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Pollution Assessment in Surface Sediments of Weir Constructed Sections in Geum River (금강수계 보구간 표층퇴적물 오염도 평가)

  • Yang, Yunmo;Oh, Dayeon;Kim, Daehyun;Lee, Daehee;Kil, Gibeom;Cho, Yoonhae;Lee, Hyeri;Cheon, Seok;Chae, Minhee
    • Journal of The Korea Society For Environmental Analysis
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.125-138
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    • 2018
  • To evaluate the overall level of pollution in surface sediments of weir-constructed sections in the Geum River, samples were collected at nine sites four times during the period from 2015 to 2016 (a total of 36 samples). Particle size distribution, organic matter, nutrients, and heavy metals were analyzed. The surface sediments were composed mainly of sand, and the sediment types were S (sand), zS (silty sand), and sZ (sandy silt). The concentrations of IL, T-N, and T-P were lower than the values of the class IV sediment pollution evaluation level (National Institute of Environmental Research standards). The results showed that the research sites were not severely or apparently not polluted by organic matter and nutrients. The pollution assessment and ecological risk of heavy metals were evaluated using various geochemical assessment indices ($I_{geo}$, EF, $mPEL_kQ$, and PLI). Our results indicate that there was anthropogenic pollution in the study area, moderately polluted especially by Cd and Zn.

Spatial Distribution of Heavy Metals in Geum River after Weirs Construction (금강에서 보 설치 후 퇴적물 중금속 분포)

  • Yang, Yun Mo;Shim, Moo Joon;Oh, Da Yeon;Khan, Jong Beom;Lee, Jun Bae;Hong, Seoun Hwa;Lee, Soo Hyung;Park, Sang Jin
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.64-68
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    • 2015
  • BACKGROUND: Heavy metals (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Li, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were analyzed to elucidate the impact of weir construction on their concentrations in sediments of Geum River, Korea. We also attempted to investigate the source of the heavy metals in sediments. METHODS AND RESULTS: For this study, sediments were collected from May through June in 2012. The concentrations of heavy metals except Hg were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer, and Hg was measured by automatic mercury analyzer. More clay were accumulated in the furthest stations in the upstream direction starting from the weirs. Most of the heavy metals showed higher concentrations in the most upstream located station of Geumnam Weir. However, high concentrations were not observed in the most upstream stations of the other weirs. The concentrations of Hg and As were much higher in sediments of Gap Stream. CONCLUSION: Gap Stream may be a potential source for high deposits of As and Hg. Presence of the dams may not play an important role in controlling heavy metal concentrations in sediments. It is necessary to monitor heavy metal concentrations for a longer time period to study the effect of environmental changes on heavy metal distribution in Geum River.

Correlation Analysis of General Parameters and Metals in the Lake Sediments of Geum River Basin

  • Lee, Jun-Bae;Cho, Yoon-Hae;Huh, In-Ae;Khan, Jong-Beom;Oh, Da-Yeon;Yang, Yoon-Mo;Gil, Gi-Beom;Lee, Soo-Hyung;Cheon, Se-Yeok;Lee, Bo-Mi
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.50 no.6
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    • pp.684-696
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    • 2017
  • An investigation of grain size, organic compounds and metal distribution in lakes from Geum river basin (Republic of Korea) was conducted in two years (2014 and 2015). The samples of sediment were collected from the 3 lakes (12 sites). The samples were analyzed the concentration of metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni, As, Cd, Hg, Al, and Li) and general indices including grain size. Spearman correlation coefficients were determined using general indices and metal concentrations respectively. The organic qualities of sediments were improved in 2015 compared with 2014. The concentrations of metals were lower than Sediment Criteria of Lakes in Korea. The significant Spearman correlation coefficients were presented only sand-clay, clay-water content, COD-TOC, Cu-Ni, Cd-Li, Zn-Li, and Cr-Ni of general and metal parameters in 2014, 2015 and both of two years.

