• Title, Summary, Keyword: glutinous rice wine

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Studies on Sikhye Wine -2. Glutinous Rice Sikhye Wine- (식혜주에 관한 연구 -2보. 찹쌀식혜 올리고당주-)

  • 안용근;김승겸;신철승
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.365-369
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    • 1997
  • Glutinous rice Sikhye was fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae for 10 day at 29$^{\circ}C$. Fermentable sugars such as maltose and maltotriose in glutinous rice Sikhye were converted into ethanol by the yeast, but limit dextrin was remained after the fermentation. fermentation rate of sugars in glutinous rice Sikhye was lower than that in rice Sikhye. Glutinous rice Sikhye wine was found to contain 7.3% of limit dextrin, 3.6% of ethanol, 0.35$\mu$mol/ml of amino acid, 100$\mu\textrm{g}$/ml of protein, and the acidity of the Sikhye showed 3.2, respectively, and its pH was 3.23. Limit dextrin in glutinous rice Sikhye wine showed both signal of $\alpha$-1, 4- and $\alpha$-1,6- glucisidic linkage with its estimation ratio of 5.6:1 by 1H-NMR analysis. The taste of rice Sikhye wine was similar that of wine.

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A Study on Wine of Yi Dynasty in 1600 (조선시대(朝鮮時代) 술에 관한 분석적(分析的) 고찰(考察) -조선중기(朝鮮中期) 1600 년대(年代)를 중심(中心)으로-)

  • Choi, Jong-Hee;Lee, Hyo-Gee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.17-24
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    • 1987
  • As people know how to brew a wine from fruits and cereals, they continued to develope various wines good to their taste. Korean wines are also ones made from cereals and they have long been eager to improve the delicate taste. They used to drink Takju, raw rice wine, made from nonglutinous rice and Nuruk, a kind of yeast starter. During Koryo Dynasty, Soju a liquor was imported from Won(the Chinese dynasty). Nowadays this traditional folk wine, which had been developed variously and drunk all over the country, is decreasing year after year. The purpose of this study was to review on the wines ; its kinds, raw materials, brewing method, manufacturing utensils, measuring units and devices and the terms for wine making based on 20 documents published in 1600, in the middle of Yi dynesty. The results of review were as follows. 1. There were 121 kinds of wines at that time in Korea. 2. Among the raw materials for wines, major materials were glutinous rice, nonglutinous rice, wheat flour, wheat, mung bean, and black soybean. And minor materials were pepper corn, Lycium chinenisis, cinnamon, pine needles, pine nuts, jujube, mugwort leaves, lotus leaves, pine corn, pine bud, chrysanthemum, pine flowers, honey, Acanthopanox seoultenses, bamboo-root, marrowbone of blak cow, sweet flag, Ciprus noblis, Saurea lappa, honey suckle, Tricho santhes, azalea, the leaves of the paper mulberry, and bark of chungum tree. 3. There were several kinds of wines such as a wine without using Nuruk, a wine made from glutinous rice, nonglutinous rice, or glutinous and nonglutinous rice with flour. 4. There were several brewing methods for wines such as a wine boiled with ring rice cake, a wine brewed with loaves of rice cake, a wine brewed with hard boiled rice, a wine brewed with rice gruel, and a wine brewed with powdered rice gruel. 5. There were 23 kinds of utensils including measuring devices for weight and volume.

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A Bibliographical Study on the Manufacturing Procedure of Hosanchun (호산춘양조에 관한 문헌적 고찰)

  • 남궁석;이성우;배상면
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.133-138
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    • 1992
  • The research on the manufacturing procedure of Hosanchun jun in the classical literature(17 kinds) showed that the most usually brewed rice wine in it is the 3rd step rice wine, which is brewed by adding rice wine base to it at the intervals used quantity are as follows. Nonglutinous rice(88.2%), flour(82.3%), and nu-ruk(100%) are used in the 1st step of brewing, and nonglutinous rice(82.3%), glutinous rice(17.6%), flour(23.5%), and nu-ruk(11.3%) are used in the 2nd sep, and glutinous rice, flour, and 3rd step of brewing. The grains are used in the form of -paste(88.2%) in the 1st, and in the form of paste(64.7%) and steamed water-soaked rice(sul-bab)(29.4%) in the second step, and sul-bab(64.7%) in the 3rd step of brewing. Nu-ruk is used in small quantity in the 3rd step but it is used I somewhat larger quantity in the 2nd step of brewing.

