• Title, Summary, Keyword: germination

Search Result 2,969, Processing Time 0.063 seconds

Comparison of Establishment Vigor, Uniformity, Rooting Potential and Turf Qualtiy of Sods of Kentucky Bluegrass, Perennial Ryegrass, Tall Fescue and Cool-Season Grass Mixtures Grown in Sand Soil (모래 토양에서 켄터키블루그라스, 퍼레니얼라이그라스, 톨훼스큐 및 한지형 혼합구 뗏장의 피복도, 균일도, 근계 형성력 및 잔디품질 비교)

  • 김경남;박원규;남상용
    • Asian Journal of Turfgrass Science
    • /
    • v.17 no.4
    • /
    • pp.129-146
    • /
    • 2003
  • Research was initiated to compare establishment vigor, uniformity, rooting potential and turf quality in sods of cool-season grasses (CSG). Several turfgrasses grown under pure sand soil were tested. Establishment vigor, uniformity, rooting potential and turf quality were evaluated in the study. Turfgrass entries were comprised of three blends from Kentucky bluegrass (KB, Poa pratensis L.), perennial ryegrass (PR, Lolium perenne L.), and tall fescue (TF, Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), respectively and three mixtures among them. Differences by treatments were significantly observed in establishment vigor, uniformity, rooting potential and turf quality. Early establishment vigor was mainly influenced by germination speed, being fastest with PR, intermediate with TF and slowest with KB. In a late stage of growth, however, it was affected more by growth habit, resulting in highest with KB and slowest with TF. There were considerable variations in sod uniformity among turfgrasses. Best uniformity among monostand sods was associated with KB, while poorest one with TF. PR sod produced intermediate uniformity between KB and TF. The uniformity of polystand sods of CSG mixtures was inferior to that of monostands of KB, PR and TF, due to characteristics of mixtures comprised of a variety of color, density, texture and growth habit. The greatest potential of sod rooting was found with PR and the poorest with KB. Intermediate potential between PR and KB was associated with TF. In CSG mixtures, it was variable, depending on turfgrass mixing rates. Generally, the higher the PR in mixtures, the greater the sod rooting potential. At the time of sod harvest, however, turfgrass quality of KB was superior to that of PR. because of its characteristics of uniform surface, high density and good mowing quality. These results suggest that a careful expertise based on turf quality as well as sod characteristics like establishment vigor, uniformity and rooting potential be strongly required for the success of golf course or athletic field in establishment.

A Study on Determination of Consumptive Use Needed in the Vegetable Plots for the Prevention of Drought Damage (고등채소의 한해를 방지하기 위한 포장 용수량 결정에 관한연구)

  • 최예환
    • Magazine of the Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
    • /
    • v.15 no.2
    • /
    • pp.2949-2967
    • /
    • 1973
  • The purpose of this study is to find out and determine the minimum consumptive use of water for Korean cabbage and turmp, so that the minimum water requirement can be secured always for a stable cultivation of these vegetables regardless of weather conditions. The experiment was conducted in two periods; first one from May to July and second one from August to October, each experiment with two varieties of cabbage and two varieties of radish with 2 replicants and 15 treatments. The results found from the above are briefly as follows: 1. Since the mean soil moisture equivalent 64 days after the treatment was 28.5% and the soil moisture content at the time was 2.67% which is far less than that of the wilting point, the crop seemed to be extremely caused by a drought. 2. The rate of 51 days after the seeding, soil moisture content of plot No.2 where irrigation has been continuous was the highest or 21.3%, whereas the plot No.14 without irrigations was 11.2% and the lowest. Therefore, the soil moisture content for the minimum qrowth seemed to be 20%. 3. The consumptive coefficient of Blaney and Criddle on cabbage in two periods were K=1.14 and 0.97 respectively, and on radish in two periods were K=1.06 and 0.86 respectively, thus, cabbage was higher than radish. The consumptive coefficient in the first experiment (May-July) was 0.17 to 0.20 higher than the 2nd experiment(August-October). 4. Nomally, cabbage and radish germinate within one week, however, the germination ot these crops which were treated with a suspended water supply from the beginning took two full weeks. 5. When it elapsed 30 days after seeding, the conditions in plot 1,2 and 3 were fairly good however, the crops in the plops other than these showed a withering and the leaves were withered and changed into high green due to an extrem drought. Though it was about same at the beginning, the drought damage on cabbage was worse than that on radish period, and the reasos for this appears in the latter that the roots are grown too deep. 6. The cabbage showed a high affinity between treated plots and varieties. Consequently, it can be said that cabbage is very suseptive to drought damage, and the yield showed a difference of 35% to 56% depending on the selection oe varieties. 7. The radish also showed a high affinity between the treated plots, however, almost us affinity existed between varieties. Therfore, the yield of radish largely depends on the extent of drought, and the selection of variety does not affect at all. 8. The normal consumptive use on cabbage is $0.62{\ell}/sec$, while that on radish is $0.64{\ell}/sec$, and the minimum optimum water requirement that was obtained in this study is $4,000cc/day/m^3$ or $0.462{\ell}/sec/ha$.

