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Analysis on the differences of mechanical efficiency from design characteristics of wheelchair (휠체어 디자인 특성에 따른 효율의 차이 규명)

  • Lim, Bee-Oh;Moon, Yeong-Jin;Eun, Seon-Deok
    • Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.109-119
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    • 2003
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate differences of the mechanical efficiency on the characteristics of the basketball wheelchairs(cambers & size of the handrims). Nine healthy and normal wheelchair basketball players who had no impairments to their upper extremities were volunteered to participate in this study. $VO_2$ was collected using automatic gas analyzer(vmax29). Gross efficiency, net efficiency and work efficiency were analyzed from the calculated external power output and energy expenditure. The results were followed. First, gross efficiency in the basketball wheelchairs was observed across the range from 4 to 10%. Gross efficiency in this study showed less values than that from the literature reviewed in the arm cranking(15%), racing wheelchair(above 30%), gait(27%) and cycling(18-23%). Second, the small size of handrim(61cm) at the 16 degrees of camber produced higher efficiency values than the large size of handrim(66cm) whereas the different sizes of handrim at the 20 degrees of camber did not show any pattern. Third, both faster speed($1.11^m/s{\rightarrow}1.39^m/s$) and increases in treadmill inclination produced increases in energy expenditure. The results of this study may provide not only better understanding of the mechanical efficiency with adequate camber degree and proper size of handrim but also fundamental information for manufacturing the wheelchair.

The Wheelchair Design for Persons with Disabilities (지체장애인용 수동식 휠체어 디자인)

  • 신학수;김성남
    • Archives of design research
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    • v.11
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    • pp.48-58
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    • 1995
  • In 1981. KOREA applied YEAR OF WORLD DISABLED DESIGNNATED BY UN as starting point to begin noticing disabled and gradually improve and understand the problems of the disabled.This study considering the income level and welfare level selected basic most widely used wheelchair as subject of study. Design Application of this study's main analysis are as follolVs 1. MAN-MACHINE INTERFACE STUDY ANALYSIS!Basic concept of wheelchair is for persons uncapable of move by sitting down. so main focus of study was considered on equipment which on chair. 2. WHEELCHAm MOVEMENT STUDY ANALYSISlThrough movement and test measurement which can be considered as basic study of Ergonomics, observe movement changes accordingly. 3. BACK(MAIN) WHEEL AND HANDRIM MOVEMENT ANALYSIS / Seat and wheel as the most important component of a wheelchair, study the relation of handrim and hand movement and test the most effective and comfortable handrim. Direction of the study was concerntrated on three areas, with results and information collected, would like to suggest design change of X type collapsible chair in areas of size of SEAT(air pocket type), HANDRIM(anti-slip hump), ARMHEST(transfer movement, rubber padding. accent), and HANDLE(adjustable, round type). The content started this study is only one small position of understanding the disabled. Also, the importance of one of many business of assisting disabled rehabilitation. (IJISABLED, REHABILITATION. APPROACH)

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Biomechanical Evaluation of a Manual Wheelchair with Forward. Reverse Propulsion (정.역 구동 방식 수도 휠체어의 인체공학적 성능 분석)

  • Shin, Eung-Soo;Lee, Hee-Tae;Ahn, Seong-Chul
    • Proceedings of the KSME Conference
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    • pp.464-469
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    • 2001
  • This work provides the biomechanical evaluations of a manual wheelchair with a bi-directional driving system. The new propulsion strategy can be accomplished by employing a special gear system that converts the oscillatory motion of a handrim into the unidirectional output motion of a wheel. A main feature of the forward. backward propulsion is to supply continuous driving torque without break. Motion. analysis has been performed through 2-dimensional image processing for measuring the kinematic properties of the upper arm and fore arm. Then, the inverse dynamics analysis has been done for obtaining the joint torques, the handrim forces and input/output powers. Results show that the output power by the forward. reverse propulsion is almost twice as much as that by conventional propulsion. Also, the new propulsion is expected to reduce the fatigues and injuries at arm joints by employing more muscle groups for movement. In conclusion, the forward. reverse propulsion can greatly improve the performances of manual wheelchairs by providing better mobility as well as by guaranteeing several advantages from a biomechanical viewpoint. Future development of a manual wheelchair optimized for the bi-directional propulsion will further improve the propulsion performances.

