• Title, Summary, Keyword: ginsenoside

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Cytotoxicity of Compound K and Ginsenoside $R_{h2}$ against some tumor cells

  • Shin, Ji-Eun;Park, Eun-Kyung;Hong, Yoon-Hee;Kim, Eun-Jin;Lee, Kyung-Tae;Kim, Dong-Hyun
    • Proceedings of the PSK Conference
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    • pp.160.2-160
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    • 2003
  • When ginsenoside $R_{b1}$ and $R_{b2}$ were anaerobically incubated with human fecal microflora, these ginsenosides were metabolized to compound K. When ginsenoside $R_{g3}$ was anaerobically incubated with human fecal microflora, the ginsenoside $R_{g3}$ was metabolized it to ginsenoside $R_{h2}$. Among ginsenosides, compound K and 20(S)-ginsenoside $R_h2$ exhibited the most potent cyotoxicity against tumor cells: 50% cytotoxic concentrations of compound K in the media with and without fetal bovine serum (FBS) were 27.1 - 31.6 mM and0.1 - 0.6 mM, and those of 20(S)-ginsenoside $R_h2$ were 37.5 $\rightarrow$ 50 and 0.7 - 7.1 mM mM, respectively. (omitted)

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Effect of Ginseng Components (Ginsenosides and Fat Soluble Fraction) on Rat Liver Glucokinase Activity (쥐의 간 Glucokinase 활성에 미치는 인삼 성분의 영향)

  • 주충노;김선진
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.17-24
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    • 1994
  • Effect of ginsenoside mixture, ginsenoside $Rb_1$,$Rb_2$,$Rg_1$ and the fat soluble fraction of the roots of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer on the activity of glucokinase (GK) in vitro has been observed and found that GK activity was increased about 15c1c at the concentration of ginsenoside mixture and/or the fat soluble fraction being $10^{-7}$,$10^{-5}$%. It was also observed that glucose uptake by rat liver was increased in the presence of either ginsenoside mixture or the fat soluble fraction by perfusion technique. Ginsenoside mixture stimulated various enzymes related to glucose metabolism, however, both ginsenoside mixture and the fat soluble fraction did not stimulate GK activity as expected. Primary culture of liver cells showed that the ginsenoside mixture and the fat soluble fraction increased GK activity significantly and they stimulated the GK activity synergistically in the co-presence of insulin.

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Biotransformation of Ginseng Extract to Cytotoxic Compound K and Ginsenoside $Rh_2$ by Human Intestinal Bacteria

  • Bae, Eun-Ah;Choo, Min-Kyung;Lee, Young-Churl;Kim, Dong-Hyun
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.10 no.6
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    • pp.347-352
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    • 2004
  • When saponin extracts of dried ginseng and red ginseng were anaerobically incubated with human intestinal microflora, these extracts were metabolized to compound K and ginsenoside $Rh_2$, respectively. However, when these extracts were incubated with commercial lactic acid bacteria, these did not metabolize these ginsenosides to compound K or ginsenoside $Rh_2$. Among some intestinal bacteria isolated from human feces, Bacteroides C-35 and C-36 transformed these saponin extracts to compound K and ginsenoside $Rh_2$, respectively. These bacteria also transformed water extracts of dried ginseng and red ginseng to compound K and ginsenoside $Rh_2$, respectively, similarly with that of the saponin extracts. Among transformed ginsenosides, compound K and 20(S)-ginsenoside $Rh_2$ exhibited the most potent cyotoxicity against tumor cells.

Regioselective Synthesis of Ginsenoside $Rh_2$ (진세노사이드 $Rh_2$의 방향선택적 합성)

  • 신명희;정지형;장은하;임광식
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.328-333
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    • 2001
  • Ginsenoside Rh$_2$, a minor glycoside constituent of the red ginseng is known as an unique antitumor compound. Several attempts to prepare it in a large scale including semisynthesis from betulafolientriol, an 3-epimer of 20(S)-protopanaxadiol, has been reported. We have previously reported a synthesis of ginsenoside Rh$_2$from 20(S)-protopanaxadiol obtained by alkaline hydrolysis of total ginsenoside. The regioselective synthesis of this compound was achieved by protection of 12-OH group.

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Production of Ginsenoside-Rg3 from Lipomyces starkeyi Grown on Ginseng-Steaming Effluent

  • Jang, Jeong-Hoon;Kim, Na-Mi;Lee, Jong-Soo
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.153-155
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    • 2010
  • To produce ginsenoside-$Rg_3$ enriched yeast from ginseng-steaming effluent (GSE), Lipomyces starkeyi, which tends to grow well in GSE, was cultured in sterilized GSE and its growth and production of ginsenoside-$Rg_3$ were determined. Growth of L. starkeyi was 86.1 mg per g GSE and its ginsenoside-$Rg_3$ contents was 0.013 mg per g GSE.

