• Title, Summary, Keyword: gingival index

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Synergic Effects of Mixed Formula Consisted of Polycan and Calcium-gluconate on the Experimental Periodontitis and Alveolar Bone Loss in Rats

  • Lee, Won-Ho;Kim, Kyung Hu;Kang, Su Jin;Lee, Young Joon;Ku, Sae Kwang
    • Journal of Society of Preventive Korean Medicine
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.125-138
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    • 2014
  • Objective : Polycan, exopolymers purified from Aureobasidium pullulans SM-2001 and calcium gluconate have been showed favorable inhibitory effects on the periodontitis and related alveolar bone losses through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, respectively. In the present study, we intended to observe the possible synergic effects of mixed formula consisted of Polycan and calcium gluconate on ligation-induced experimental periodontitis and related alveolar bone losses in rats, and to select the fittest compositions for further developing as effective agents to ameliorate periodontal diseases. Method : Experiments were conducted as two separated two tests - first is synergic effects of Polycan and calcium gluconate 1:1, 1:9 and 9:1 mixtures, and second is 1:99, 2:98, 4:96, 8:92 and 1:9 mixtures. Experimental periodontal diseases were induced by ligature placed around the cervix of upper left incisior teeth of rats. One day after ligation placements, 200mg/kg of each single or mixed formulas of Polycan or/and calcium gluconate were orally administered for 10 days. The changes on the alveolar bone loss index and maxillary bone mineral density (BMD) were observed for detecting alveolar bone losses, and for anti-inflammatory effects, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities and proinflammatory cytokine (tumor necrosis factor; TNF-${\alpha}$) contents were also evaluated in gingival tissues around ligature placed incisior teeth. The results of mixtures were compared with those of singe Polycan and calcium gluconate treated rat. Results : Each single or mixed formulas of Polycan or/and calcium gluconate favorably and significantly inhibited the inflammatory changes. The inhibitory effects of mixed formula consisted of Polycan and calcium gluconate 1:9 showed against periodontitis and related alveolar bone losses as compared with those of each Polycan and calcium gluconate single formula (p<0.05). In second experiment, Polycan and calcium gluconate 2:98, 4:96, 8:92 and 1:9 mixed formulas also showed significant increased anti-inflammatory and inhibitory effects against alveolar bone losses as compared with those of each single formula. Among them, Polycan and calcium gluconate 2:98 showed the highest efficacy against to ligation-induced experimental periodontitis and related alveolar bone losses. Conclusion : The results obtained in this study suggest that appropriated mixtures of Polycan and calcium gluconate showed synergic inhibitory effects against ligation-induced experimental periodontitis and related alveolar bone losses in rats. Moreover, Polycan and calcium gluconate 2:98 showed the highest efficacies in this experiment, suggesting the fittest composition for further developing as effective agents to ameliorate periodontal diseases.

Impact of iron deficiency anemia on chronic periodontitis and superoxide dismutase activity: a cross-sectional study

  • Chakraborty, Souvik;Tewari, Shikha;Sharma, Rajinder Kumar;Narula, Satish Chander;Ghalaut, Pratap Singh;Ghalaut, Veena
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.57-64
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: Both chronic periodontitis (CP) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) induce oxidative stress in the body and cause an imbalance between reactive oxygen species and antioxidants, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD). This study explored the SOD enzyme activity of saliva and serum in CP patients with and without IDA and analyzed the impact of IDA on CP. Methods: A total of 82 patients were divided into four groups: control group (CG, 22), periodontally healthy IDA patients (IDA-PH, 20), CP patients (CP, 20), and IDA patients with CP (IDA-CP, 20). After clinical measurements and samplings, serum and salivary SOD levels were determined using an SOD assay kit. Results: IDA-CP patients exhibited a higher gingival index, bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth, and percentage (%) of sites with a clinical attachment loss (CAL) of ${\geq}6mm$ (P<0.008) than CP patients. The mean salivary and serum SOD levels were significantly lower in the IDA-PH, CP, and IDA-CP patients than in the CG group (P<0.008). A significant positive correlation between salivary and serum SOD activity was observed in IDA (P<0.05). Furthermore, serum and salivary SOD levels were significantly and negatively correlated with all periodontal parameters including the percentage of sites with CAL of 4-5 and ${\geq}6mm$ (P<0.05) except the significant correlation between salivary SOD activity and mean CAL and the percentage of sites with CAL of 4-5 mm (P>0.05) in these patients. Conclusions: Within the limits of this study, it may be suggested that IDA patients with chronic periodontitis have more periodontal breakdowns than patients with chronic periodontitis. Serum and salivary SOD activity levels were lower in the IDA-PH, CP and IDA-CP groups than in the CG. Iron deficiency anemia influenced the serum SOD activity but did not seem to affect the salivary SOD activity in these patients.