A Study on Water Quality Changes of Geum River Subwatersheds: In Cases of Tributary (금강수계 소유역내 수질 변화 분석 -소하천을 대상으로-)

  • Han, Ah-Won;Hong, Sun-Hwa;Hwang, Soon-Hong;Kim, Dong-Ho;Lee, Jun-Bae;Lee, Young-Joon
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.328-343
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    • 2012
  • BACKGROUND: For effective subwatershed management, it is very important to select the tributaries for improving water quality and understand the characteristics of tributaries. Until now, however, the case study of main streams has been managed. 17 tributaries in Geum river subwatershed were monitored to regulate the source of water contaminations and identify their current situations in this study. METHODS AND RESULTS: As pollution indicators, such as biological oxygen demand($BOD_5$), chemical oxygen demand($COD_{Mn}$), suspended solid(SS), total nitrogen (T-N), total phosphate(T-P) and total organic carbon(TOC) in Geum river were examined from January to December in 2011. The results were as follows : The annual average concentration of nutrients in Yongdam reservoir upsteam was 0.7 mg/L for BOD, 3.0 mg/L for COD, 8.4 mg/L for SS, 2.905 mg/L for T-N, 0.035 mg/L for T-P and 1.6 mg/L for TOC. Water quality of Daechung reservoir upstream was mostly similar tendency in comparison to Yongdam reservoir upstream. Among the 22 tributaries, water quality in Daechung reservoir downstream was more polluted. T-N contents were significantly high in Miho B4 located Daechung reservoir downstream(annual average concentration: 13.53 mg/L). In cases of Miho A1, A2 and C1, pollution degree was worsened during rainy season expecially. CONCLUSION(S): For improving water quality of Geum river subwatershed, the tributaries in the Mihocheon area should be preferentially considered. Mihocheon tributary is the highest in pollution site, and thus a study on long-term effects should be research.

Distribution pattern of Pectinatella magnifica (Leidy, 1851), an invasive species, in the Geum River and the Nakdong River, South Korea

  • Jo, Hyunbin;Joo, Gea-Jae;Byeon, Myeoungseop;Hong, Dong-Gyun;Gim, Jung-Soo;Kim, Ji-Yoon;Choi, Jong-Yun
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.217-223
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    • 2014
  • We conducted a distributional survey of Pectinatella magnifica, an invasive species, in the Geum River and the Nakdong River from July 12 to July 25, 2014. The spacing between the study sites was 10 km along the main channels for the Geum River (n = 12, 120 km) and the Nakdong River (n = 38, 380 km) from the estuarine barrage to upper part of main channel. Pectinatella magnifica was detected along the riparian zone (within 100 m) at each of the study sites. Presence rate of P. magnifica in Geum River and Nakdong River was 25% and 32.6%, respectively. The colony number of P. magnifica at Geum River ($9.5{\pm}3.1colony/m$, n = 3) was over 94 fold higher than that in the Nakdong River ($0.1{\pm}0.1colony/m$, n = 16). The Total length distribution of P. magnifica had a truncated bell shape at each rivers (mean length: $14.0{\pm}1.2cm$ for Geum River (n = 32), and $16.8{\pm}1.4cm$ for Nakdong River (n = 52)). These findings could provide basic information regarding the distribution pattern of P. magnifica in a new invasion area.

Impacts on Water Surface Level of the Geum River with the Diversion Tunnel Operation for Low Flow Augmentation of the Boryong Dam (금강-보령댐 도수터널 운영에 따른 금강 본류 내 수위 영향 분석 연구)

  • Jang, Suk-Hwan;Oh, Kyoung-Doo;Oh, Ji-Hwan
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.26 no.9
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    • pp.1031-1043
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    • 2017
  • Recently severe drought caused the water shortage around the western parts of Chungcheongnamdo province, South Korea. A Diversion tunnel from the Geum river to the Boryong dam, which is the water supply dam for these areas has been proposed to solve this problem. This study examined hydraulic impacts on the Geum river associated with the diversion plan assuming the severe drought condition of 2015 would persist for the simulation period of 2016. The hydraulic simulation model was verified using hydrologic and hydraulic data including hourly discharges of the Geum river and its 8 tributaries, fluctuation of tidal level at the mouth of the river, withdrawals and return flows and operation records of the Geum river barrage since Feb. 1, 2015 through May 31, 2015. For the upstream boundary condition of the Geum river predicted inflow series using the nonlinear regression equation for 2015 discharge data was used. In order to estimate the effects of uncertainty in inflow prediction to the results total four inflow series consisting of upper limit flow, expected flow, lower limit flow and instream flow were used to examine hydraulic impacts of the diversion plan. The simulation showed that in cases of upper limit and expected flows there would be no problem in taking water from the Geum river mouth with a minimum water surface level of EL(+) 1.44 m. Meanwhile, the simulation also showed that in cases of lower limit flow and instream flow there would be some problems not only in taking water for water supply from the mouth of the Geum river but also operating the diversion facility itself with minimum water surface levels of EL(+) 0.94, 0.72, 0.43, and 0.14 m for the lower limit flow without/with diversion and the instream flow without/with diversion, respectively.

