• Title, Summary, Keyword: gingival index

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Scaling and Root Planing with Concomitant Subgingival Curettage

  • Ji, Seok-Ho;Han, Soo-Boo;Lee, Chul-Woo
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.81-93
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    • 1999
  • Non-surgical therapy is still an important technique in periodontal treatment. In this study, scaling and root planing(SRP) with or without concomitant subgingival curettage were compared clinically and microbiologically. 14 moderate adult periodontitis patients were included in this study. After 2 weeks from screening visit, with split mouth design, one quadrant was treated by SRP, and the opposite side was treated by SRP with subgingival curettage. Clinical measurement and microbiological analysis was taken at baseline, 1 month, 3 month post-treatment. Clinical parameters used in this study was probing depth, gingival recession, gingival index, bleeding on probing, plaque index, tooth mobility(Periotest Value). Microbiological analysis consisted of determination of the percentages of 4 bacterial groups according to morphologic type with phase-contrast microscope and measuring Black-pigmented Bacteroides after anaerobic culture. 1. There were significant changes in probing depth and gingival recession at 1 month(P<0.05), and these changes remained through 3 month. However, no significant differences were observed between two groups(P<0.05). 2. There were also significant reductions in gingival index and bleeding on probing at 1 month(P<0.05),and these reduced levels were maintained through 3 month with no significant differences between two groups(P<0.05). 3. In both groups, motile bacteria decreased significantly at 1 months(P<0.05), but increased nearly to baseline level at 3 month. 4. The percentages of Black-pigmented Bacteroides, in both groups, decreased significantly at 1 month(P<0.05), and in the subgingival curettage group, significant more reductions were observed than in the root planing group(P<0.05). At 3 month, significant reduction was found in subgingival curettage group only(P<0.05). According to these results, we surmised that concomitant subgingival curettage and root planing give some advantageous effect on bacterial recolonization.

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Effects of a mouthwash containing potassium nitrate, sodium fluoride, and cetylpyridinium chloride on dentin hypersensitivity: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

  • Hong, Ji-Youn;Lim, Hyun-Chang;Herr, Yeek
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.46 no.1
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    • pp.46-56
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: We evaluated the efficacy of a mouthwash containing potassium nitrate ($KNO_3$) as its main component, along with sodium fluoride (NaF) and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC). The primary endpoint was the relief of dentin hypersensitivity (DH) against the cold stimuli. The effects on other DH tests and periodontal inflammation were also evaluated. Methods: We used a single-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized design. A total of 82 patients with DH (40 in the test group, 42 placebo controls) were analyzed using visual analog scales (VASs) for a cold test, a tactile test, a compressive air test, and self-reported pain during daily activities, as well as clinical parameters including plaque index, gingival index, modified sulcular bleeding index (mSBI), gingival recession, and probing depth, which were collected at baseline and after four and six weeks of mouthwash use. Results: VAS scores for cold sensations, tactile sensations, the compressive air test, and self-reported pain significantly decreased from baseline during the six weeks in both groups (P<0.01), and no significant differences between the groups were found. In male patients (10 in the test group and 7 in the control group), both groups showed significant reductions in VAS scores for the cold test over the six weeks, and greater reductions were found in the test group than in the control group between four and six weeks (P=0.01) and between baseline and six weeks (P<0.01). In addition, the mSBI in the test group significantly decreased from baseline during the six weeks (P<0.01), and the changes at four and six weeks from baseline were significantly greater in the test group compared to the control group (P=0.03 and P=0.02, respectively). Conclusions: A mouthwash containing a mixture of $KNO_3$, NaF, and CPC reduced DH and gingival inflammation, however, the efficacy was comparable to the control group.

Oral health and hygiene in the neurosurgical patients in intensive care unit (일부 대학병원 신경외과 중환자실 환자의 구강상태에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Eun-Kyong;Lee, Hee-Kyung
    • Journal of Korean society of Dental Hygiene
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.147-152
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    • 2015
  • Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the oral health and hygiene in the neurosurgical patients in intensive care unit(ICU). Methods: The subjects were 92 neurosurgical patients in intensive care unit(ICU) from March, 2011 to December, 2012. The oral examination consisted of number of residual teeth, DMFT index, clinical attachment loss, gingival index, plague index, and Candida species colony of tongue and saliva. Plaque was inoculated from tongue and saliva and incubated in 36.5C incubator for 48 hours using $Dentocult^{(R)}$ CA(Orion Diagnostica, Espoo, Finland). Glasgow coma scale(GCS) was measured to evaluate the consciousness of the patients on the basis of medical record. Results: Oral health was poor in clinical attachment loss and gingival index. Oral hygiene in neurosurgical patients in ICU was very poor due to high plaque index and Candida colonization of tongue and saliva. Plague index was closely related to Candida colonization of tongue and saliva(p<0.05). Conclusions: Oral health and hygiene of patients in neurosurgical ICU were very poor. More careful oral hygiene care is very important and necessary to enhance the oral health improvement of the neurosurgical patients in ICU.