Correlation Between Tooth Mobility and other Periodontal Clinical Parameters of Teethhaving Periodontal Regenerative Treatment (치주재생 치료를 받은 치아의 동요도와 다른 치주임상적 지표 간의 상관관계)

  • Son, Byung-Chan;Kim, Sung-Jo;Choi, Jeom-Il;Lee, Ju-Youn
    • Journal of Dental Rehabilitation and Applied Science
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.37-46
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    • 2012
  • The ultimate goal of periodontal therapy is the regeneration of supporting tissues. It is recommended to avoid probing until 6~9 months following the regenerative therapy because the probing may jeopardize the newly formed tissues. We can measure tooth mobility objectively using Periotest. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether Periotest can be used to evaluate the treatment results alternatively, and whether there are the correlations between the changes of Periotest value (PTV) and other clinical parameters. Regenerative treatments have been performed on 29 teeth of twenty five patients, at Department of Periodontology, Pusan National University Hospital. We measured the tooth mobility by Periotest and other parameters at the baseline, 6 and 12 months after regenerative treatment. Compared to the baseline, there were the statistically significant improvements in all the parameters at 6 months and 12 months. There were statistically significant correlations among the probing depth, attachment level, gingival recession and PTV at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Also there was the correlation between changes in PTV and in the attachment level at each time of observation period. We may conclude that regenerative therapy would improve the clinical parameters and periodontal status and PTV would be an alternative index to evaluate the healing process after regenerative surgery.

Halitosis and Related Factors among Rural Residents (농촌지역 주민들의 구취실태와 유발요인)