Multivariate Analysis of Water Quality Data at 14 Stations in the Geum-River Watershed (금강유역 14개 관측점의 수질자료를 이용한 수질의 다변량분석)

  • 임창수
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.331-336
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    • 1999
  • The monthly water quality data measured at 14 stations located in the Geum-River watershed were clustered into 2 to 7 clusters. Furthermore, factor analyses were conducted on Gabcheon and Yugucheon to characterize the water qualtiy, based on the information obtained from the results of culster analysis. The results of cluster analysis show that the water quality charactersitic of main stream of the Geum-River is somewhat different from that of substream of the Geum-River. Furthermore, the water quality characteristic of Gabcheon which is expected to have the most serious water quality problems in the Geum-River watershed shows the most different water quality characteristic from Yugucheon. Based ont he factor loadings in each factor, Gabcheon and Yugucheon have their own water quality characteristics. This is mainly because of composite factors such as different population density, industrial activities, and land use conditions in Gabcheon and Yugucheon subwatersheds.

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Influence of River Discharge Fluctuation and Tributary Mixing on Water Quality of Geum River, Korea (유량변화와 지류유입에 따른 금강의 수질 변화)

  • Shim, Moo Joon;Lee, Soo Hyung
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.313-318
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    • 2015
  • To study the influence of changes in river discharge on water quality of the main stem of the Geum River, we investigated variation of inflow load from tributaries with river discharge. We also studied the mixing behavior of pollutants during mixing of waters of the main stem and Gap Stream. For this study, we collected water quality data such as suspended solids (SS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) representing pre-monsoon, monsoon, and post-monsoon events of 2013 from a website of Water Information System. Based on inflow load, the Gap and Miho streams may be ones of tributaries which may largely influence water quality of main stem in upper river region. The Suksung and Nonsan Streams seemed to further affect water quality downstream. Results of modified EMMA indicated SS and TP may have another source(besides Gap Stream) at pre-monsoon, monsoon, and post-monsoon period. In contrast, TN and organic matter (BOD, COD, TOC) were conservative at pre-monsoon and post-monsoon. However, when river discharge increased, these pollutants may also came from unspecified non-point sources. Therefore, we need to attempt to find non-point sources for the pollutants in the main channel of upper Geum River region.

A study on the management and improvement of alert system according to algal bloom in the Daecheong Reservoir (대청호 조류발생에 따른 경보제 운영 및 개선 방안 고찰)

  • Jeong, Dong-Hwan;Lee, Jaejeong;Kim, Kyoyoung;Lee, Daehee;Hong, Sunhwa;Yoon, Johee;Hong, Sukyoung;Kim, Taeseung
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.915-925
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    • 2011
  • Following the industrialization and urbanization in Korea, algal bloom causes aesthetic displeasure and many other problems such as taste and odor, coloration, scum, increase in pH, filter-bed blockage. There were some cases involving human death by microcystins during summertime in foreign countries. In Korea, Harmful cyanobacteria such as Microcystis and Anabaena develop in summer in the Daecheong reservoir, one of the main water resources, with the retention time of above 200 days. To better control algal bloom, the Ministry of Environment has been running algal bloom alert system from 1998 for the Daecheong reservoir, which needs to be improved to reflect the characteristics of river-type lakes. For this reason, we try to find new measures to improve an algal bloom alert system for each water zone considering the characteristics of harmful cyanobacteria in this study.

Investigation of Effects of Environemtal Characteristics of Mid Region Geum River (금강 중유역의 환경특성이 하천 수질에 미치는 영향에 관한 조사)

  • Kim, Ji-Yeon;Lee, Jae-Woon
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.1026-1030
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    • 2010
  • The Geum river being used as drinking water sources has contaminated due to inflow of inadequately treated wastewater from the tributaries into the river. The characteristics of water quality in the upper regions showed good grade(BOD<3mg/L) in the Geum river, the Mankyung river and the Dongjin river, while that in the lower regions and the upper region of the Sapkyo river did not achieve the good grade. This resulted in the inflow of domestic, industrial and livestock wastewater not adequately treated by wastewater treatment systems. For lakes, the mouth of the kyungchun lake, the Sapkyo lake and the Yedane lake showed the eutrophication phenaminon with higher COD concentration. In particular, total phosphorus and chlorophyll-a concentration were higher in the Sapkyo lake than other lake.

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