Development of animal experimental periodontitis models

  • Do, Min-Jae;Kim, Kyuri;Lee, Haeshin;Cha, Seho;Seo, Taegun;Park, Hee-Jung;Lee, Jeong-Soon;Kim, Tae-Il
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.147-152
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: An animal periodontitis model is essential for research on the pathogenesis and treatment of periodontal disease. In this study, we have introduced a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of a periodontal pathogen to the alveolar bone defect of experimental animals and investigated its suitability as a periodontitis model. Methods: Alveolar bone defects were made in both sides of the mandibular third premolar region of nine beagle dogs. Then, the animals were divided into the following groups: silk ligature tied on the cervical region of tooth group, Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS (P.g. LPS)-saturated collagen with silk ligature group, and no ligature or P.g. LPS application group as the control. The plaque index and gingival index were measured at 0 and 4 weeks postoperatively. The animals were then euthanized and prepared for histologic evaluation. Results: The silk ligature group and P.g. LPS with silk ligature group showed a significantly higher plaque index at 4 weeks compared to the control (P<0.05). No significant difference was found in the plaque index between the silk ligature group and P.g. LPS with silk ligature group. The P.g. LPS with silk ligature group showed a significantly higher gingival index compared to the silk ligature group or the control at 4 weeks (P<0.05). Histologic examination presented increased inflammatory cell infiltration in the gingival tissue and alveolar bone of the P.g. LPS with silk ligature group. Conclusions: An additional P.g. LPS-saturated collagen with silk ligature ensured periodontal inflammation at 4 weeks. Therefore, P.g. LPS with silk ligature application to surgically created alveolar bone defects may be a candidate model for experimental periodontitis.

Comparison of slim bristled and V-shaped orthodontic toothbrushes in patients with fixed orthodontic appliances (고정식 교정장치 장착환자에서 슬림모 칫솔과 V형 교정칫솔 간의 구강위생관리 효과 비교)

  • Choi, Jin-Hugh
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.39 no.6
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    • pp.383-392
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    • 2009
  • Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a slim bristled toothbrush compared with a V-shaped orthodontic toothbrush in patients with fixed orthodontic appliances. Methods: Thirty four orthodontic patients receiving edgewise treatment were randomly assigned to two groups, a slim bristled toothbrush (Nano silver slim care) and a V-shaped toothbrush (Oral-B). Plaque index, gingival index and bleeding index were recorded at the beginning of the study (baseline), 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 6 weeks after new toothbrushes were supplied and the results were analyzed statistically. Results: No statistically significant differences were found for plaque index, gingival index and bleeding index between toothbrush groups during the 6 weeks. Plaque and gingival indices were decreased at 2 weeks and 4 weeks but increased at 6 weeks in both toothbrush groups. Bleeding index in the V-shaped toothbrush group showed the lowest value at 2 weeks then increased at 4 weeks and 6 weeks but in the slim bristled toothbrush group decreased from 2 weeks through 6 weeks to under baseline levels. Patients in their twenties had significantly lower values than teenagers in the slim bristled toothbrush group (p < 0.013). Conclusions: The results would suggest that both of the toothbrushes are equally effective but the use of a slim bristled toothbrush may be of benefit in promoting gingival health for fixed orthodontic appliance patients in their twenties and over.