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Physicochemical and Sensory Characterization of a Korean Traditional Rice Wine Prepared from Different Ingredients (첨가원료 종류에 따른 전통발효주의 이화학 및 관능특성)

  • Kim, Hye-Ryun;Jo, Sung-Jin;Lee, Seung-Joo;Ahn, Byung-Hak
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.40 no.5
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    • pp.551-557
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    • 2008
  • In order to investigate the effect of different ingredients on the quality of Korean rice wines, 30% of rice were substituted by malt, corn, potato, soybean, glutinous millet, unpolished rice, glutinous rice, or non-glutinous rice, when rice wines were prepared. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the rice wines from the varying ingredients were evaluated. Sample rice wines were analyzed for ethanol, pH, total acid, amino acid, soluble solid, coloring degree, UV absorbance, reducing sugar, organic acids, and free sugars. After fermentation for 16 days, the ethanol contents ranged from 13.28 to 16.23%, while the total acid levels were within the range of 0.27 to 0.32%. The amino acid contents in eight samples ranged from 0.18 to 0.36%, while the soluble solid contents were within the range of 8.35 to $11.1^{\circ}$Bx. Among the eight samples tested, rice wine prepared with malt showed the highest level of coloring degree, UV absorbance, and reducing sugar levels, while rice wine prepared with potato showed the lowest value. Organic acid contents of rice wines prepared with soybean, glutinous rice, and non-glutinous rice showed the highest levels of succinic acid followed by acetic acid, citric acid, malic acid, and pyroglutamic acid. Free sugar contents of all rice wines showed the higher levels of glucose followed by fructose and maltose. Rice wines prepared with unpolished rice and corn showed the same highest overall sensory preference. By descriptive analysis, the overall mean sensory intensities of samples prepared with glutinous rice and non-glutinous rice, showed similar levels of 'sweetness', 'fruitiness', and 'freshness of aroma', while those samples prepared with soybean, glutinous millet, and potato showed stronger intensities of 'nuruk', 'grain aroma', and 'yellowness'. Rice wine prepared with corn showed middle ranges in all sensory attributes tested.

Quality Characteristics of Korean Traditional Rice Wine with Glutinous Rice (찹쌀 첨가에 따른 전통발효주의 품질 특성)

  • Lee, Youngseung;Kim, Hanna;Eom, Taekil;Kim, Sung-Hwan;Choi, Geun Pyo;Kim, Misook;Yu, Sungryul;Jeong, Yoonhwa
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.42 no.11
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    • pp.1829-1836
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    • 2013
  • This study is carried out to investigate the physicochemical characteristics, microbial population, and sensory characteristics during fermentation of Korean traditional rice wine with addition of glutinous rice. The fed-batch fermentation of rice was performed by Nuruk and yeast for 10 days at $28^{\circ}C$ in a water bath. The four fermentation batches included 0, 10, 15 and 20% of glutinous rice based on the total rice contents. The growth of total viable cells, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and yeasts were similar among the four batches during the fermentation period. The population for total viable cells and LAB were increased for the first 3 days, and decreased slowly until 10 days. The number of yeast cells was rapidly decreased after day 6, when the alcohol content reached about 15% for all the fermentation batches. Physicochemical characteristics, such as pH, total acidity, and reducing sugars, were not different with the increase of additional glutinous rice contents. The ethanol production was higher in Korean traditional rice wine from non-glutinous rice (17.1%) than ones from glutinous rice (15.8~16.7%). For the sensory evaluations, Korean traditional rice wine with 15% glutinous rice was highly preferred due to the highest sweetness.