  • PDF

Studies on Soil Conservation Effects of the Straw-mat Mulchings (I) - Vegetation Establishment and Erosion Control Effects - (볏짚거적덮기공의 사방효과(砂防効果)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究)(I) - 사면지피조성(斜面地被造成) 및 침식방지(浸蝕防止) 효과(効果) -)

  • Woo, Bo Myong
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
    • /
    • v.13 no.1
    • /
    • pp.67-78
    • /
    • 1971
  • The measures of contour-terracing with sod has been executed as a major measures for hillside erosion control works for a long time in Korea. It is, however, recognized that pair terracings make a new slope-face having the more steeper degree of slope between the upper and the lower terraces on hillsides and it also does not contribute for establishing the natural vegetation-cover by penetration of pioneer seeds on the slope faces or cut-faces of hillsides. The study was therefore conducted in connection with the above problems on the cut-face having slope of $40^{\circ}$ and 1.6 meter in slope length with clay soils. Plot allocation for the experiment consists of 3 kinds of 3 replica plots having each $1.6m^2$ of slope area, i. e., the control plot with direct seeding on slopes only ($T_1$), the covering plot with the straw-mats after seeding on slopes ($T_2$) and the seeding plot after covering with the straw-mats. ($T_3$). The main results obtained may be summarized as follows : 1. Effects of the straw-mat mulchings on surface soil loss control:-The total amount of soil losses from each treatments are measured as 4,651 gr from $T_1$, 163 gr. from $T_2$ and 2,891 gr. from $T_3$ treatment respectively. (Refer to table No. 2, 3 and 4). In short, it is recognized that effect of $T_2$ treatment is compared as 28.5 times than that of $T_1$ treatment and 17.7 times than that of $T_3$ treatment respectively. Effect of $T_3$ treatment compared with $T_1$ treatment is also such recognizable as 1.6 times in control of surface soil losses on a slope face. 2. Effect of the straw-mat mulchings on soil moisture content on slopes; -Average per cent of surface soil moisture content by treatments show as 21.60 at the $T_1$, 23.04 at the $T_2$ and 22.21 at the $T_3$ treatment respectively and that of subsurface soil moisture content by treatment show as 23.81 at the $T_1$, 26.16 at the $T_2$ and 24.81 at the $T_3$ treatment respectively. The variance of soil moisture content by treatments was highly significant (Refer table No. 7, 8 and 9). 3. Effect of the straw-mat mulchings on vegetation establishment;-Average numbers of germination by treatments are counted as 237 Nos. at the $T_1$, 246 Nos. at the $T_2$ and 262 Nos. at the $T_3$ treatment plots and the vegetation coverage on ground was almost same as about 90% of covers in all treatments. This effect is more or less lower than that of surface soil erosion control. 4. Regarding the effect on surface soil erosion control, the straw-mat mulchings would be effective as a new measures for control of soil erosion on erosion susceptible lands such slope-faced bare-lands as cut-fill faces, mass-movement faces and bare hillsides.