  • Lee, Young-Ok;Hong, Jung-Pyo;Lee, Tae-Yong
    • Journal of Oral Medicine and Pain
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.157-175
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    • 2007
  • This study was conducted through an interview process in which questionnaires were administered to 293 people. The questionnaires related to the behaviors of oral hygiene care, and disease history related to halitosis, and status of halitosis, halitosis measurement, oral examination, and caries activity tests such as the snyder test, Salivary flow rate test, and Salivary buffering capacity test. Our sample was taken from 293 rural residents within the period from 4th to 21st of January 2006. This was done in order to provide basic data to prepare both policies of halitosis prevention and a device to efficiently measure halitosis status and investigate the factors related therein. The major findings of this study results are as follows: 1. As for frequency of tooth brushing, twice a day occupied the greatest portion at 46.1 % Women exceeded men in frequency of tooth brushing. Tongue brushing everyday produced a 25.6 % result among subjects and The use of auxiliary oral hygiene devices occupied 9.2 %. 2. As for degree of usual self-awareness of halitosis: 62.5 %. This result also demonstrate that the severest time of self-awareness in regards to halitosis is wake up time in the morning. The time period produced the highest portion of 72.7 % in times of self-awareness. In terms of the area in which halitosis was observed, gum resulted in 23.0 %. As for types of halitosis, fetid smell was the most frequent at 37.2 %. 3. As for the result of halitosis measurement, values of OG less than 50 ppm occupied 54.3 % and $50{\sim}100ppm$ occupied 41.6 %. As for $NH_3$ values, $20{\sim}60ppm$ showed the highest value range of 52.6 %. 4. As for OG per disease history related to halitosis, values of OG were significantly high in the ranges of $50{\sim}100ppm$ within family history groups of food impaction by dental caries, diabetes mellitus and halitosis. As for values of $NH_3$, there showed a significant difference in respiratory system disease groups. 5 Value range of OG per ordinary halitosis self-awareness degree: values ranging less than 50 ppm were recorded at 55.9 % from the group realizing not aware of smell. 57.5 % from groups only realizing sometimes, while values range of $50{\sim}100ppm$ were recorded at 52.0 % from groups always aware of smell. 63.6 % from groups always strongly aware of smell. Meanwhile as for the values ranges of $NH_3$, $20{\sim}60ppm$. they occupied high portions for all groups of exams. 6. Values of OG per oral examination: the more pulp-exposed teeth and food impaction and the higher the tongue plaque index, values of OG increased within the range of $50{\sim}100ppm$. As for values of $NH_3$, the more prosthetic teeth and the higher the tongue plaque index, this value increased significantly, and the values increased up to no less than 60 ppm for groups of mandibular partial denture. 7. Within the realm of caries activity test: as for the Snyder test, high activity was highest by 43.0 % wherewith the higher the activity of acidogenic bacteria the higher the OG values. As for the salivary flow rate test, the number of cases below 8.0 ml showed the highest tendency by 62.5 %. The larger the salivary flow rate the more decreased OG values distribution. As for the salivary buffering capacity test, $6{\sim}10$ drops of 0.1N lactic acid showed the overwhelming trend by 58.7 % whereby the higher the salivary buffering capacity the greater distribution occupancy ratio of OG values below 50 ppm which is scentless to on ordinary person. 8. As for the correlation between oral environment and halitosis, OG showed the positive correlation with pulp exposed teeth, filled teeth, present teeth, tongue plaque index, and food impaction, while the negative correlation with salivary flow rate and prosthetic teeth. $NH_3$ showed a positive correlation with prosthetic teeth and frequency of tooth brushing, while decayed teeth was negative correlation. 9. As for the multiple regression analysis result, there have been selected female, pulp exposed teeth, prosthetic teeth, food impaction, salivary flow rate, tongue plaque index and severe activities in the Snyder test as factors affecting OG wherein explanatory power on it was 45.1 %. There have been selected females, pulp exposed teeth, tongue plaque index, and prosthetic teeth as factors affecting on $NH_3$ wherein explanatory power on it was 6.6 %. With the aforementioned results in mind, the status of halitosis among rural residents is considered to bare a close relation with oral environments and other factors related to halitosis such as the Snyder test from caries activity test, and salivary flow rate test. For the prevention of halitosis of residents in rural areas, we have to focus on correct tooth brushing methods and tongue brushing, with using auxiliary oral hygiene devices to remove fur of tongue plaque and food impaction. Also, when the cause and ingredients of halitosis are diverse and complex, in order to analyze exactly the factors of individual halitosis development, we need continuous and systematic study in order to provide rural residents with programs of oral hygiene education and encourage the use of dental hygienists in public health centers.

Dental Hygienist-Led Dental Hygiene Process of Care for Self-Support Program Participants in Gangneung (강릉시 자활근로사업 참여자 대상 치위생 과정 사례보고)

  • Yoo, Sang-Hee;Kwak, Seon-Hui;Lee, Sue-Hyang;Song, Ga-In;Bae, Soo-Myoung;Shin, Sun-Jung;Shin, Bo-Mi
    • Journal of dental hygiene science
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.327-339
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    • 2018
  • This study aimed to provide basic data for establishing the clinical basis for dental hygienist-led dental hygiene process of care by identifying multiple risk factors for self-support program participants in Gangneung city; we also compared oral health status and behavioral changes through customized oral health care. Four dental hygienists who were evaluated for degree of conformity provided dental hygiene process of care to eight self-support program participants who were selected as having an oral health risk among people in the self-support center. The clinical indicators measured during dental hygiene assessment and evaluation and behavioral changes due to dental hygiene intervention were compared and analyzed. With respect to clinical indicators, at the time of probe, the retention rate of patients with gingival bleeding decreased from 61.4% to 14.7% after intervention (p=0.004). Furthermore, the retention rate of patients with a periodontal pocket >4 mm decreased from 15.6% to 5.8% (p=0.001). The average modified O'Leary index of the patients improved from 23 to 40 (p=0.002). Previously, all eight subjects used the vertical or horizontal method of brushing; after dental hygiene care interventions regarding method and frequency of toothbrushing, use of oral care products, and individual interventions, they started using the rolling or Bass method of toothbrushing. Four of eight subjects reported using interdental toothbrushes after intervention. As a result of applying the change model to the transtheoretical behavior change of the subject, the result of strengthening the health behavior was confirmed. For promotion of oral health by the prevention-centered incremental oral health care system, dental hygienist-led dental hygiene management and maintenance is essential. It is thought that continuous research, such as for feasibility evaluation, cost benefit analysis, and preparation of legal systems, is needed to establish and activate dental hygiene management.

