', and 'Namwonbyeo', while weak in 'Ansanbyeo', 'Odaebyeo', 'Nonganbyeo', 'Dasanbyeo', and 'Namcheonbyeo'.

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Comparison of Seed Germinating Vigor, Early Germination Characteristics, Germination Speed and Germination Peak Time in New Varieties of The Third Generation of Creeping Bentgrass Under Different Growing Conditions (생육환경에 따른 제3세대 크리핑 벤트그래스 신품종의 종자 발아력, 초기 발아 특성, 발아세 및 발아 피크 기간 비교)

  • Kim, Kyoung-Nam;Jung, Ki-Wan
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.11 no.5
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    • pp.79-91
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    • 2008
  • Research was initiated to investigate germination characteristics of creeping bentgrass (CB, Agrostis palustris Huds.). Seven varieties of CB were evaluated with different experiments. An alternative environment condition requiring for a CB germination test by International Seed Testing Association (ISTA) was applied in the Experiment I, consisting of 8-hr light at $25^{\circ}C$ and 16-hr dark at $15^{\circ}C$(ISTA conditions). Experiment II was conducted under a room temperature condition of 5 to $25^{\circ}C$(natural conditions). In each experiment, data such as seed germinating vigor, early germination characteristics, germination speed and germination peak time were measured. Significant differences were observed in seed germinating vigor, early germination characteristics, germination speed and germination peak time. Seed germinating vigor was variable with different environments and varieties. It was 61.50 to 98.25% under ISTA conditions and 55.00 to 98.50% under natural conditions. There were considerable variations in early germination characteristics among CB varieties according to different conditions. Early germination characteristics indicated that all varieties were 1 to 4 days faster in germination under ISTA conditions, when compared with natural conditions. The germination speed, measured as days to seed germination of 70% and 90%, was much faster with Penn A-1, Penn A-4 and Penncross under ISTA conditions. But it was even faster with L-93 and Penncross when grown under natural conditions. Differences were also observed in germination peak time with varieties and growing conditions. It was 0.57 to 2.86 days under ISTA conditions and 0.74 to 1.74 days under natural conditions. Regardless of the environment conditions, the shortest variety was L-93 and the longest one T-1. Considering germinating vigor, early germination characteristics, germination speed and germination peak time, Penn A-1, Penn A-4 and Penncross were regarded as excellent varieties under ISTA conditions in terms of early establishment characteristics, while L-93, Penn A-1 and Penncross under natural conditions. These results suggest that an intensive germination test be needed prior to planting, for the early germinating vigor, germination speed and germination peak time. Also, a proper variety selection and comprehensive site analysis for the growing environmental conditions should be done before golf course construction.