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Storage Enhancement of Grape through Precooling Process (예냉처리를 통한 포도의 저장성 향상)

  • Park, Shin
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.35 no.6
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    • pp.1093-1097
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    • 2003
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the benefits of storing grapes through precooling, which is easier and more economical than the existing methods of storage. According to the analysis on the weight loss ratio, which is considered an important indicator of grape storage, the time at which the grapes reached 7% weight loss was prolonged by 5 to 10 days by the precooling method. Moreover, the percentage of abnormality on the 31st day of storage was at most 25% less in the precooled grapes than in the non-precooled grapes. In addition, the total bacterial count and the hardness of the precooled grapes were superior to those of the non-precooled grapes. Therefore, the precooling process markedly improved the commercial value of grapes.

The Effects of Work Characteristics of Grapes-harvesting Tasks on the Wrist and Elbow Angles (포도 수확 작업의 작업특성에 따른 손목과 팔꿈치 각도 영향 분석)

  • Kim, Jihye;Lee, Inseok
    • Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea
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    • v.36 no.5
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    • pp.589-599
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    • 2017
  • Objective: The objective of this study was to measure the upper-limb motions and postures of grapes-harvesting tasks using electrical goniometers and analyze the upper-limb motions in a kinematic way to assess the risk of musculoskeletal disorders. Background: Grapes farmers are exposed to various risk factors of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) such as repetitive upper-limb motions, non-neutral postures, and manual handling of heavy items. The farmers have to use scissors repetitively while harvesting grapes with their being arms elevated over the shoulder height, which presumed to increase the physical workload. It has been reported that the grapes farmers feel the harvesting task as the one of the hardest work in cultivating grapes. We tried measure the wrist and elbow angles while the farmers were carrying out harvesting tasks to understand how much workload the work impose on the farmers, which can be helpful in making interventions of preventing musculosksletal disorders among grapes farmers. Method: We measured joint angles at the right wrist and elbow with a wireless measuring system with two electrical goniometers from five grape farmers. The grapes-harvesting task was classified into 6 different subtasks: 1) searching, 2) picking, 3) cleaning, 4) carrying, 6) storing, and 7) miscellaneous tasks. The subtasks were compared by mean angles, 10%, 50%, and 90% APDF values of wrist flexion/extension, ulnar/radial deviation, and elbow flexion. Results: The Kruskal-Wallis tests showed that the 10th percentiles of APDF of ulnar/radial deviation and flexion/extension of the wrist significantly differs among subtasks (p<0.05). It was found that the farmers assumed more deviated wrist postures in the ulnar direction when they picking and adjusting the grapes. The use of scissors seemed to force the farmers to severely bend their wrist in the directions of ulnar deviation and flexion. The grapes-harvesting task showed similar wrist postures and motion with poultry deboning and milking tasks. Conclusion: The grapes harvesting tasks make the farmers take ulnar deviated and extended postures in the wrist. The use of scissors makes them take more severely deviated postures in the wrist. Safety guidelines including use of ergonomic scissors can be provided to the farmers to improve their work conditions. Application: The results of this study can be used as a basic data for the development of safety guidelines for agricultural work.

Effect of Thymol and Linalool Fumigation on Postharvest Diseases of Table Grapes

  • Shin, Mi Ho;Kim, Jin-Hee;Choi, Hyo-Won;Keum, Yoong Soo;Chun, Se Chul
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.262-268
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    • 2014
  • Several postharvest diseases of table grapes (Vitis vinifera) occur during storage, and gray mold rot is a particularly severe disease because the causal agent, Botrytis cinerea, grows at temperatures as low as $0^{\circ}C$. Other postharvest diseases, such as those caused by Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus spp., also often lead to deterioration in the quality of table grapes after harvest. The use of plant essential oils such as thymol and linalool, to reduce postharvest diseases in several kinds of fruits, including table grapes and oranges, has received much attention in European countries. However, to the best of our knowledge there has been no report of the use of thymol fumigation to control gray mold in table grapes in Korea. Thymol ($30{\mu}g/mL$) and linalool ($120{\mu}g/mL$) significantly inhibited mycelial growth and conidia germination of B. cinerea. The occurrence rate of gray mold rot of B. cinerea and other unknown fungi was significantly reduced by fumigation with $30{\mu}g/mL$ thymol in several table grape cultivars, such as Campbell early, Muscat Bailey A, Sheridan, and Geobong. In this study, fumigation with $30{\mu}g/mL$ thymol, had no influence on the sugar content and hardness of grapes, but reduced fungal infection significantly. This suggests that $30{\mu}g/mL$ thymol could be utilized to reduce deterioration of grapes due to gray mold and other fungal infections during long-term storage.