Evaluation of Oral Health Promotion Program Connected with Hypertension and Diabetes Management Programs: Use of a Logical Model (일부 보건소 고혈압·당뇨관리교실 연계 구강건강증진 프로그램 운영 및 평가: 논리적 모형을 이용하여)

  • Yoo, Sang-Hee;Shin, Bo-Mi;Bae, Soo-Myoung;Shin, Sun-Jung
    • Journal of dental hygiene science
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.293-301
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    • 2016
  • This study aimed to design and operate a complementary integrated health management program based on the connection between the hypertension and diabetes management programs and the oral health programs at a public health center. It also proposed to suggest the phased evaluation indicators. In this study, 48 adults registered in the hypertension and diabetes management program were selected from the Gangneung public health center. The clinic-specific programs were led by dental hygienists and operated for visitors twice every two weeks. The programs were designed based on the logical model, and indicators for evaluating the structure, process, and outcome were presented and applied to the input, process, output, and outcome. The evaluation indices consisted of quantitative and qualitative indicators, and the planning and operation, goal achievement, and effect of each program were assessed. The process evaluations were assessed by the appropriateness of the managers and the operating fidelity of the programs. Indicators for evaluating the outcomes were gingival bleeding, oral health knowledge, oral health awareness, and the satisfaction of the participant and the manager. The clinic-specific programs resulted in positive changes in the evaluated outcomes. The integrated health management of visitors to the hypertension and diabetes management program is important as the general and oral health has common risk factors. Furthermore, long-term operation and continuous monitoring of oral health programs are necessary to evaluate the common factors in chronic disease management.

The effects of tissue punch diameter on healing around implants in flapless implant surgery (무피판 임플란트 수술에서 연조직 펀치의 크기가 임플란트 주위 조직의 치유에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Du-Hyeong;Jeong, Seung-Mi;Choi, Byung-Ho
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.47 no.3
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    • pp.301-311
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    • 2009
  • Statement of problem: Flapless implant surgery using a soft tissue punch device requires a circumferential excision of the mucosa at the implant site. To date, Although there have been several reports on clinical outcomes of flapless implant surgeries, there are no published reports that address the appropriate size of the soft tissue punch for peri-implant tissue healing. Purpose: In an attempt to help produce guidelines for the use of soft tissue punches, this animal study was undertaken to examine the effect of soft tissue punch size on the healing of peri-implant tissue in a canine mandible model. Material and methods: Bilateral, edentulated, flat alveolar ridges were created in the mandibles of six mongrel dogs. After a three month healing period, three fixtures (diameter, 4.0 mm) were placed on each side of the mandible using 3 mm, 4 mm, or 5 mm soft tissue punches. During subsequent healing periods, the peri-implant mucosa was evaluated using clinical, radiological, and histometric parameters, which included Gingival Index, bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth, marginal bone loss, and vertical dimension measurements of the peri-implant tissues. Results: The results showed significant differences (P <0.05) between the 3 mm, 4 mm and 5 mm tissue punch groups for the length of the junctional epithelium, probing depth, and marginal bone loss during healing periods after implant placement. When the mucosa was punched with a 3 mm tissue punch, the length of the junctional epithelium was shorter, the probing depth was shallower, and less crestal bone loss occurred than when using a tissue punch with a diameter $\geq$ 4 mm. Conclusion: Within the limit of this study, the size of the soft tissue punch plays an important role in achieving optimal healing. Our findings support the use of tissue punch that 1 mm smaller than implant itself to obtain better peri-implant tissue healing around flapless implants.