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Indirect Assessment of Sperm Capacitation Using Zona-free Hamster Eggs in the Goat I. Penetration into Zona-free Hamster Eggs by Goat Spermatozoa Preincubated in the Uteri Isolated from Hamsters and Rats

  • Song, H.B.;Iritani, A.
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.148-152
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    • 1985
  • When goat spermatozoa were preincubated for 4-6 h and 6 h in the uteri isolated from hamster and rat, and for 6 h in the hamster uterus in situ, they developed the ability to penetrate zona-free hamster eggs in vitro. Zona-free hamster eggs were not penetrated after insemination with goat spermatozoa preincubated in the isolated hamster uterus 4 h before and 2 h after expected time of ovulation, respectively. Zona-free hamster eggs were not penetrated after insemination with goat spermatozoa preincubated for 4 h in the isolated hamster uterus, but 10 and 18% of eggs were penetrated by spermatozoa preincubated for 5 and 6 h in the isolated uterus.

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Comparison of Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection and Partial Zona Dissection followed by Insemination in Hamster Oocytes (햄스터난자에 대한 정자 미세주입법 (Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection)과 Partial Zona Dissection 후 수정법의 비교 연구)

  • Lee, Yu-Il;Kwon, Young-Sook;Park, Hyun-Jeong
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.65-72
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    • 2001
  • Objectives: This study was to investigate the fertilization rate after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) or partial zona dissection (PZD) of human and hamster sperm into hamster oocyte in in vitro fertilization (IVF). In addition, the possibility of clinical application was evaluated by the comparison of usefulness and difference of these method. Materials and Methods: Hamster immature oocytes were obtained from oviducts superovulated by PMSG and hCG, and hamster sperms were obtained from epididymis. The freezed human sperms were thawed before use. Fertilization were confirmed by two pronuclei, one pronucleus, swollen sperm head or/and two polar bodies at $7{\sim}8$ hour after ICSI or PZD. Results: The fertilization rates after ICSI and PZD of human sperm to hamster oocyte were 3.6%, 64.2%,73.6%, and 55.6% for negative control, positive control, ICSI, and PZD respectively, suggesting that ICSI only showed improved fertilization rate (p<0.01). The fertilization rates after ICSI and PZD of hamster sperm to hamster oocyte were 11.1%, 51.2%, 39.6%, and 72.7% for negative control, positive control, ICSI, and PZD respectively, suggesting that PZD only showed improved fertilization rate (p<0.01). PZD showed significantly higher fertilization rate than ICSI (p<0.05). Conclusions: As for the fertilization rate by ICSI and PZD using hamster oocyte in IVF, ICSI technique was considered to be more useful for human sperm and PZD technique for hamster sperm. Therefore, ICSI technique was considered more appropriate for experimental application using human sperm and hamster oocyte.

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Passage and Adaptation of Maaji Virus in Hamster (Maaji Virus의 Hamster 계대 및 적응)

  • Kim, Yun-Cheol;Paik, Woo-Hyun;Lee, Pyung-Woo
    • The Journal of Korean Society of Virology
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.67-76
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    • 1996
  • The methods that make Hantavirus grow consist of inoculation into the experimental animals and cultured cells. The cultured cells, such as Vero-E6 and A549 cells, have been usually used for isolation of the virus and the animals, such as mice and rats, are used for large scale preparation of the virus so far. Furthermore, the cell can be used to maintain the virus and assay the infectivity and the animals can be used for the experiment of viral pathogenicity and challenge for assessment of vaccine. Apodemus mice, the own natural host of the virus, has been used for challenge test of Hantaan virus. However it has been pointed out to difficult handling and breeding the animal in laboratory. Therefore, we attempted to establish a new animal model for challenge test at the time of isolation of Maaji virus which is a new hantavirus similar but distinct to Hantaan virus. In suckling hamster, the titer of Maaji virus and the lethality to mice of the virus were increased gradually in the titer and lethality through passage by intracerebral (IC) inoculation. We tried to re-adapt this brain virus to lung of weanling hamster. The brain passaged virus was inoculated into weanling hamster intramuscularly. Again, the titer of the virus in lung was also increased by continuous passage of this virus. This facts could regarded as adaptation to new environment in which the virus proliferates. To identity the virus passaged in hamster with Maaji virus, both of the virus passaged in hamster brain and lung were compared with Maaji virus (MAA-I) and Hantaan virus (HTN 76-118) by means of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and slingle strand conformation polymophism (SSCP). As a result, we conclude that Maaji virus could be adapted successfully to weanling hamster through this passage strategy. Utilizing this adapted Maaji virus strain, hamster model is able to be used for challenge test in hantaviral vaccinology and further experiments utilizing hamster system as a rather available and convenient lab animal are expected.