  • PDF

Nature of Suppressiveness and Conduciveness of Some plant pathogens in Soils (토양내(土壤內) 식물(植物) 병원균(病原菌)의 발병억제(發病抑制) 및 유발성질(誘發性質))

  • Shim, Jae-Ouk;Lee, Min-Woong
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
    • /
    • v.18 no.3
    • /
    • pp.164-177
    • /
    • 1990
  • This study was carried out to obtain some useful data for increasing an effective ginseng production. There was a direct relationship (r=0.2645) between spore germination of Fusarium solani and soil pH, and (r=0.315) between Cylindrocarpon destructans and soil pH. On the other hand, there was a direct relationship (r=0.19) between relative hyphal growth of Rhizoctonia solani and soil pH. There was a direct relationship (r=0.21) between number of total bacteria and F. solani, (r=0.37) between actinomycetes and F. solani and (r=0.20) between celluloytic bacteria and F. solani. However, there was an inverse relationship (r=-0.20) between number of total fungi and F. solani. There was a direct relationship (r=0.24) between number of actinomycetes and R. solani. Each ginseng pathogen-suppressive soil screened was 40 in F. solani, 20 in C. destructans and 9 soil samples in R. solani among 146 soil samples, respectively. The mean contents of K, Ca and Mg were fairly lower in each ginseng pathogen-suppressive soil than conducive soil, whereas Na were somewhat lower. The mean contents of organic matter were over 2 times higher in each ginseng pathogen-suppressive soil than conducive soil. The mean contents of phosphate were fairly lower in F. solani and R. solani-suppressive soil than conducive soil and, on the other hand, were somewhat higher in C. destructans-suppressive soil than conducive soil. The mean soil pH was somewhat lower in each ginseng pathogen-suppressive soil than conducive soil. The mean contents of sand were about 2 times higher in each ginseng pathogen­suppressive soil than conducive soil, whereas silt and clay were somewhat lower. The microbial numbers of total bacteria, total fungi and celluloytic fungi were higher in F. solani-suppressive soil than conducive soil, whereas actinomycetes and celluloytic bacteria were lower. Each microbial number of total bacteria or total fungi indicated a significant difference (p=0.05) between F. solani­suppressive and conducive soil, and the microbial number of actinomycetes was a highly significant difference (p=0.01) between F. solani-suppressive and conducive soil. The microbial numbers of total bacteria, total fungi, actinomycetes and celluloytic fungi were higher in C. destructans-suppressive soil than conducive soil, whereas celluloytic bacteria were about 2 times lower. On the other hand, the microbial numbers of total fungi were higher in R. solani-suppressive soil than conducive soil, whereas total bacteria, actinomycetes, celluloytic bacteria and celluloytic fungi were lower. Fourteen of 16 F. solani-suppressive soils tested were suppressive to ginseng root rot, whereas fifteen of 16 C. destructans-suppressive soils were suppressive. Ginseng root rots of ginseng disease-suppressive soils were in the range of 1.0-17.4% in F. solani-suppressive soil and 0.2-20.4% in C. destructans-suppressive soil, respectively.

  • PDF

A High Quality Rice Variety "Cheongcheongjinmi" Adaptable to Low Nitrogen Fertilizer Application (질소 소비료적성 고품질 벼 신품종 "청청진미")

