• Title, Summary, Keyword: gingival index

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THE EFFECTS OF A CHLORHEXIDINE AND TETRACYCLINE MOUTHRINSE ON ADULT PERIODONTITS (성인형 치주염에서 Chlorhexidine과 Tetracycline 양치액의 효과에 관한연구)

  • Seo, Seok-Ran;Kwack, Jung-Minn;Kim, Hyong-Seop
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.271-282
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    • 1994
  • Active treatment of periodontal disease consists of plaque control by the patient, with root planing and surgery perfomed by the dental practitioner. Chlorhexidine rinse has been the most effective antiplaque agent available today and tetracycline has been the most favored antibiotics. Therefore, the purpose of this study was compared the different effect among groups(saline mouthrinse[group I], 0.125% chlorhexidine mouthrinse [groupII], and 0.125% chlorhexidine mouthrinse containing tetracycline[groupIII]) during the immediate post periodontal therapy. We assessed plaque index, gingival index, papillary bleediing index, gingival crevicular volume, periodontal attachment loss, and periodontal pocket depth in 3 sites per subject. The assessment was made at baseline. At 1 week after scaling, and at 2 weeks after curettage. All groups were clinically and statistically reduced plaque score, gingival score, papillary bleeding score, and gingival crevicular volume at 2 weeks after curettage. Group II was significantly reduced periodontal pocket depth.(P<0.05) At 1 week after scaling, al clinical index scores were reduced but not singificantly difference between the groups.(p>0.05) At 2 weeks after curettage, plaque score, gingival score and papillary bleeding score were significantly difference between the groups.(P<0.05) During the experimental period, gingiva was not damaged and stain of the tongue or teeth were not noted in all groups.

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THE EFFECTS OF CHLORHEXIDINE USING PATTERN WITH PERIODONTAL PACK ON CLINICAL AND MICROBIOLOGIC PARAMETER AFTER PERIODONTAL SURGERY (치주포대에 클로르헥시딘 이용형태가 치주수술후 임상과 미생물학적 변수에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Kang-Hyun;Kim, Sung-Ho;Shin, Hyung-Shik
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.376-389
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    • 1994
  • A study was conducted to compare the effects of chlorhexidine mouthrinse and chlorhexidine acetate powder with periodontal pack during 4 weeks following periodontal surgery. Twelve patients were treated with Modified Widman flap procedures and devided into three groups of four patients each; control group, chlorhexidine mouthrinse group, chlorhexidine acetate powder group. Each group wasn't significant difference in clinical and microbiologic parameters at preoperation. Examination regarding plaque index, gingival index, pocket depth, change of gingival color postsurgically, pain index were performed by each methods and observed bacteria in gingiva by phase contrast microscope. Evaluations were made at 7, 14 and 28 days postsurgically. The results were as follows: l. In comparison of results revealed no significant differences in Plaque Index, Gingival Index, pocket depth and change of gingival color postsurgically. 2. The pocket depth of three experimental groups were significant reduced at 4 weeks. 3. Chlorhexidine mouthrinse group and chlorhexidine acetate powder group with periodontal pack were significant differences in pain index at 3, 4 days postsurgically. 4. Cocci and Non-motile rods were increased at 1, 2 weeks. But, motile rod and spirochete were increased at 4 weeks.

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INFLUENCES OF SYRUP MEDICATION FOR ASTHMA ON THE PLAQUE INDEX AND GINGIVAL INDEX (천식치료를 위한 시럽제의 복용이 치태지수와 치은지수에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Dae-Eop
    • THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.157-161
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    • 1998
  • The teeth and gingivae of 20 children with asthma aged up to 6 years who had been taking syrup medicines regularly for at least six months were compared with those of a control group of 79 children of similar ages. Dental disease was assessed by measuring dental plaque(plaque index) and gingivitis(gingival index). The results of this study show that long-term administration of syrup medicine ketotifen sweetened with glucose increase the plaque index and gingival index in children who had primary dentition. But there was no significant difference between the two groups. By increasing the intake duration of syrup, both indices were increased.

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Comparative volumetric and clinical evaluation of peri-implant sulcular fluid and gingival crevicular fluid