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Voltage-Dependent Ionic Currents and Their Regulation by GTP and Phorbol Ester in the Unfertilized Eggs of Mouse and Hamster

  • Kim, Ik-Hyun;Kim, Yang-Mi;Haan, Jae-Hee;Park, Choon-Ok;Hong, Seong-Geun
    • The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.93-105
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    • 1993
  • The present study was performed to investigate the properties of ionic currents elicited by voltage pulses in the unfertilized eggs of mouse and hamster by using the whole cell voltage clamp techniques and to find out if there are any differences in properties between eggs of the two rodents. In addition, the modulatory effect of G proteins and protein kinase C (PKC) on the ionic channels were observed. The inward current in hamster eggs was shown to be due to $Ca^{2+}\;current\;(i_{ca})$). The current voltage relations of these currents in hamster egg were analogous to those in mouse eggs. The amplitude of $i_{ca}$ in the hamster egg was larger than that in the mouse egg ($-3.12{\pm}1.07\;nA\;vs.\;-1.71{\pm}0.71\;nA,\;mean{\pm}\;SD$). These results suggest that the $Ca^{2+}$ channels in both kinds of eggs have similar channel properties but their density, and/or conduct ance per unit area is higher in hamster eggs than in mouse eggs. Outward currents in eggs of both mouse and hamster were carried by $K^+$. In hamster eggs, they appeared to comprise at least two components; a transient outward component ($i_{to}$) and a steady state component ($i_{\infty}.$ The $i_{to}$ was found to be dependent on intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ concentration; whereas on the other hand $i_{\infty}\;was\;Ca^{2+}$-independent. $Ca^{2+}$ currents were increased in eggs treated with GTP (or $GTP{\gamma}S$) or fluoroaluminate ($AIF_4^-$). In the hamster egg these increments were antagonized by GDP (or $GDP{\beta}S$) application. In contrast to the enhancement of $i_{ca},\;i_k$ was reduced following GTP (or $GTP{\gamma}S$) perfusion in mouse eggs. The transient component ($i_{to}$) in hamster eggs was increased by adding GTP but decreased by phorbol ester, TPA or dioctanoyl glycerol (DOG). Simultaneous application of $GTP{\gamma}S$ and DOG suppressed $i_{to}$ more effectively than a single application or DOG or TPA. From the above results, we have shown that ionic currents elicited by voltage pulses existed in the unfertilized eggs of mouse and hamster. There are at least two types of currents, $i_{ca}\;and\;i_k$ in mouse eggs, while three types, $i_{ca},\;Ca^{2+}$-dependent $i_k$ and $Ca^{2+}$-independent $i_k$ exist in hamster eggs. ionic channels in these eggs may be regulated either directly by GTP and PKC or indirectly by the substances linked with GTP and PKC.

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Sex determination of bovine embryos with hamster H-Y antibody and by polymerase chain reaction (햄스터 H-Y항체와 중합효소연쇄반응을 이용한 소 수정란의 성감별)

  • Yu, Il-jeong;Kim, Yong-jun;Lee, Kyung-kwang
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.189-203
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    • 1999
  • To determine sex of bovine embryos using hamster histocompatibility Y(H-Y) antibodies, bovine compact morulae were incubated for 6 hours in TCM199 supplemented with 10% hamster H-Y antiserum and the embryos with developmental arrest were diagnosed as male embryos, while the embryos showing development during the incubation as female embryos. This presumptive embryo sexing was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction(PCR)method. 1. In the result of hamster sperm cytotoxicity test to measure H-Y antibody titer, the rate of dead sperm was considerably lower in H-Y antiserum absorbed with hamster male splenocytes than in H-Y antiserum absorbed with hamster female splenocytes or H-Y antiserum unabsorbed with splenocytes(p<0.01). 2. The rate of oocytes fertilized in vitro and the rate of blastocysts of the fertilized oocytes were 58.5% and 32.4%, respectively. The rate of blastocysts on day 8 was 15.9%, denoting the highest rate during whole culture period posterior to in vitro fertilization (IVF). 3. The bovine 16 cell and compact morulae embryos incubated in the medium supplemented with hamster H-Y antibodies showed 37.1% and 48.9% of developmental arrest which were diagnosed as male, respectively, and rates of redeveloped embryos from the arrested were 24.1% in 16 cell and 44.3% in compact morulae embryos, respectively, denoting higher rate of sex determination and rate of redevelopment in compact morulae than 16 cell embryos. 4. Bovine compact morulae of Korean cattle and Holstein were treated with hamster H-Y antibodies for sex determination and the rates of developmental arrest(diagnosed as male) were 48.4% for Korean cattle and 47.9% for Holstein, respectively. The rates of redeveloped embryos to blastocyst after treatment were 42.6% for Korean cattle and 41.8% for Holstein, respectively, showing no significant differences of sex determination and redevelopment between both breed. 5. The sex determination of bovine embryos(Korean cattle and Holstein) using hamster H-Y antibodies was diagnosed by PCR for confirmation, denoting the rates of 86.1% for Korean cattle and 85.9% for Holstein male embryos, respectively, and the rates of 91.9% for Korean cattle and 90.1% for Holstein female embryos, respectively, with no significant differences of sex determination between both breed. These results indicated that hamster H-Y antibodies can be usable for sex determination of bovine embryos of Korean cattle and Holstein, the viability of bovine embryos was sustained while being cultured in the medium supplemented with hamster H-Y antibodies of appropriate titer and sex determination of bovine embryos by PCR can be feasible for confirmation.