  • Cho, Young-Chan;Oh, Myung-Kyu;Choi, Im-Soo;Kim, Yeon-Gyu;Kim, Myeong-Ki;Hwang, Hung-Goo;Hong, Ha-Cheol;Jeong, O-Young;Choi, In-Bae;Choi, Yong-Hwan;Jeon, Yong-Hee;Lee, Jeom-Ho;Lee, Jeong-Heui;Lee, Jeong-Il;Shin, Young-Seop;Kim, Jeong-Ju;Kim, Ki-Jong;Baek, Man-Kee;Roh, Jae-Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Breeding Science
    • /
    • v.41 no.4
    • /
    • pp.654-659
    • /
    • 2009
  • "Cheongcheongjinmi" is a new japonica rice variety developed from a cross between Iri401 and Ilpumbyeo by the rice breeding team of National Institute of Crop Science, RDA. This variety is suitable for ordinary season culture of low level nitrogen application. Heading date of "Cheongcheongjinmi" is August 17, 4 days later than that of Sobibyeo in plain areas. It has culm length of 82 cm, and relatively semi-erect pubescent leaf blade and slightly tough culm tolerant to lodging with good canopy architecture. This variety has 13 tillers per hill, 126 spikelets per panicle and 90.2% of ripened grains. "Cheongcheongjinmi" showed lower spikelet fertility than Sobibyeo when exposed to cold stress. This variety showed slower leaf senescence and lower viviparous germination compared to Sobibyeo during the ripening stage. "Cheongcheongjinmi" is susceptible to blast disease, bacterial blight, virus diseases and planthoppers. The dried plant weight, total nitrogen and RuBisCO activity of "Cheongcheongjinmi" were higher than those of Sobibyeo in low level nitrogen application. The milled rice of "Cheongcheongjinmi" exhibits translucent, clear non-glutinous endosperm and medium short grain. It shows lower protein and amylose contents than those of Sobibyeo, and better palatability of cooked rice compared to Hwaseongbyeo. The milled rice yield of this cultivar is about 5.10 MT/ha at low level nitrogen application of ordinary season culture in local adaptability test for three years. Especially, "Cheongcheongjinmi" has better milling properties such as the percentage of whole grain in milled rice and milling recovery of whole grain, respectively than those of Sobibyeo. "Cheongcheongjinmi" would be adaptable to middle plain areas and middle-western coastal areas of Korea.

Studies on a Factor Affecting Composts Maturity During Composting of SWine Manure (돈분 퇴비화 중 부숙도에 미치는 영향인자 구명)

  • Kim, T.I.;Song, J. I.;Yang, C.B.;Kim, M.K.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.46 no.2
    • /
    • pp.261-272
    • /
    • 2004
  • This study was conducted to investigate indices affecting composts maturity for swine manure compost produced in a commercial composting facility with air-forced from the bottom. The composting was made of swine manure mixed with puffing rice hull(6: 4) and turned by escalating agitator twice a day. Composting samples were collected periodically during a 45-d composting cycle at that system, showing that indices of Ammonium-N to Nitrate-N ratio were sensitive indicators of composting quality. Pile temperature maintained more than 62$^{\circ}C$ and water contents decreased about 20% for 25days of composting. A great variety and high numbers of aerobic thermophilic heterotropic microbes playing critical roles in stability of composts have been examined in the final composts, sbowing that they were detected $10^8$ to $10^{10}$ $CFUg^{-1}$ in mesophilic bacteria, $10^3$ - $10^4$ in fungi and $10^6$ - $10^8$ in actinomycetes, respectively. The results of this study for detennining a factor affecting compost stability evaluations based on composting steps were as follows; 1. Ammonium-N concentrations were highest at the beginning of composting, reaching approximately 421mg/kg. However Ammonium-N concentrations were lower during curing, reaching approximately l04mg/kg just after 45 day. The ratio between $NH_4-N$ and $NO_3-N$ was above II at the beginning of composting and less than 2 at the final step(45 day). 2. Seed germination Index was dependent upon the compost phytotoxicity and its nutrition. The phytotocity caused the GI to low during the period of active composting(till 25 days of composting time) depending on the value of the undiluted. After 25 days of composting time, the GI was dependent upon compost nutrition. The Gennination index of the final step was calculated at over 80 without regard to treatments. 3. E4: E6 ratio in humic acid of composts was correlatively decreased from 8.86 to 6.76 during the period of active composting. After 25 days of composting time, the E4: E6 was consistently decreased from 6.76 to 4.67($r^2$ of total composting period was 0.95). 4. Water soluble carbon had a tendency to increase from 0.54% to 0.78%during the period of active composting. After 25 days of composting time, it was consistently decreased from 0.78% to 0.42%. Water soluble nitrogen increased from 0.22% to 0.32% during the period of 15 days after initial composting while decreased from 0.32% to 0.21% after 15days of composting. In consequence, the correlation coefficient($r^2$) between water soluble carbon and water soluble nitrogen was 0.12 during the period of active composting mule was 0.50 after 25 days of composting time

Variation of Genus Ilex in Korea and their Ornamental Values (Ilex속(屬) 수목(樹木)의 유전변이(遺傳變異)의 분석(分析)과 조경학적(造景學的) 이용가치(利用價値)의 조사(調査) 연구(硏究))

