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Study on the Small Grain Bin for the Improvement of Grain Drying and Storage (곡물건조저장법 개선을 위한 농가용 Grain Bin에 관한 연구)

  • 김성래
    • Magazine of the Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.3263-3291
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    • 1974
  • Experimental work of grain bin was carried out to develop the methods of natural air in-bin drying and storage. The method is considered to be more economical, labour saving, and an effective countermeasure to grain loss. To examine the possibility of farm use of the grain bin and to analyze the related factors concerned with in-bin grain drying and storage, ambient air conditions (especially the change of air temperature and relative humidity) and grain quality during drying and storage periods were investigated. A laboratory model bin was constructed to investigate the effect of different forced air conditions on the drying characteristics of rice. In addition, a grain bin with 2.2m diameter and 1.8m height, considered to be the optimum size for the average Korean farm, was constructed and tested to examine the drying and storing characteristics of rice. The weather data analyzed in this study was the nine-year (from 1964 to 1972) record of air temperature and relative humidity in the Suweon area, and the thirty-year (from 1931 to 1960) record of pentad normal relative humidity and air temperature in the Seoul area. From the results of the weather data analyses, the adequate air delivery hours (which was arbitrary defined as the condition to give less than 75% relative humidity) to dry the rice during October were about nine hours (from approximately 10 A.M. to 7 P.M, ) a day, in which the average air temperature was about 15.9$^{\circ}C$ and average relative humidity was 66%. The occurence of days having three hours of such conditions was 1, 2, and 1-day within the 1st, 2nd add last 10-day periods for the month of October, respectively. Therefore, it may be considered that the weather condition in October was satisfactory for the forced natural air drying. The results of the laboratory model bin test were analyzed to obtain the drying curve and drying rate for different drying stages and grain layers in the bin corresponding to various conditions of forced natural air. A drying experiment with a prototype grain bin showed that an approximate 5 percent grain moisture gradient through a 1.6 meter grain deposit was observed after 80 hours of intermittent drying, giving an over dried zone in the lower grain layers and an extremely high grain moisture zone in the upper layers. This indicates that an effective measure should be taken to reduce this high moisture gradient. In order to investigate the drying characteristics of bulk grain in a layerturning operation a grain bin test was performed. This showed a significant improvement of uniform drying. In this test, approximate 107 hours were required to dry a depth of 1.6 meter of grain from an initial moisture content of 22.2 percent to a moisture content of 16.7 percent using an air delivery rate of 2.8 cubic meter per a minute per every cubic meter of grain. This resulted in a 2 percent moisture gradient from the top to the bottom of the bin. During storage period, till the end of June the average temperature of grain was 2~3$^{\circ}C$ higher than ambient air temperature. But during July when the grain moisture content went up slightly (less than 1 percent), the average temperature of the grain also increased to 3~5$^{\circ}C$ higher than ambient air temperature. It is therefore recommended that for safe grain storage, grain should not be stored in sheet metal bins after mid May. From the above results, in-bin rice drying and storage can be used effectively on Korean farms. It is strongly recommended that the use of grain-bin system should be implemented for farm use to improve farm drying and storage of rice.

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Simulation of Temperature Changes of Rough Rice Stored in Round Steel Bin (I) - Development of a Simulation Model - (시뮬레이션에 의한 저장 벼의 곡온 예측)

  • Keum D.H.;Kim J.Y.;Kim H.
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.355-362
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    • 2006
  • A one-dimensional heat conduction problem in cylindrical coordinate system was solved using Crank-Nicolson finite difference method to predicting the temperature distribution in rice storage bin with wall insulator. The model can simulate the grain temperatures in insulated round bins using the input data of initial grain temperature. ambient air temperature, wind velocity, solar radiation on a horizontal surface, and thermal properties of grain, bin wall, wall insulator, insulator cover, and air. Temperatures were collected at the bin center, 0.65m in radial direction from the center, and near the bin wall in 2.7m diameter bin filled with rough rice to depth of 3.0m were used to validate the simulation model. Grain temperatures predicted by the model were in very good agreement with the measured temperatures. The residual mean square error between measured and predicted grain temperatures at the bin center was $1.38^{\circ}C$.

Drying of Rough Rice by Solar Collectors (태양(太陽) 열(熱 )집열기(集熱機)를 이용(利用)한 벼의 건조(乾燥)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Chang, Kyu-Seob;Kim, Man-Soo;Kim, Dong-Man
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.264-272
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    • 1979
  • The flat-plate and tubular soar collectors were designed and constructed for drying the rough rice, and the performance of the collectors and drying effect were investigated when rough rice was packed in grain bin connected to collectors. Average-monthly radiation on a horizontal surface based on bright sunshine in Daejeon area during 1978 was the highest as $16,814\;KJ/m^2{\cdot}day$ in May and the lowest as $4,254\;KJ/m^2{\cdot}day$ in December, and significane was not recognized between the calculated and recorded values. The thermal effciency of collectors were increased as radiation increased during drying period and the average thermal effciency of flat-plate and tubular collectors in 11 to 12 o'clock a.m were 28.12 and 16.75%, respectively. The average inlet temperature of grain bin at 12 o'clock was shown as 20.02 at control 40.5 at grain bin connected to tubular collector and $55.1^{\circ}C$ at grain bin connected to flat-plate collector. In 25 cm rough rice depth in grain bin, tim taken for drying from initial moisture content at 27.4 to decrease upto 17.0% (14.5 % on wet basis) were 32 in control, 18 in grain bin connected to tubular collector and 11 hrs to flat-plate collector, and grain depth influenced drying rate remarkably. In the view point of drying characteristics, drying pattern showed initially falling-rate to constant-rate period finally.