Characterization and Volatile Flavor Components in Glutinous Rice Wines Prepared with Different Yeasts of Nuruks (누룩에서 분리한 효모를 이용한 찹쌀발효주의 이화학적 특성 및 휘발성 향기성분)

  • Kim, Hye-Ryun;Kwon, Young-Hee;Jo, Sung-Jin;Kim, Jae-Ho;Ahn, Byung-Hak
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.296-301
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    • 2009
  • In order to investigate the effect of different yeasts (La Parisienne (LP), Y18-2, Y54-3, Y90-2, Y90-9 and Y272-7) from nuruks on the quality of Glutinous rice wines, physicochemical properties and volatile flavor components were evaluated. Glutinous rice wines prepared with different yeasts were analyzed for ethanol, pH, total acid, amino acid, soluble solid, coloring degree, UV absorbance, reducing sugar, organic acid, free sugar and volatile compounds. After fermentation for 17 days, the ethanol contents ranged from 13.40 to 14.50%, while the total acid levels were from 0.33 to 0.44%. The amino acid contents in six samples ranged from 0.13 to 0.18%, while soluble solid contents ranged from 12.1 to $14.7^{\circ}Bx$. The glutinous rice wine prepared with LP showed the highest level of coloring degree, soluble solid and reducing sugar among six samples. Organic acid contents of the glutinous rice wine prepared with LP had the highest levels of lactic acid and acetic acid, while the glutinous rice wine prepared with Y90-9 had the highest level of succinic acid. In all glutinous rice wines tested, the most abundant free sugars were glucose followed by maltose. Volatile flavor components in the glutinous rice wines were identified by using GC-MSD. Nineteen esters, ten alcohols, eight acids, one aldehyde and one miscellaneous compound were identified in the glutinous rice wines. Using relative peak area, it was found that other than ethyl alcohol, hexadecanoic acid ethyl ester was the major component, predominantly found in the range of 2.73-10.41%. Phenylethyl alcohol, isoamyl alcohol, ethyl oleate, ethyl linoleate and tetradecanoic acid ethyl ester were some of the major volatile components present through the fermentation, respectively. Overall, it was shown that different yeast strains from nuruks greatly affected chemical and volatile characteristics of the glutinous rice wines.

Physicochemical Characteristics and Volatile Compounds of Glutinous Rice Wines Depending on the Milling Degrees (도정도에 따른 찹쌀발효주의 이화학적 특성 및 휘발성 향기성분)

  • Kim, Hye-Ryun;Lee, Ae-Ran;Kwon, Young-Hee;Lee, Hyang-Jeong;Jo, Sung-Jin;Kim, Jae-Ho;Ahn, Byung-Hak
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.75-81
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    • 2010
  • In order to investigate the effects of different milling degrees on the quality of glutinous rice wines, the physicochemical properties and volatile compounds of various wines were evaluated. Sample wines prepared from glutinous rice with 90, 80, and 70% milling yields were analyzed for ethanol, pH, total acids, amino acids, soluble solids, coloring degree, UV absorbance, reducing sugars, organic acids, free sugars and volatile compounds. After fermentation for 17 days, ethanol contents in the wines ranged from 15.2 to 15.85%, while total acid levels ranged from 0.31 to 0.35%. The amino acid contents in four samples ranged from 0.63 to 0.73%, while soluble solid contents ranged from 11.4 to $13.1^{\circ}Bx$. The wine prepared from glutinous rice with a 30% degree of milling showed the highest coloring degree, UV absorbance and reducing sugar content among four samples. Furthermore, this wine had the highest levels of malic acid and acetic acid, while the glutinous rice wine prepared from rice with a 0% degree of milling had the highest levels of succinic acid and lactic acid. In all the glutinous rice wines tested, the most abundant free sugar was glucose followed by maltose. With increasing degree of milling, the alcohol, amino acid and organic acid contents of the glutinous rice wines decreased, whereas soluble solids, coloring degree, UV absorbance, reducing sugar and free sugar contents increased. Volatile compounds were identified using GC-MSD, and thirty-nine esters, seven alcohols, six acids, one aldehyde, four alkanes, one alkene and two miscellaneous compounds were identified in the glutinous rice wines. Using relative peak area, it was determined that other than ethyl alcohol, hexadecanoic acid ethyl ester was the major component and was primarily found in the range of 11.566-18.437%. Succinic acid diethyl ester and isoamyl laurate decreased with an increasing degree of milling, whereas hexanoic acid ethyl ester and 2-octenoic acid ethyl ester increased. Overall, it was shown that different milling degrees greatly affected the physicochemical and volatile characteristics of the glutinous rice wines.