  • Yim, Kyong Bin
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
    • /
    • v.42 no.1
    • /
    • pp.1-38
    • /
    • 1979
  • The woody species of Genus Ilex which are endemic to Korea are distributed on limited area due to solely temperature factor. There is some differences according to species, however in general, the evergreen Ilex are found along southern coastal area of Korean Peninsula and near islands where the cold index does not exceed $-5^{\circ}C$. But Ilex macropoda and the variety, only deciduous ones, are grown in temperate zone of the peninsula and some islands. The list of Ilex species of Korea are as follows. Ilex cornuta Lindley et Pax., I. crenata Thunb. var. microphylla Max., I. crenata Thunb., I. rotunda Thunb., I. macropoda Miq., I. macropoda Miq. var. pseudo-macropoda Loensner, I. integra Thunb. The author surveyed the populations of Ilex species as many as possible and data of some characters such as leaf shape, spine, fruit shape, stomata density, sex ratio in natural communities, etc. are collected. Almost all the Ilex species in Korea show sporadic distribution. This means quite small sized populations isolate distantly each other eliminating the change of gene exchange in between. Particularly Ilex conuta and I. crenata show the morphological differentiation among populations as well as significant individual variation within a population. These were true with such characteristics, leaf shape, leaf dimension, leaf margin, fruit shape, spine, and stomata density. The founded are that the fruit length and the stomata density counted on the beneath surface of leaves of Ilex cornuta increased with the decrease of latitude. These are naturally closely related with the cold index values. The table shown below indicates the correlation between mean stomata density per $0.3642mm^2$ and cold index values. These relation however were not observed on Ilex crenata. The most dominated natured in relation to individual variation were outline of leaf, the number of marginal spine, the shape of leaf cross section and the degree of luster of the upper leaf surface. As shown in photos 5~7, these variations are agreed at a glance. There are reports that the development of marginal spines in some Ilex species is associated with the juvenility and topophysis. In present study, these two factors were neglected because of the intended sampling procedure. Of Ilex rotunda, population difference with the characteristics of leaf length is recognized but not for leaf width, petiole length, and fruit size. However, individual variations within a population were significantly large. In case of Ilex integra, only individual differences within population were calculated statistically for such characteristics as leaf length, leaf width, and petiole length. As to natural population, the sex ratio was 1:2 (female to male) for Ilex cornuta, and 1:1 for Ilex crenata. The tendency of more male than female in I. cornuta was agreed to other observations. Preparing the tip cutting of length 10cm, and treating with IBA, then attaching earth ball to the cut end, very successful rooting percentages were obtained. Asexual propagation has the advantages of maintaining the heterozygosity of existing varieties and overcoming the difficulties of delayed seed germination frequently encountered with Ilex species. Considering a great deal of variation in morphological traits, a good possibility of selection breeding for decorative and ornamental purposes exists. At present, these evergreen Ilex are ignored by local people as nuisance weedy shrubs. So the proper protection measures should promptly be taken.

  • PDF

Ecological Studies on the Transition of Sheath Blight of Rice in Korea (한국(韓國)에서의 벼 잎집무늬마름병 발생변동(發生變動)에 관(關)한 생태학적(生態學的) 연구(硏究))