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Assessment of the Fertilizing Capacity of Domestic Animal Spermatozoa by Hamster Test II. Effects of incubation medium and X-ray irradiation on hamster test for boar spermatozoa (Hamster test를 이용한 가축정자의 수정능력 검정 II. 정액배지 및 X-선조사가 돼지정자의 Hamster test에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim Yong-Jun;Ji Dong-Boum
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.373-390
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    • 1992
  • To assay the fertilizing capacity of domestic animal spermatozoa by hamster test, semen were collected from 13 boars(Duroc. Landrace and Yorkshire) which had been proved to be fertile in the past. then, were preserved in BWW medium or in raw state at 18$^{\circ}C$ or at room temperature. The preserved semen were given each different treatment according to the experimental design and coincubated with zona-free hamster ova for 5 hours. The ova were stained by lacmoid and examined under phase contrast microscope to investigate the rates of ova bound with sperm(sperm binding). ova penetrated by sperm(penetration) and formation of a male pronucleus(pronucleus formation) and also numbers of both bound and penetrated sperm per ovum. Between BWW and TBM medium for boar sperm. no difference in the results of hamster test was obtained. The boar spermatozoa in BWW medium, BWW with caffeine, BWW with heparin, and BWW with both caffeine and heparin showed no difference in the results of hamster test. The boar spermatozoa in BWW medium containing both calcium and RSA showed considerably higher rates of sperm binding, penetration and pronucleus formation as well as higher numbers of both bound and penetrated sperm than those not containing calcium with or without BSA( p<0.01) and also the same results higher than that containing calcium without BSA( p< 0.05). The boar spermatozoa irradiated by X-ray(70 KVP, 20mA) for 3 seconds. then, maintained at 18$^{\circ}C$ for 18 hours showed considerably lower rate of sperm binding than all the other groups including the control and X-ray groups irradiated by smaller dose or maintained for shorter period(p<0.01), and also showed lower number of bound sperm than the other groups(p<0.01, p<0.05). All the control groups of both raw and diluted sperm in BWM medium showed higher rates of sperm binding, penetration and pronucleus formation as well as higher number of penetrated sperm than all the X-ray groups irradiated for 3 seconds(70KVP, 20mA) and maintained for either 3 or 18 hours (p<0.01, p<0.05). At the same time the control groups of diluted sperm showed considerably higher rates of sperm penetration and pronucleus formation than the control group of raw sperm( p<0.01). These results indicates that fertile boar sperm showed considerably lower rates In the results of hamster test, when incubated in the medium without calcium and irradiated by X-ray than when incubated in the medium with calcium and not irradiated by X-ray, respectively, to prove consequently that hamster test would be of great value in assaying the fertilizing capacity of boar spermatozoa.

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Assessment of the fertilizing capacity of domestic animal spermatozoa by hamster test I. Comparison of storage temperatures for boar sperm and results of hamster test between boar and dog sperm (Hamster test를 이용한 가축정자(家畜精子)의 수정능력(受精能力) 검정(檢定) 1. 돼지정자의 보존온도(保存溫度) 비교 및 돼지와 개정자의 hamster test결과)