  • Bhardwaj, Smiti;Prabhuji, Munivenkatappa Lakshmaiah Venkatesh
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.43 no.5
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    • pp.233-242
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: Peri-implant sulcular fluid (PISF) has a production mechanism similar to gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). However, limited research has been performed comparing their behavior in response to inflammation. Hence, the aim of the present study was to comparatively evaluate PISF and GCF volume with varying degrees of clinical inflammatory parameters. Methods: Screening of patients was conducted. Based on the perimucosal inflammatory status, 39 loaded implant sites were selected from 24 patients, with equal numbers of sites in healthy, peri-implant mucositis, and peri-implantitis subgroups. GCF collection was done from age- and sex-matched dentate patients, selected with gingival inflammatory status corresponding to the implant sites. Assessment of the inflammatory status for dental/implant sites was performed using probing depth (PD), plaque index/modified plaque index (PI/mPI), gingival index/simplified gingival index (GI/sGI), and modified sulcular bleeding index (BI). Sample collection was done using standardized absorbent paper strips with volumetric evaluation performed via an electronic volume quantification device. Results: Positive correlation of the PISF and GCF volume was seen with increasing PD and clinical inflammatory parameters. A higher correlation of GCF with PD (0.843) was found when compared to PISF (0.771). PISF expressed a higher covariation with increasing grades of sGI (0.885), BI (0.841), and mPI (0.734), while GCF established a moderately positive correlation with GI (0.694), BI (0.696), and PI (0.729). Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, except for minor fluctuations, GCF and PISF volumes demonstrated a similar nature and volumetric pattern through increasing grades of inflammation, with PISF showing better correlation with the clinical parameters.

AN IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL STUDY ON THE CHANGES OF LYMPHOCYTE SUBPOPULATIONS AND NK CELLS ACCORDING TO THE SEVERITIES OF THE PERIODONTAL DISEASE (치주질환 심도에 따른 조직내 림프구 및 NK 세포의 변화에 관한 면역조직학적 연구)

  • Choi, Ho-Keun;Kwon, Young-Hyunk;Lee, Man-Sup
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.300-314
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    • 1993
  • Periodontal disease research has been focused on understanding the immunopathologic mechanisms which may operate in the development and maintenance of peiodontal inflammatory changes. Immunologic and inflammatory responses may relate to the etiology and pathogenesis of periodontal disease. In order to research immunopathology of periodontal disease, previous investigators have spent much time on the distribution of lymphocyte subpopulations and NK cells but they have spent less time on the changes of those cells to the periodontal disease severity. The purpose of study was performed to investigate the changes of the distribution of T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, T lymphocyte subsets, and Natural Killer cells in the gingival epithelium and connective tissue of the periodontal disease with the various clinical parameters including Gingival Index, Sulcular Bleeding Index, and pocket depth. Gingival tissues were obtained from 25 patients with different severity of periodontal disease. Serial cryostat sections displaying a cross section of gingiva were labelled with monoclonal antibody for pan T cells, T cytotoxic/suppressor cells, T helper/inducer cells, pan B cells, and NK cells were develped using an avidin-biotin-peroxidase system. Lymphocyte populations were enumerated in repeatable fields from gingival section. 1. T cells were more increased at grade 1 and 3 than at grade 0 of gingival index (p<0.05). Helper T cells and NK cells were significantly increased at grade 1, 2, 3 than at grade 0(p<0.05). 2. T cells were more decreased at grade 3 and 4 than at grade 1 of sulcular bleeding index (p<0.01, p<0.05). Especially, Natural Killer cells were significantly increased at grade 1, 2, 3, 4 than at grade 0 (p<0.05, p<0.001). 3. The ratios of helper T/suppressor T cells were more decreased at grade 4 than at grade 0 and at grade 4 than at grade 2 of sulcular bleeding index (p<0.05, p<0.05). 4. Helper T cells were significantly decreased at grade II and III than at grade I, however the Natural Killer cells showed a increasing tendency with the increase of the pocket depth, there were no significant differences between each grade of pocket depth. 5. The ratios of helper T/suppressor T cells were tended to be decreased with the increase of the pocket depth, there were no significant differences between each grades of pocket depth. There was a very weak change in the distribution of T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, T lymphocyte subsets, and Natural Killer cells in the gingival epithelium and connective tissue of the periodontal lesion with the various clinical parameters including gingial index, sulcular bleeding index, and pocket depth. But, the number of T lymphocytes and Natural Killer cells were significantly changed in gingival index and sulcular bleeding index.

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A comparative study of combined periodontal and orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances and clear aligners in patients with periodontitis

  • Han, Ji-Young
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.45 no.6
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    • pp.193-204
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: With the increasing prevalence of orthodontic treatment in adults, clear aligner treatments are becoming more popular. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of orthodontic treatment on periodontal tissue and to compare orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances (FA) to clear aligner treatment (CAT) in periodontitis patients. Methods: A total of 35 patients who underwent orthodontic treatment in the Department of Periodontology were included in this study. After periodontal treatment with meticulous oral hygiene education, patients underwent treatment with FA or CAT, and this study analyzed patient outcomes depending on the treatment strategy. Clinical parameters were assessed at baseline and after orthodontic treatment, and the duration of treatment was compared between these two groups. Results: The overall plaque index, the gingival index, and probing depth improved after orthodontic treatment (P<0.01). The overall bone level also improved (P=0.045). However, the bone level changes in the FA and CAT groups were not significantly different. Significant differences were found between the FA and CAT groups in probing depth, change in probing depth, and duration of treatment (P<0.05). However, no significant differences were found between the FA and CAT groups regarding the plaque index, changes in the plaque index, the gingival index, changes in the gingival index, or changes in the alveolar bone level. The percentage of females in the CAT group (88%) was significantly greater than in the FA group (37%) (P<0.01). Conclusions: After orthodontic treatment, clinical parameters were improved in the FA and CAT groups with meticulous oral hygiene education and plaque control. Regarding plaque index and gingival index, no significant differences were found between these two groups. We suggest that combined periodontal and orthodontic treatment can improve patients' periodontal health irrespective of orthodontic techniques.