  • Yu, Seung-hun
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
    • /
    • v.4 no.2
    • /
    • pp.283-316
    • /
    • 1977
  • In an attempt to obtain a basic information to develop an effective integrated system of controlling sheath blight of rice in Korea, the transition of this disease, the variation of cultural characters and pathogenicity of the pathogen, environmental conditions affecting the disease outbreak and varietal resistance have been investigated. 1. Rice sheath blight which has been minor disease in the past was widely spread, especially since 1971. This disease has promptly spread all over the country and infected 65.2% of total rice growing area in 1976. Various factors are considered to be related to such transition of this disease. Above all, increace of application of nitrogenous fertilizer, early season and earlier cultivation of rice, introduction of more susceptible "Tongil" varieties etc. must be important factors influencing the outbreak of this disease. 2. Great variations in cultural characteristics-such as mycelial growth rate, color of the medium, amount of the aerial mycelium, shape and color of the sclerotia- and in the pathogenicity of isolates of the pathogen, Thanatephorus cucumeris Dank were observed. The optimum temperature for mycelial growth also varied with isolates, from $25^{\circ}C$ to $30^{\circ}C$. There were not necessarily any correlation between curtural characteristics and pathogenicity of isolates of Thanatephorus cucumens. 3. Mycelial grow th of isolates of Thanatephorus cucumens on the PDA medium were correlated with the air temperatures of the region where the isolates were collected. The isolates from the regions with high temperature grew well on PDA medium at $35^{\circ}C$ than those from the region with low temperature, on the other hand, the isolates from the regions with the low temperature grew well on the same medium at $12^{\circ}C$ than those from the regions with high temperature. 4. Pectin polygalacturonase (PG) and cellulase (Cx) were most active on the 3rd day after inoculation on the leaves of rice plant with Thanatephorus cucumeris, whereas pectin methylestrase (PE) was most active on the 4th day after inoculation. Relationship between the activities of PE of isolates and the strength of pathogenicity of isolates was obtained, but PG and cellulase activities were not correlated with pathogenicity of isolates. 5. The tolerence of sclerotia from in-vitro culture to low temperature varied with their water content, the dried cultural sclerotia were more tolerent than wet ones, Dried cultural sclerotia maintained almost 100% germinability for 45 days at $-20^{\circ}C$, whereas wet sclerotia lost viability at $-5^{\circ}C$. The germination ratio of the sclerotia after overwintering changed from 18% to 70% according to the water content of the test paddy fields and the ratio was low in wet paddy condition. 6. To investigate the host range of this fungi in and near paddy field, 17 weeds were inoculated with fungi. The lesions of sheath blight disease was obserbed on Sagittaria trifolia L., Echinochloa crusgalli P. Beauv., Monochoria vaginal is Presl, Polygonum Hydropiper L., Eclipta prostrata L., Digitaria sanguinalis Scapoli. 7. When the level of nitrogen applied was doubled over standard level, total nitrogen content in rice sheath increased, ami when silicate was applied, starch content in rice sheath decreased, inducing the rice plants more susceptible to sheath blight disease. Increased dressing of potash ferilizer reduced the incidence of sheat blight disease. 8. The percentage of infected stems in the early period increased more in the narrow hill plot than in the wide hill plot, but in the late period this tendency was inversed; the percentage of infected stems as well as severity in the wide hill plot increased more compared to the narrow hill plot, and the disease severity in the one plant per hill plot was also low. The number of stems in the wide hill plot was more than the number of stems in the narrow hill plot. This indicates that the microclimate, such as the relative humidity, in the narrow hill plot was more favorable for the development of this disease. 9. There was a high negative correlation between the disease severity of varieties to the sheath blight and the maturity of the varieties, that is, the early varieties were more susceptible than the late ones, and much-tillering varieties usually showed more infection than less tillering varieties. 10. No relationship was obtained between the percentage of infected stems in the early period and the severity after heading, whereas a distinct relationship was obtained between former and latter after Aug. 10.

  • PDF

Studies on Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. isolated from Magnolia kobus DC. in Korea (목련(Magnolia kobus DC.)에서 분리한 흰비단병균(Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc.)에 관한 연구)