A Study on the Oral Health and Oral Health Related Quality of Life of Stroke Patients in a Rehabilitation Ward: A Pilot Study (재활병동에 입원한 뇌졸중 환자의 구강건강 및 구강건강관련 삶의 질에 관한 연구: 예비연구)

  • Kim, Eun-kyong;Kim, Min-Seon;Lee, Hee-Kyung
    • Journal of dental hygiene science
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.127-133
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    • 2016
  • The aim of this study was to examine the geriatric status, oral health, and oral health related quality of life of stroke patients hospitalized at a rehabilitatio ward and assess the relationships among these factors. A total of 78 stroke patients participated in this cross-sectional study. The following oral examinations were performed by a dentist and dental hygienist: Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth, gingival, debris, calculus, and community periodontal index (CPI). The patients' sociodemographic and geriatric status were evaluated using the Barthel index and a mini-mental state examine (MMSE) according to their medical record and a questionnaire survey. Oral health related quality of life was assessed using the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP)-14 questionnaire. Except for three participants, most stroke patients had a gingival index of 2 or more, which means probing results in bleeding gums. Additionally, 53.8% of participants had a CPI code of 3 or 4, which indicates a probing depth of 4 mm or more. CPI index was significantly related to debris, calculus, and gingival index. The OHIP-14 score significantly related to the Barthel index and MMSE (p<0.05). The oral health of stroke patients in the rehabilitation ward was relatively poor and related to poor oral hygiene. Oral health related quality of life was related not to oral health but to geriatric status significantly.

LONG-TERM EVALUATION OF A $SnF_2$ GEL FOR CONTROL OF GINGIVITIS AND DECALCIFICATION IN ADOLESCENT ORTHODONTIC PATIENTS (청소년 교정환자들의 치은염 및 치아탈회 조절을 위해 사용한 겔형 불화주석($SnF_2$ gel)의 장기간 평가)

  • Boyd, Robert L.;Chun, Youn-Sic
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.235-245
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    • 1995
  • The purpose of this paper is to review two recently reported, long-term studies of several chemical methods to control gingivitis and decalcification in adolescent orthodontic patients. The first study(gingivitis study) was designed to determine whether conventional toothbrushing and twice daily use of a brush-on 0.4 per cent $SnF_2$ gel containing more than 90 per cent available $Sn^{2+}$ would be more effective for controlling plaque accumulation and gingivitis in the presence of orthodontic appliances than conventional toothbrushing alone. The second study(decalcification study) was designed to compare the effectiveness of controlling decalcification in orthodontic patients with either a II00 ppm F tooth paste used alone, this same toothpaste and a 0.05 percent NaF rinse or this toothpaste and a 0.4 percent $SnF_2$ gel. In the gingivitis study, sixty-five consecutively treated adolescents who were to receive full-mouth fixed orthodontic appliances were assigned to two groups according to age and sex criteria. In the decalcification study an additional 30 subjects(95 total) were similarly assigned to a third group. The first group(control, n=35) used only toothbrushing with a standard fluoride(1100 ppm F) toothpaste. The second group used toothbrushing with a similar dentifrice supplemented with a 0.4 percent $SnF_2$ gel($SnF_2$ gel group, n=30) used twice daily for the entire 18-month study period. The third group(in the decalcification study only) used a similar toothpaste and 0.05 percent NaF rinse(NgF rinse group, n=30). Clinical assessments of plaque accumulation using the Plaque Index, gingival inflammation using the Gingival Index, and coronal staining were completed single-blinded before appliances were placed and 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 18 months after appliances were placed. Decalcification was assessed single blind on all labial surfaces of all erupted teeth before appliances were placed and 3 months after appliances were removed. The results of the gingivitis study indicated that the $SnF_2$ gel gorup had significantly lower scores for the Plaque Index(p<0.01) and Gingival Index(p<0.001) at all examinations during orthodontic treatment than did the control group. In the $SnF_2$ gel group, one subject developed mild coronal staining and two subjects developed moderate staining. In the decalcification study, when pre-treatment levels of decalcification were subtracted from post-treatment values, significantly lower decalcification scores(p<0.05) were found for both whole mouth and first molars in the NaF rinse and gel groups as compared with the control gorup(toothpaste alone). Although the gel group consistently had less decalcification than the rinse group, this difference only approached statistical significance.