The effect of garlic extract on antibacterial activity of periopathogens (Garlic extract 배합 치약의 치주질환 균주에 대한 항균 효과)

  • Jang, Jong-Hwa;Park, Young-Duk;Ryu, Da-Young
    • Journal of Korean society of Dental Hygiene
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.631-640
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    • 2012
  • Objectives : This study mean to confirm the antibacterial activity of a garlic extract widely culturing in our region and was to determine the effect of dentifrice containing 0.1% extracts of garlic on dental plaque and gingivitis in a double blind and clinical studies in 50 healthy adults aged from 20 to 22 years who provided a consent for their participation. Methods : The antibacterial activity was evaluated using triple distilled water and the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method and the minimal inhibitory concentration(MIC) against various pathogens for periodontal disease, such as P. gingivalis 381(ATCC33277), was estimated. The experimental groups classified according to the concentration of garlic extract used: 10,000ppm(A), 5,000ppm(B), 2,500ppm(C), 1,000ppm(D). Oral examination of subjects was performed through clinical periods and on day of baseline, 6, 12, 19, 25 days plaque index and gingival index were scored by Turesky' modified index and Loe & Silness index. After 12, 19, 25 days use of their respective dentifrices, statistically decreases of plaque index, gingival index were shown in both the experimental and the control group, respectively. Results : There was significant antibacterial activity in the "2,500ppm(C)" group against P. gingivalis 381. Experimental group exhibited significantly the lower plaque levels and the higher levels of gingival health by the use of the dentifrices contained extract of garlic from 6 days compare with control group(p<0.05). The degree of decrease was more significant on gingivitis level of the experimental group than the control group(p<0.05). Conclusions : This findings indicated that the oral products containing a garlic extract is effective in preventing and treating periodontal diseases, and has potential value in inhibiting periopathogens.

A STUDY ON PERIODONTAL DISEASE SEVERITY AND MYELOPEROXIDASE IN GINGIVAL CREVICULAR FLUID (치주질환 심도와 치은열구액내 Myeloperoxidase에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, Byung-Son;Kwack, Jung-Minn;Kim, Hyung-Seop
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.733-740
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    • 1995
  • This investigation was undertaken to determine the relationship between the amount of polymorphonuclear leukocyte(PMN) enzyme myeloperoxidase(MPO) in gingival crevicular fluid(GCF) collected from active or control site and gingival disease status described by clinical indices(gingival index, papillary bleeding index, pocket depth, periotron unit). The results were as follows : 1. MPO activity/site was greater at active sites than at control sites. 2. According to increasing the clinical parameters, MPO/sites was higher statistically (P<0. 01, P<0.05). 3. High MPO(unit/site) groups was higher statistically than low MPO(unit/site) groups in various clinical parameters. 4. Correlation coefficients between MPO(unit/site) and GI, MPO($unit/{\mu}l$ GCF) and periotron unit were 0.4782, -0.5901, respectively.

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METHYL MERCAPTAN CONCENTRATION DURING EXPERIMENTAL GINGIVITIS IN MAN (실험적 치은염에서 구강내 휘발성 메틸머캅단 농도 변화에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Young-Jun
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.35-44
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    • 1995
  • The purpose of present study was to evaluate the relationship between the early change of gingival condition and methyl mercaptan concentration during experimental gingivitis. Ten men(23-25 years old) whose gingiva were clinically healthy were selected. The participants have ceased to perform all forms of oral hygiene during 14 days and then did thorough plaque control for 7 days. For each subject, the methyl mercaptan concentration was measured by $B.B.Checker^{(R)}$ (Bad Breath Checker with printer, Tokuyama Soda Co.,LTD., Japan)before experiment and 1,4,7,14,21 days during experiment. Plaque index(Silness & $L\ddot{o}e$), gingival sulcus depth and sulcus bleeding index($M\ddot{u}hlemann$ & Son)score were recorded. The results were as follows. 1. Methyl mercaptan concentration increased continuously from the first day to the 14th day, decreased on the 21th day but it was still higher(P<0.001). 2. Plaque index score and sulcus bleeding index score tended to increase on the 4th day, markedly increased on the 14th day and returned to baseline level on the 21th day. 3. There was parallel relationhsip among methyl mercaptan concentration, plaque index score and sulcus bleeding index score. This result suggests that methyl mercaptan concentration increased with deterioration in gingival health, but decreased during recovery of normal health condition.

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