  • Kim Kichung
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
    • /
    • v.13 no.3
    • /
    • pp.105-133
    • /
    • 1974
  • The present study is an attempt to solve the basic problems involved in the control of the Sclerotium disease. The biologic stranis of Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc., pathogen of Sclerotium disease of Magnolia kobus, were differentiated, and the effects of vitamins, various nitrogen and carbon sources on its mycelial growth and sclerotial production have been investigated. In addition the relationship between the cultural filtrate of Penicillium sp. and the growth of Sclerotium rolfsii, the tolerance of its mycelia or sclerotia to moist heat or drought and to Benlate (methyl-(butylcarbamoy 1)-2-benzimidazole carbamate), Tachigaren (3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole) and other chemicals were also clarified. The results are summarizee as follows: 1. There were two biologic strains, Type-l and Type-2 among isolates. They differed from each other in the mode of growth and colonial appearance on the media, aversion phenomenon and in their pathogenicity. These two types had similar pathogenicity to the Magnolia kobus and Robinia pseudoacasia, but behaved somewhat differently to the soybaen and cucumber, the Type-l being more virulent. 2. Except potassium nitrite, sodium nitrite and glycine, all of the 12 nitrogen sources tested were utilized for the mycelial growth and sclerotial production of this fungus when 10r/l of thiamine hydrochloride was added in the culture solution. Considering the forms of nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen was more available than nitrate nitrogen for the growth of mycelia, but nitrate nitrogen was better for sclerotia formation. Organic nitrogen showed different availabilities according to compounds used. While nitrite nitrogen was unavailable for both mycelial growth and sclerotial formation whether thiamine hydrochlioride was added or not. 3. Seven kinds of carbon sources examined were not effective in general, as long as thiamine hydrochloride was not added. When thiamine hydrochloride was added, glucose and saccharose exhibited mycelial growth, while rnaltose and soluble starch gave lesser, and xylose, lactose, and glycine showed no effect at all,. In the sclerotial production, all the tested carbon sources, except lactose, were effective, and glucose, maltose, saccharose, and soluble starch gave better results. 4. At the same level of nitrogen, the amount of mycelial growth increased as more carbon Sources were applied but decreased with the increase of nitrogen above 0.5g/1. The amount of sclerotial production decreased wi th the increase of carbon sources. 5. Sclerotium rolfsii was thiamine-defficient and required thiamine 20r/l for maximun growth of mycelia. At a higher concentration of more than 20r/l, however, mycelial growth decreased as the concentration increased, and was inhibited at l50r/l to such a degree of thiamine-free. 6. The effect of the nitrogen sources on the mycelial growth under the presence of thiamine were recognized in the decreasing order of $NH_4NO_3,\;(NH_4)_2SO_4,\;asparagine,\;KNO_3$, and their effects on the sclerotial production in the order of $KNO_3,\;NH_4NO_3,\;asparagine,\;(NH_4)_2SO_4$. The optimum concentration of thiamine was about 12r/l in $KNO_3$ and about 16r/l in asparagine for the growth of mycelia; about 8r/l in $KNO_3$ and $NH_4NO_3$, and 16r/l in asparagine for the production of sclerotia. 7. After the fungus started to grow, the pH value of cultural filtrate rapidly dropped to about 3.5. Hereafter, its rate slowed down as the growth amount increased and did not depreciated below pH2.2. 8. The role of thiamine in the growth of the organism was vital. If thiamine was not added, the combination of biotin, pyridoxine, and inositol did not show any effects on the growth of the organism at all. Equivalent or better mycelial growth was recognized in the combination of thiamine+pyridoxine, thiamine+inositol, thiamine+biotin+pyridoxine, and thiamine+biotin+pyridoxine+inositol, as compared with thiamine alone. In the combinations of thiamine+biotin and thiamine+biotin+inositol, mycelial growth was inhibited. Sclerotial production in dry weight increased more in these combinations than in the medium of thiamine alone. 9. The stimulating effects of the Penicillium cultural filtrate on the mycelial growth was noticed. It increased linearly with the increase of filtrate concentration up to 6-15 ml/50ml basal medium solution. 10. $NH_4NO_3$. as a nitrogen source for mycelial growth was more effective than asparasine regardless of the concentration of cultural filtrate. 