Renal failure associated with ingestion of grapes and raisins in dogs (개에서 포도 및 건포도 섭취가 신부전에 미치는 영향)

  • Yuk, Jin-yub;Kim, Cheol-ho;Kim, Tae-yung;Kang, Chung-boo
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.287-296
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    • 2005
  • This experiments was designed to observe the effect of period and dose of ingestion of grapes on renal failure in dog. After the dogs had been mixed of general feed, raisins from U.S.A and fresh grapes from Chile selling in Korea. We observed the clinical sign, and analyzed the blood and urine using by biochemical test. The experiment was executed by the two following groups. The experiment group 1. derived renal failure by supplying the mixed general feed with fresh grapes and dry grapes 15 g per weight kg, 2 times a day (AM 09, PM 21), the experiment group 2. executed to derive renal failure by supplying the mixed general feed with fresh grapes and dry grapes 40 g per weight kg, 2 times a day. Extraction of blood for analysis was conducted one time a day and clinical test for renal failure was executed by means of a blood analysis, biochemical analysis, urine analysis, excretory urography (E.U) and E.R.D-$screen^{TM}$ urine test (Heska, USA). The results of group 1 were normal ranges (BUN 9.0~22.6 mg/dl, creatinine 0.8~1.2 mg/dl, Ca 9.7~12.3 mg/dl, Pi 2.9~4.6 mg/dl), renal failure was not observed. On the 3rd day in group 2, azotemia was arisen from the increasing BUN 83 mg/dl (7~25 mg/dl), creatinine 2.3 mg/dl (0.5~1.4 mg/dl), when executed urine was tested by E.R.D-$screen^{TM}$ test using in the early kidney disease diagnosis, microalbumine state was high positive, and it showed stale delay by using excretory urography (EU). This study demonstrated that acute renal failure by grapes and raisins dependent on food dose, and specific characters of individual.

Antimicrobial Packaging Films for the preservation of Harvested Grapes (수확한 포도의 선도유지를 위한 항균성 포장필름)

  • 정순경;이동선;조성환
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.43-47
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    • 1999
  • To develop a wrapping film, which suppresses the microbial decay through the storage and distribute of greenhouse fresh produce, the antimicrobial packaging films were made and applied to the preservation of grapes(Campbell early). For the purpose the films were made by adding 1% grapefruit seed extract(GFSE) to LDPE film(Control). Graps were separately wrapped with packaging films in the state of closely-adhered packaging as well as modified atmosphere packaging(MAP). The wrapped grapes were stored at 5$^{\circ}C$ for 65 days and then the colony count of contaminated microorganims, decay ration of grapes, the gas component within the packages and chemical qualities were investigated. The antimicrobial film packaging showed the efficient results to suppress microbial growth as compared with control. The total number of containated microorganisms were decreased gradually through all the storage period. In the closely-adhered packaging and MAP the decay ratios of grapes was 31% and 19%, indivisually. After the storage period of 65 days, the interior gas components of MAP were 4.5% of O2 and 17.6% of CO2, which were efficient for the storage of grapes. In addition, no negative effects in sweetness and acidities occurred.

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Quality Changes of Table Grapes to Packaging Methods (포장재가 저장포도의 품질변화에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Hyung-Woo;Kim, Yoon-Ho;Choi, Jeong-Hee;Kim, Dong-Man;Park, Jong-Dae
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF PACKAGING SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
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    • v.13 no.3_4
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    • pp.103-105
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    • 2007
  • The effects of packaging conditions on the freshness extension of table grapes were investigated during storage for 14 days at $25^{\circ}C$ The storage life of tables grapes was influenced by both packaging methods (corrugated cardboard and MA film with box) during storage. The fresh weight, vitamin C content, reduced sugar and titratable acidity of table grapes decreased during storage. The change of vitamin C content and acidity was influenced by both packaging methods during storage. The quality of table grapes packed with 20CE, 20LD film was better than the other packaging methods.

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Quality Improvement of Wines Made from Domestic Grapes by the Elimination or Addition of Grape Skins (포도껍질의 제거 또는 첨가를 통한 국내산 포도주의 품질개선)

  • Yook, Cheol;Jang, Eun-Mi
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.41 no.5
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    • pp.528-535
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    • 2009
  • Three domestic varieties of red grapes were utilized for the fermentation of wines, including Campbell, Muscat Bailey A (MBA), and Sheridan. The grapes were treated by four different methods before fermentation, which included conventional fermentation for red wine, fermentation with skin-removed grapes, fermentation with grapes and addition of removed skins, and fermentation with grape juice. Three different grape varieties with four different treatments did not show any differences in terms of $^{\circ}Bx$ and alcohol changes during fermentation. However, the L value of the MBA wine was lower and darker than the L values of wines prepared from Campbell and Sheridan grapes. The wines prepared from grapes with the addition of removed skins were darker and had 30% higher polyphenol concentrations than those of wines made from grapes by the conventional method, regardless of the grape varieties. Sensory evaluations of dry-type wines demonstrated that quality was higher for those made from Campbell and MBA grapes with the addition of removed skins than for wines made by the conventional method. Whereas for sweet-type wines, the wine that was made from the skin-removed grapes (Sheridan) was more favorable than that made by the conventional method.