  • Kim, Yong-jun
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.435-450
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    • 1992
  • To evaluate the fertilizing capacity of domestic animal spermatozoa by hamster test, semen were collected from 15 boars(Duroc, Landrace, and Yorkshire) and 2 mixed dogs which had been proved to be fertile in the past then, the semen were preserved in BWW medium at $4^{\circ}C$ or $18^{\circ}C$ for about 20 hours and coincubated with zona-free hamster ova for 5 hours. The ova were stained by lacmoid and examined under phase contrast microscope to investigate the rates of sperm binding to the ova, penetration and formation of a male pronucleus, and the numbers of both bound and penetrated sperm per ovum. Both the semen preserved at $18^{\circ}C$ for about 20 hours and that treated by swim up procedure showed considerably higher rates of sperm binding and penetration as well as higher number of penetrated sperm than that preserved at $4^{\circ}C$ for about 20 hours, respectively(p<0.01). Motility of boar sperm at insemination was from 40 to 90% and no difference in hamster test was obtained according to different degree of sperm motility. Abnormality in morphology of boar sperm at insemination was from 6 to 45% and no difference in hamster test was obtained according to different degree of sperm abnormality. The sperm concentrations of $7{\times}10^7$ and $7{\times}10^6$ showed considerably higher rates of sperm binding and penetration as well as higher number of bound sperm than that of $7{\times}10^4$ (p<0.01) along with the same higher results than that of $7{\times}10^5$(0<0.05), respectively. Boar sperm showed considerably higher rates of sperm binding and penetration as well as higher numbers of both bound and penetrated sperm than dog sperm, when both semen were treated by BWW+heparin medium and swim up procedure, respectively. These results indicated that fertile boar sperm showed considerably lower rates in the results of hamster test, when preserved at $4^{\circ}C$ for about 20 hours and in lower concentration of sperm than when preserved at $18^{\circ}C$ for about 20 hours and in higher concentration of sperm, respectively, and at the same time considerably higher results than fertile dog sperm, consequently to prove that hamster test would be of great value in assaying the fertilizing capacity of boar sperm.

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Cryopreservation of Hamster Oocytes and its Clinical Uses (햄스터 난자의 동결보존과 그의 임상적 이용에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Jae-Myeoung;Suh, Byung-Hee;Lee, Jae-Hyun;Yu, Seung-Hwan;Chung, Kil-Sheng
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.81-87
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    • 1991
  • There studies were carried for evaluation of the efficiency of freezing of hamster oocytes for use in a human sperm penetration assay. The hamster oocytes fully equilibrated in various cryoprotectant agents and inseminated with human sperm. After insemination with hamster oocytes, there was no difference in penetrated rates. Cumulus free oocytes equilibrated in 1.5M various cryoprotective agents and slowely cooled to temperature $-30^{\circ}C$ before rapid cooling and storage in nitrozen tank. After rapid thawing, survival rates of frozen oocytes according to cryo-protective agents were examined and the human sperm penetration assay with zona free hamster oocytes was conducted. 1. Survival rates of oocytes after cryoprotectants exposure have no significant difference (range 88-91%) and peneration rate was 51.1%. 2. Recovery and survival rate of frozen-thawed oocytes were 85.1 and 66.8%. There was no significant difference on cryoprotective agents. 3. Penetration rates of the frozen-thawed and intact oocytes were 69.0 and 77.0%, respectively. 4. Hamster oocytes cryopreservation provides a convenient way of supplying and trans-porting hamster oocytes for the assessment of the fertilizing potential of human spermatozoa.

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Studies on the G-banding Patterns of Normal and of Delayed Spiralized Chromosomes by BUdR in Dwarf Hamsters (Dwarf Hamster의 正常染色體와 BUdR에 의해 凝縮遲延된 染色體의 G-banding Pattern에 대한 硏究)

  • Hahn, Sahsook
    • The Korean Journal of Zoology
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.71-86
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    • 1975
  • The G-banding patterns of normal and of delayed spiralized chromosomes by BUdR were investigated in three established cell lines of dwarf hamsters. The results obtained were as follows: 1. The number of G-bands appeared in Chinese hamster T-233 cell line was 65. The centromeric dark band was found in No.1 chromosome and weakly stained bands were also observed in part of the centromeric regions of Nos. 2, 3, 8 and $X_2$ chromosomes. Two homologous X chromosomes were found in different banding patterns. Terminal dark bands were shown in No. 1 chromosome. No conspicuous bands appeared in No. 10 chromosome. 2. Eighty four bands appeared in Armenian hamster Y-1249 cell line. Centromeric dark bands were observed in Nos. 5 and 10 chromosomes and moderatly stained bands were also found in near the centromeric region of the long arms of Nos. 7 and 9 chromosomes. Two isomorphic X chromosomes were also distinguished by their banding patterns. 3. In Y-1313 Armenian hamster cell line, the bands were 69. No centromeric dark bands were observed in this cell line, but moderatly stained bands appeared in the centromeric area in the long arm of No. 9 chromosome. The banding patterns of these two cell lines of Armenian hamster were quite different and readily distinguished. Only No. 8 chromosome showed similar G-banding patterns. Although Nos. 5, 7 abd 8 chromosomes revealed the same number of bands in these two cell lines, the location and staining intensity were quite different. 4. Chromosomes of Nos. 1, 2, 6, $X_1$ and $X_2$ in T-233 cell line and of 1, 4, 7, 8, 9, $X_1$ and $X_2$ in both cell lines of Armenian hamster were found to be elongated due to the inhibition of mitotic spiralization by BUdR. G-banding patterns of these chromosomes were found to be identical to those of normal chromosomes in these cell lines.

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