11. In the series of fractionations of the cultural filtrate, mycelial growth occured in unvolatile, ether insoluble cation-adsorbed or anion-unadsorbed substance fractions among the fractions of volatile, unvolatile acids, ether soluble organic acids, ether insoluble, cation-adsorbed, cation-unadsorbed, anion-adsorbed and anion-unadsorbed. and anion-un-adsorbed substance tested. Sclerotia were produced only in cation-adsorbed fraction. 12. According to the above results, it was assumed that substances for the mycelial growth and sclerotial formation and inhibitor of sclerotial formation were include::! in cultural filtrate and they were quite different from each other. I was further assumed that the former two substances are un volatile, ether insotuble, and adsorbed to cation-exchange resin, but not adsorbed to anion, whereas the latter is unvolatile, ether insoluble, and not adsorbed to cation or anion-exchange resin. 13. Seven amino acids-aspartic acid, cystine, glysine, histidine, Iycine, tyrosine and dinitroaniline-were detected in the fractions adsorbed to cation-exchange resin by applying the paper chromatography improved with DNP-amino acids. 14. Mycelial growth or sclerotial production was not stimulated significantly by separate or combined application of glutamic acid, aspartic acid, cystine, histidine, and glysine. Tyrosine gave the stimulating effect when applied .alone and when combined with other amino acids in some cases. 15. The tolerance of sclerotia to moist heat varied according to their water content, that was, the dried sclerotia are more tolerant than wet ones. The sclerotia harvested directly from the media, both Type-1 and Type-2, lost viability within 5 minutes at $52^{\circ}C$. Sclerotia dried for 155 days at$26^{\circ}C$ had more tolerance: sclerotia of Type-l were killed in 15 mins. at $52^{\circ}C$ and in 5 mins. at $57^{\circ}C$, and sclerotia of Type-2 were killed in 10 mins. both at $52^{\circ}C$ or $57^{\circ}C$. 16. Cultural sclerotia of both strains maintained good germinability for 132 days at$26^{\circ}C$. Natural sclerotia of them stored for 283 days under air dry condition still had good germinability, even for 443 days: type-l and type-2 maintained $20\%$ and $26.9\%$ germinability, respectively. 17. The tolerance to low temperature increased in the order of mycelia, felts and sclerotia. Mycelia completely lost the ability to grow within 1 week at $7-8^{\circ}C$> below zero, while mycelial felts still maintained the viability after .3 weeks at $7-20^{\circ}C$ below zero, and sclerotia were even more tolerant. 18. Sclerotia of type-l and type-2 were killed when dipped into the $0.05\%$ solution of mercury chloride for 180 mins. and 240 mins. respectively: and in the $0.1\%$ solution, Type-l for 60 mins. and Type-2 for 30 mins. In the $0.125\%$ uspulun solution, Type-l sclerotia were killed in 180 mins., and those of Type-2 were killed for 90 mins. in the$0.125\%$solution. Dipping into the $5\%$ copper sulphate solution or $0.2\%$ solution of Ceresan lime or Mercron for 240 mins. failed to kill sclerotia of either Type-l or Type-2. 19. Inhibitory effect on mycelial growth of Benlate or Tachi-garen in the liquid culture increased as the concentration increased. 6 days after application, obvious inhibitory effects were found in all treatments except Benlate 0.5ppm; but after 12 days, distingushed diflerences were shown among the different concentrations. As compared with the control, mycelial growth was inhibited by $66\%$ at 0.5ppm and by $92\%$ at 2.0ppm of Benlate, and by$54\%$ at 1ppm and about $77\%$ at 1.5ppm or 2.0ppm of Tachigaren. The mycelial growth was inhibited completely at 500ppm of both fungicides, and the formation of sclerotia was checked at 1,000ppm of Benlate ant at 500ppm or 1,000ppm of Tachigaren. 20. Consumptions of glucose or ammonium nitrogen in the culture solution usually increased with the increment of mycelial growth, but when Benlate or Tachigaren were applied, consumptions of glucose or ammonium nitrogen were inhibited with the increment of concentration of the fungicides. At the low concentrations of Benlate (0.5ppm or 1ppm), however, ammonium nitrogen consumption was higher than that of the ontrol. 21. The amount of mycelia produced by consuming 1mg of glucose or ammonium nitrogen in the culture solution was lowered markedly by Benlate or Tachigaren. Such effects were the severest on the third day after their treatment in all concentrations, and then gradually recovered with the progress of time. 22. In the sand culture, mycelial growth was not inhibited. It was indirectly estimated by the amount of $CO_2$ evolved at any concentrations, except in the Tachigaren 100mg/g sand in which mycelial growth was inhibited significantly. Sclerotial production was completely depressed in the 10mg/g sand of Benlate or Tachigaren. 23. There was no visible inhibitory effect on the germination of sclerotia when the sclerotia were dipped in the solution 0.1, 1.0, 100, 1.000ppm of Benlate or Tachigaren for 10 minutes or even 20 minutes.

  • PDF