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A Study of Natural Air Drying of Rough Rice Leading to Optimization -Part II - Optimum Grain Depth and Least Cost System- (시물레이숀에 의한 상온통풍건조방법(常温通風乾燥方法)의 적정화(適正化)에 관(關)한 연구 -Part II : 최적퇴적(最適堆積)깊이와 최소건조비용(最少乾燥費用))

  • Chung, Chang Joo;Koh, Hak Kyun;Noh, Sang Ha;Han, Yong Jo
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.42-52
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    • 1982
  • This study was intended to develop a cost function for the natural air in-bin drying: system which could lead to an optimization of the drying system cost. Based on the cost function developed, a series of simulated drying tests were conducted with 10-year weather data (1970~1979) for 7 different regions by applying an appropriate levels of system factors. System performance factors treated in this study were initial moisture content, airflow rate, bin diameter and grain depth. An optimization procedure to find the least cost system was developed as follows: First, the worst year of the past decade was determined in consideration of the dryiang time and maximum dry matter loss. Second, the minimum airflow rate for a fixed bin diameter and grain depth was determined. Third, the optimum grain depth was found for the minimum airflow rate with different initial moisture contents and bin diameters. The results obtained in this study are summarized as follows: 1. The optimization procedure developed in this study was able to reduce the time and efforts significantly. 2. Optimum values of drying parameters including airflow rate, grain depth, and fan size were determined for different initial moisture contents and bin diameters in each region. The results are shown in Tables 3 to 9. 3. Optimum grain depths decreased as the initial moisture content and airflow rate increased. 4. Drying time for the least cost system should be reduced with higher initial moisture content and lower drying potential to prevent grain spoilage. 5. The fixed cost was 65 to 75 percent of the total system cost and the variable cost was 25 to 35 percent. To reduce the fixed cost it is desirable to use a drying bin 2 or 3 times a year.

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Development of a Grain Circulating Type Natural Air In-bin Dryer (I) - Development of dryer and analysis of drying performance (곡물 순환식의 상온통풍 건조기 개발(I) - 건조기 개발 및 벼의 건조성능 분석)

  • Yun, H. S.;Chung, H.;Cho, Y. G.;Park, W. K.
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.227-232
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    • 2000
  • A natural air in-bin grain dryer with a grain circulator was developed for on farm use. Natural air drying test for rough rice was carried out to evaluate drying rate, uniformity of moisture content distribution in grain bed and energy consumption. It took 10 days to dry 8 ton of paddy rice from 21.9%(w.b) of moisture contents to 16.7%(w.b), by prototype dryer and the average drying rate was 0.52%/day. The uniformity of moisture content after drying was superior to a conventional natural air dryer in which grains were not mixed during drying periods. The dryer performance evaluation index was 738.3kJ/(kg.water), which was more effective than that of grain circulation type hot air dryer(3,500∼5,000 kJ/kg.water)

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DEVELOPMENT OF A GRAIN CIRCULATING TYPE NATURAL AIR IN-BIN DRYER

  • Yun, H.S.;Chung, H.;Cho, Y.G.;Park, W.K.
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Agricultural Machinery Conference
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    • pp.405-412
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    • 2000
  • A natural air in-bin grain dryer with a grain circulator was developed for on farm use. Natural air drying test for rough rice was carried out to evaluate drying rate, uniformity of moisture content distribution in grain bed and energy consumption. It took 10 days to dry 8 ton of paddy rice from 21.9%(w.b) to 16.7%(w.b) moisture contents using the prototype dryer. The average drying rate was 0.52%/day. The uniformity of moisture content after drying was superior to the conventional natural air dryer where is grains were not circulated during drying periods. The dryer performance evaluation index was 738.3KJ/(kg.water), which was more effective than that of grain circulation t)pe hot air dryer(3,500-5,000 KJ/kg.water).