Characterization of Yakju Brewed from Glutinous Rice and Wild-Type Yeast Strains Isolated from Nuruks

  • Kim, Hye-Ryun;Kim, Jae-Ho;Bae, Dong-Hoon;Ahn, Byung-Hak
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.20 no.12
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    • pp.1702-1710
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    • 2010
  • Korean traditional rice wines yakju and takju are generally brewed with nuruk as the source of the saccharogenic enzymes by natural fermentation. To improve the quality of Korean rice wine, the microorganisms in the nuruk need to be studied. The objective of this research was to improve the quality of Korean wine with the wild-type yeast strains isolated from the fermentation starter, nuruk. Only strain YA-6 showed high activity in 20% ethanol. Precipitation of Y89-5-3 was similar to that of very flocculent yeast (>80%) at 75.95%. Using 18S rRNA sequencing, all 10 strains were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Volatile compounds present in yakju were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass selective detector. The principal component analysis (PCA) of the volatile compounds grouped long-chain esters on the right side of the first principal component, PC1; these compounds were found in yakju that was made with strains YA-6, Y89-5-3, Y89-5-2, Y90-9, and Y89-1-1. On the other side of PC1 were short-chain esters; these compounds were found in wines that were brewed with strains Y183-2, Y268-3, Y54-3, Y98-4, and Y88-4. Overall, the results indicated that using different wild-type yeast strains in the fermentation process significantly affects the chemical characteristics of the glutinous rice wine.

Characterization of Microbial Communities in Chinese Rice Wine Collected at Yichang City and Suzhou City in China

  • Lu, Yucai;Gong, Yanli;Li, Yajie;Pan, Zejing;Yao, Yi;Li, Ning;Guo, Jinling;Gong, Dachun;Tian, Yihong;Peng, Caiyun
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.27 no.8
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    • pp.1409-1418
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    • 2017
  • Two typical microbial communities from Chinese rice wine fermentation collected in Yichang city and Suzhou city in China were investigated. Both communities could ferment glutinous rice to rice wine in 2 days. The sugar and ethanol contents were 198.67 and 14.47 mg/g, respectively, for rice wine from Yichang city, and 292.50 and 12.31 mg/g, respectively, for rice wine from Suzhou city. Acetic acid and lactic acid were the most abundant organic acids. Abundant fungi and bacteria were detected in both communities by high-throughput sequencing. Saccharomycopsis fibuligera and Rhizopus oryzae were the dominant fungi in rice wine from Suzhou city, compared with R. oryzae, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Mucor indicus, and Rhizopus microsporus in rice wine from Yichang city. Bacterial diversity was greater than fungal diversity in both communities. Citrobacter was the most abundant genus. Furthermore, Exiguobacterium, Aeromonas, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Bacillus, and Lactococcus were highly abundant in both communities.

A Bibliographical Study on the Processing Methods of Baekhwaju, traditional yakju (백하주를 통해서 본 전통약주의 문헌적 고찰)

  • 이성우;배상면
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.1-16
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    • 1991
  • Baekhaju is commonly called Bangmoonju. However comparing Baekhaju while Baekhaju used distiller's grains, Bangmoonju did not use them. Baekhaju used only nonglutinous rice, however, Bangmoonju used glutinous rice or a mixture of glutinous rice and nonglutinous rice. Baekhaju in Chinese, which was misrecored on Baekhaju in Korean from 15th century. However, Baekhaju should be distingnish from Baekhwaju, which is made buy addition of many flowers in various wine. Baekhaju used distiller's grains in the first step of its manufacture procedure. For the fermentation of Baekhaju, one of the three bases, which are rice gruel, rice cake or 구멍떡 was added to distiller's grains. Flours and nuruk are also added. In the second step, steamed water-soaked rice and nuruk was added up to the Baekhaju-base which was got from the first step.

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