Anticancer Effect of the Hydrolyzed Monogluco-Ginsenoside of Total Saponin from Ginseng Leaf (인삼잎으로부터 분리된 총사포닌의 부해산물 Monogluco-Cinsenoside의 함암작용)

  • 임광식;정해영
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.291-294
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    • 1995
  • Total saponin was isolated from ginseng leaf, which was hydrolyzed in alkaline condition. The hydrolyzed products were identified as monogluco-ginsenoside, ginsenoside Rh1, Rh2 and compound K, which showed anticancer effects against human cancer cell lines (SNU 717, Daudi, and Jurkat).

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Increase of Functional Saponin by Acidic Treatemnt and Temperature of Red Ginseng Extract (홍삼엑기스의 산(pH) 및 온도처리에 의한 기능성 사포닌 함량증대)

  • In Jun-Gyo;Lee Bum-Soo;Kim Eun-Jeong;Park Myung-Han;Yang Deok-Chun
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.139-143
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    • 2006
  • To increase the contents of functional ginsenosides by conversion, especially ginsenoside-$Rg_3$ and $Rh_2$, the extracts of red ginseng were treated with high temperature and citric acid or apricot extract. When the extracts were subject to $120^{\circ}C$ for 2 hours, the content of ginsenoside-$Rg_3$ was increased 2 times than in control. When the extracts were subject to $120^{\circ}C$ and acidic conditions adjusted with citric acid, the ginsenoside-$Rg_3$, was detected 2.8 times, but other ginsenoside were decreased heavily to 65%. When the extract were treated with for 12 hours at $80^{\circ}C$, the content of ginsenoside-$Rg_3$ was increased to 3.3 times, Also, when the red ginseng extracts were treated with apricot extract, the ginsenoside-$Rg_3$ was detected to 4 times than in control, but other ginsenoside were decreased lightly to 35%, not same as at the $120^{\circ}C$ treatment.

Anti-wrinkle Effect by Ginsenoside Rg3 Derived from Ginseng (인삼유래 Ginsenoside Rg3에 의한 항-주름 효과)

  • 김성우;정지헌;조병기
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.221-225
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    • 2004
  • The root of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer has been used as a traditional anti-aging and anti-wrinkle agent in the Orient. However, it is still unknown which component of ginseng is effective at suppressing wrinkle formation. Recently at least twenty ginsenosides regarded as the main active ingredients of ginseng have been isolated. Among them, we examined the effect of ginsenoside Rg3 on dermal ECM metabolism to elucidate the mechanism of anti-wrinkle by ginseng. In our study, to investigate the anti-wrinkle effect of the ginsenoside Rg3, ECM component and growth factor in dennis were evaluated by ELISA assay. Ginsenoside Rg3 was found to stimulate type I procollagen and fibronectin (FN) biosynthesis in a dose-dependent manner in normal human fibroblast culture (p < 0.05, n =3), and dose-dependently enhance TGF- ${\beta}$1 level (p < 0.05, n =3). In RT-PCR analysis mRNA level of c-Jun, a member of AP-1 transcription factor, was reduced by ginsenoside Rg3 in normal human fibroblast culture. These results indicate that ginsenoside Rg3 stimulates type I collagen and FN synthesis through the changes of TGF - ${\beta}$1 and AP-1 expression in fibroblasts.

Ginsenoside Rc and Re Stimulate c-Fos Expression in MCF-7 Human Breast Carcinoma Cells

  • Lee, Young-Joo;Jin, Young-Ran;Lim, Won-Chung;Ji, Sang-Mi;Cho, Jung-Yoon;Ban, Jae-Jun;Lee, Seung-Ki
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.53-57
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    • 2003
  • We have found that ginsenoside Rc and Re induce c-fos in MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cells at both the mRNA and protein levels. However, neither ginsenoside activated the expression of reporter gene under the control of AP-1/TPA response elements. We have also examined the possibility that ginsenoside Rc and Re act by binding to intracellular steroid hormone receptors that act as transcriptional factors in the nucleus in inducing c-fos mRNA in MCF7 human breast carcinoma cells. However, ginsenoside Rc and Re did not bind to glucocorticoid, androgen, estrogen, or retinoic acid receptors as examined by the transcription activation of the luciferase reporter genes in CV-1 cells that were transiently transfected with the corresponding steroid hormone receptors and hormone responsive luciferase reporter plasmids. These data demonstrate that ginsenoside Rc and Re act via other transcription factors and not via estrogen receptor in c-Fos expression.