Screening Resistance to Crown Gall Disease by Pathogen Inoculation in Muscadine and Florida Hybrid Grapes (병원균 접종에 의한 Muscadine 및 플로리다 교잡종 포도의 줄기혹병 저항성 검정)

  • Noh, Jung-Ho;Park, Kyo-Sun;Lu, Jiang;Yun, Hae-Keun
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.497-507
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    • 2015
  • It is necessary to evaluate the resistance to disease among genetic resources for development of disease resistant grapes. This study was conducted to screen the resistance to crown gall in muscadine and Florida hybrid bunch grapes by pathogen inoculation. In order to compare the responses to infection with different pathogen strains, muscadine and Florida hybrid grapes were inoculated with 3 strains of Agrobacterium vitis. Although there were different levels crown gall formation among grape cultivars, there little variation in response to inoculated strains. Among 29 muscadine cultivars tested by inoculation of A. vitis 'C4612', most of them were shown to be susceptible, and 'Gold Isle' and 'Africa Queen' were highly susceptible, and two cultivars, 'Welder' and 'Jumbo' were found to be resistant to crown gall disease. Among Florida hybrid grapes, 'Daytona', 'Stover', and 'Swanee' were susceptible and 'Blanc du Bois' was moderately susceptible to crown gall. Because muscadine grapes have been actively utilized as useful genetic resources for development of new grape varieties by intersub-genus cross, this result from the screening of resistance among muscadine grapes can provide valuable information in breeding programs of grape resistant to crown gall.

Comparison of the change in quality indices during distribution period by import season in three grape cultivars

  • Kim, Sung-Joo;Noh, Soo-In;Lim, Byung-Sun;Chun, Jong-Pil
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.46 no.1
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    • pp.45-56
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    • 2019
  • As a result of analyzing the quality of imported grapes during the 2018 season, the hardness of the grape berry was found to be 10 N or less in total. In the case of Chilean grapes, the soluble solids tended to be lower as imports and distribution periods were delayed. The berry weight was the largest at 14.4 - 14.8 g for the 'Red Globe', 7.1 - 7.4 g for the 'Thompson Seedless' and 6.0 - 7.0 g for the 'Crimson Seedless'. The 'Crimson Seedless' grapes imported from Chile, which had a high berry shatter rate, had a shorter pedicel length, pad width and brush length than that of the other 2 varieties. Regardless of the grape varieties, the weight loss during the distribution at room temperature ($25^{\circ}C$) increased rapidly as the import season was delayed. Additionally, it was found that the later the distribution seasons, a higher stem browning index was observed regardless of the variety. The 'Thompson Seedless' was revealed to be more susceptible to browning than that of the other varieties. The shrinkage of the stem and the pedicel browning progressed within a short time during shelf-life as the distribution time was delayed. The incidence of berry decay of the imported grapes tended to increase with the progression of the distribution period. In the fruits distributed on April, except for the 'Crimson Seedless', the grapes were rapidly corrupted in the second half of the distribution. The 'Red Globe' grapes completely lost marketability due to a berry decay of 26.1% and 69.9% at 9 and 12 days after shelf-life, respectively.

Quality Characteristics of Grapes during Post-irradiation Storage at Different Temperatures (감마선 조사 포도의 저장온도에 따른 품질특성 변화)

  • Yun, Hye-Jeong;Joe, Min-Ho;Kwon, Joong-Ho;Lim, Byung-Lak;Kim, Dong-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.648-655
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    • 2008
  • A gamma irradiation process was applied to prolong the shelf-life of grapes and changes in microbiological, physicochemical, nutritional, and sensory characteristics were investigated during 6 weeks of post-irradiation storage at $4^{\circ}C$ and $25^{\circ}C$. Physiochemical characteristics of grapes such as total sugar content, pH, titratable acidity, and anthocyanine content, were stable after 1 kGy of irradiation, a dose recommended by CODEX for fruits and vegetables. The viable cell counts of contaminating microorganisms were reduced 1-2 logs by this radiation dose. After 6 weeks of storage at $4^{\circ}C$ the microbiological quality of irradiated grapes was stable, but all non-irradiated grapes had deteriorated. Whether or not grapes were irradiated, weight loss rapidly increased after 2 weeks of storage at $25^{\circ}C$, whereas weight loss was delayed by storage at $4^{\circ}C$. Immediately after gamma irradiation, the sensory evaluation results did not differ between samples, and the sensory quality of the irradiated grapes remained acceptable for over 6 weeks of storage at $4^{\circ}C$. The results suggest that 1 kGy of gamma irradiation does not detrimentally affect the nutritional or physical characteristics of grapes, especially when cold storage follows radiation treatment. In conclusion, a combination of gamma irradiation and cold storage prolonged the shelf-life of grapes by 6 weeks.