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EVALUATION OF GINGIVAL CONDITION ON CHILDREN USING PERIOTRON (Periotron을 이용한 소아 치은 상태의 평가)

  • Shin, Jeong-Geun;Kim, Jae-Gon;Yang, Yeon-Mi;Kim, Sung-Hee;Baik, Byeong-Ju
    • THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.411-421
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    • 2006
  • In children, during developing occlusion stage, many studies confirm a high prevalence of gingival inflammation. Prevention, early diagnosis and treatment of gingival and periodontal disease is important because by establishing excellent oral hygiene habits in children, the risk of periodontal disease can be on the decrease in adulthood. This study evaluated the gingival conditions of 50 children$(8.5{\pm}3.1years)$ and 20 $adults(26.1{\pm}3.3 years)$ receiving clinical examination and GCF test at the pediatric dentistry of Chonbuk national university hospital in Jeonju, Korea. I estimated children's and adult's gingival states by measuring gingival crevicular fluid(GCF) using Periopaper and $Periotron^{(R)}$ 8000, gingival index, plaque index, DMFT scale. The results were as follows : 1. There are no statistical differences of GCF volume among the groups of the primary dentition, tooth erupting stage, complete eruption stage(p>0.1). But mean value of GCF is highest at the tooth erupting stage. 2. Comparing with adults, children have higher mean value of GCF volume with statistical differences (p<0.001). 3. There is statistically positive relationship between volume of GCF and gingival index (GI), plaque index(PLI) in both adults and children(GI; r=0.394, PLI ; r= 0.642). 4. There is no relationship between GCF volume and dental caries, composite resin treatments (p>0.05). But There is statistically positive relationship between GCF and orthodontic treatments(p<0.001) 5. Primary dentition has higher mean value of DMFT than permanent dentition(p<0.001). But there is no statistical relationship between GCF and DMFT (p>0.1).

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Plaque Removing Efficacy and Effect on Gingival Inflammation of Newly Developed Tooth Cleansing Instrument (새롭게 개발된 치아청결기의 치태제거 및 치은염증에 대한 효과)

  • Han, Dong-Kwan;Pang, Eun-Kyung;Kim, Chan-Sung;Choi, Seong-Ho;Cho, Kyoo-Sung;Chai, Jung-Kiu;Kim, Chong-Kwan
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.475-484
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    • 2003
  • Many tooth cleansing instruments and agents have been developed for removal of plaque, inhibition of plaque formation and reduction of gingival inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the plaque control effect and the therapeutic effect of newly developed tooth cleansing instrument(Belloblanco(R)). 40 healthy subjects with gingivitis or early periodontitis were divided into two groups. Subjects in control group only used manual tooth brushing and in experimental group used manual tooth brush and additive tooth cleansing instrument(Belloblanco(R)). Additive tooth cleansing instrument was used once a week. At baseline scaling and tooth brushing instruction was performed. Probing depth, bleeding on probing, plaque index, gingival index were scored at baseline, 2weeks, 4weeks. Probing depth of control and experimental group were significantly reduced at 2 weeks, 4weeks, hut there were no differences between two groups(P<(0.05). Bleeding on probing, plaque index and gingival index of control and experimental group were significantly reduced at 2weeks and 4weeks and there was significantly more reduction in the experimental group than the experimental group than the control group(p<(0.05). From these finding. it can be conclude that newly developed tooth cleansing instrument(Belloblanco(R)) are effective on the removal of plaque and the reduction of gingival inflammation

The Effects of Sex Hormones on the Expression of ODF/OPG in Human Gingival Fibroblast and Periodontal Ligament Cell at Serum Concentration During Pregnancy

  • Shin, Ji-Yearn;Baek, Dong-Heon;Han, Soo-Boo
    • International Journal of Oral Biology
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.105-110
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    • 2005
  • Periodontitis is a chronic infectious disease that leads to the destruction, one of the major cause of tooth loss in human. Osteoclast Differentiation Factor(ODF), also called as Receptor activator of NF-${\kappa}B$ ligand(RANKL), a surface-associated ligand on bone marrow stromal cells and osteoblasts, activates its cognate receptor RANK on osteoclast progenitor cells, which leads to differentiation of these mononucleated precursor cells. Osteoprotegerin(OPG), a decoy receptor, is released from stromal cells and osteoblasts to inhibit the interaction between RANKL and RANK. The experiment for the effect of pregnancy on gingival health showed greater gingival inflammation and edema during pregnancy, despite similar plaque index. There should be many factors affecting the periodontal health in pregnancy. In this experiment, we examined the direct effects of sex hormones(estrogen and progesterone) on the ODF/OPG expression in human gingival fibroblasts and periodontal ligament cells at the serum concentration of pregnancy. The ratio was high in the 1st trimester of pregnancy by estrogen and in the late 2nd trimester by progesterone. Therefore, the local periodontal destruction might be accelerated by these hormonal effect on the periodontal cells.