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Development of Fuzzy Controller for Air Conditioning of Grain Bin (곡물빈용 공기조화장치의 퍼지제어기 개발)

  • 최영수;문대식;정종훈
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.137-143
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    • 2002
  • Temperature and humidity are the most important factors and should be effectively controlled for the cold storage of graius. Fuzzy logic can be easily implemented to the MIMO(Multi-Input Multi-Output) control systems. For the cold storage in grain bin, fuzzy logic was applied to an air conditioning system. The capacities of the grain bin and the air conditioner are 80 tons and 30㎾, respectively. Also, the target values of temperature and relative humidity in outlet duct of the air conditioner were 8$\^{C}$ and 75%, respectively. In order to control temperature and relative humidity of air, a damper in inlet duct was manipulated for temperature control and a heater was used for humidity control. Temperature deviation and change of temperature deviation were used as input parameters for the fuzzy system. Humidity was only considered as a load. The experimental results showed that the controlled temperature of exhausted air was maintained at 8$\pm$2$\^{C}$. Relative humidity of the air was also controlled at the target relative humidity of 50∼80%.

Simulation Model of Two Dimensional Heat Transfer in Grain Bin (저장곡물(貯藏穀物) Bin내(內)의 삼차원(三次元) 열전달모형(熱傳達模型))

  • Han, Kwang Jin;Kim, Man Soo
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.118-127
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    • 1985
  • The grain temperature is a crucial factor determining the deterioration rate of stored grain. Therefore, it is used to be predicted in order to evaluate the various stored methods rapidly and inexpensively. In this study, a mathematical model was developed to simulate the temperatures of grain stored in a cylinderical bin. It was formulated for the two dimensional heat transfer by the finite difference method. Then, it was verified statistically using the actual test deta and the predicted. The changes of grain temperature were analyed using the simulated data of one year for a safe stoarge and the following results were obtained: 1. Simulation model developed by the finite difference method was validated with the actual and the predicted grain temperatures and it's result showed that it could predict the grain temperature of storage bin reasonably well. 2. Grain temperature near the wall of storage bin were changed with $6-7^{\circ}C$ higher then average atmospheric temperature from June to September. Therefore, the parts of stored grain near the wall is supposed to be deteriorated fast. 3. When the dimension of bin diameter is about the same as the bed height, the changes of grain temperature of radial direction was higher than the verticals. 4. The predicted temperature showed that the grain temperature of which were from the end of April to mid October were higher than the safe storage limit at Yusung, Korea.

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Low Temperature Storage of Rough Rice Using Cold-Air in Winter(I) - Storage Characteristics after Rough Rice Cooling - (겨울철 냉기를 이용한 벼의 저온저장(I) - 벼 냉각 후 저장특성 -)

  • Lee J. S.;Han C. S.;Ham T. M.;Yon K. S.
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.155-160
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    • 2005
  • The objective of this research was to establish a domestically available cooling storage technique by cold-air in winter, using winter cool air ventilation fur determining rough rice cooling method in the storage and dry bin. The rough rice storage characteristics of two test conditions, winter cool-air ventilation storage and ambient temperature storage, were evaluated from January to July 2001, using a storage and dry bin of 300-ton capacity. Results of this research are as follows: Grain temperature was from $-5.1\~-8.5^{\circ}C$ after winter cool-air ventilation, and grain initial temperature for ambient temperature bin storage was $0.3\~1.9^{\circ}C$. Moisture content of rough rice decreased from $0.28\;to\;0.93\%$ and from $1.53\;to\;1.92\%$ to compare with original moisture contents for winter cool-air ventilation, and for ambient temperature bin storage, respectively. Broken ratio of brown rice from winter cool-air ventilation bin increased from $0.16\;to\; 0.92\%$, and brown rice broken ratio was from $2.24\;to\;2.86\%$ for ambient temperature bin storage to compare with initial broken ratio. Hardness of stored rice increased along storage period increase in alt storage methods, and cooling bin storage increased rice hardness of 0.271kgf: this increasing was lower then the other methods from 0.059 to 2.239kgf. Germination rates were decreased approximately 9.03, 3.14 and $3.20\%$ for upper, middle, and bottom of ventilating winter air bin, respectively, and germination rates of 2.70, 3.47 and $4.14\%$ were approximately decreased for upper, middle, and bottom parts of ambient temperature bin storage, respectively.

Prospect of large scale Grain Drying, Storage and Milling Facility Complex in Korea (우리나라의 대규모 곡물 종합조제시설의 문제점 및 전망)

  • Kim, Tae Wook;Park, Kyung Kyoo
    • Current Research on Agriculture and Life Sciences
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    • v.14
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    • pp.37-47
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    • 1996
  • The main objectives of this studies are to present the most desirable rice processing complex model system in a given our situations by comparision and analyzing the major factors and, also recommend the future prospect of the rice processing complex in Korea. There are 3 different rice processing complex models in Korea. Those are concrete bin, flat type steel bin and square bin. These systems have a lot of differences and have their own characteristics such as capital requirement, efficiency, storage capacity and quality controls. The major problems of the existing rice processing centers in Korea are high fixed cost and the unbalnced systems. Following is summary to solve this problems: 1. Development of the large scale harvester and high speed continuous dryer. 2. Quality inspective system of bulk grain and large scale temporary storage facilities. 3. Large size readjustment of arable land. 4. Select the convenient location of rice processing center and formulation of well equipment facilities.

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