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The Effect of Wheelchair Propulsion on Carpal Tunnel Syndrome of Wrist Joint

  • Kong, Jin-Yong;Kwon, Hyuk-Cheol;Chang, Ki-Yeon;Jeong, Dong-Hoon
    • Physical Therapy Korea
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.7-17
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    • 2004
  • Individuals who propel wheelchairs have a high prevalence of upper extremity injuries (i.e., carpal tunnel syndrome, elbow/shoulder tendonitis, impingement syndrome). Musculoskeletal injuries can result from overuse or incorrect use of manual wheelchairs, and can hinder rehabilitation efforts. To better understand the mechanisms of upper extremity injuries, this study investigates the motion of the wrist during wheelchair propulsion. This study also examines changes in the variables that occur with fatiguing wheelchair propulsion to determine how the time parameters of wheelchair propulsion and the state of fatigue influence the risk of injury. A two dimensional (2-D) analysis of wrist movement during the wheelchair stroke was performed. Twenty subjects propelled a wheelchair handrim on a motor-driven treadmill at two different velocities (50, 70 m/min). The results of this study were as follows; The difference in time parameters of wheelchair propulsion (cadence, cycle time, push time, recovery time, and PSP ratio) at two different velocities was statistically significant. The wrist kinematic characteristics had statistically significant differences at two different velocities, but wrist radial deviation and elbow flexion/extension had no statistically significant differences. There were statistically significant differences in relation to fatigue in the time parameter of wheelchair propulsion (70 m/min) between initial 1 minute and final 1 minute. The wrist kinematic characteristics between the initial 1 minute and final 1 minute in relation to fatigue had statistically significant differences but the wrist flexion-extension (50 m/min) had no statistically significant differences. According to the results, the risk of musculoskeletal injuries is increased by fatigue from wheelchair propulsion. To prevent musculoskeletal injuries, wheelchair users should train in a muscle endurance program and consider wearing a splinting/grove. Moreover, wheelchair users need education on propulsion posture, suitable joint position, and proper recovery patterns of propulsion.

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The effects of three basketball wheelchairs on propulsion movement (포지션별 농구용 휠체어가 추진동작에 미치는 효과)

  • Lim, Bee-Oh;Yu, Yeon-Joo;Seo, Joung-Seok
    • Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.215-227
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    • 2002
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate propulsive time and kinematic variables on the three different kinds of the basketball wheelchairs in each play position for eight abled basketball wheelchair players. Kinematic data were collected by a video camera for two-dimensional analysis. The wheelchairs for the guard position showed the fastest in total propulsive time. The wheelchairs for the center position revealed the slowest in the phase of the change of the direction. The wheelchair for the guard position which shows fast movement velocity demonstrated closer hand contact with TDC(Top Dead Center). The wheelchair for the center position revealed the largest extension of the elbow and flexion of the trunk at handrim contact. The wheelchair for the guard position which has the lowest seat height presented larger elbow angle and trunk angle. The wheelchair for the guard position produced more fast trunk angular velocity than the wheelchair for other positions.

Characteristics of the Buttock Interface Pressure According to Wheelchair Propulsion Speed and Various Back Reclined Seating Position (휠체어 추진속도 및 등받이 경사각도에 따른 둔부 압력 변화 특성)

  • Kwon, Hyuk-Cheol;Kong, Jin-Yong
    • Physical Therapy Korea
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2005
  • Pressure ulcers are serious complications of tissue damage that can develop in patients with diminished pain sensation and diminished mobility. Pressure ulcers can result in irreversible tissue damage caused by ischemia resulting from external loading. There are many intrinsic and extrinsic contributors to the problem, including interface tissue pressure, shear, temperature, moisture, hygiene, nutrition, tissue tolerance, sensory and motor dysfunction, disease and infection, posture, and body support systems. The purposes of this study were to investigate the relationship between buttock interface pressure and seating position, wheelchair propulsion speed. Seated-interface pressure was measured using the Force Sensing Array pressure mapping system. Twenty subjects propelled wheelchair handrim on a motor-driven treadmill at different velocities (40, 60, 80 m/min) and seating position used recline ($100^{\circ}$, $110^{\circ}$, $120^{\circ}$) with a wheelchair simulator. Interface pressure consists of average (mean of the pressure sensor values) and maximum pressure (highest individual sensor value). The results of this study were as follows; No significant correlation in maximum/average pressure was found between a static position and a 40 m/min wheelchair propulsion (p>.05). However, a significant increase in maximum/average pressure were identified between conditions of a static position and 60 m/min, and 80 m/min wheelchair propulsion (p<.05). No significant correlation in maximum pressure were found between a $90^{\circ}$ recline (neutral position) and a $100^{\circ}$, $110^{\circ}$, or $120^{\circ}$ recline of the wheelchair back (p>.05). No significant difference in average pressure was found between conditions of a $90^{\circ}$ recline and both a $100^{\circ}$ and $110^{\circ}$ recline of wheelchair back. However, a significant reduction in average pressure was identified between conditions of a $90^{\circ}$ and $120^{\circ}$ recline of wheelchair back (p<.05). This study has shown some interesting results that reclining the seat by $120^{\circ}$ reduced average interface pressure, including the reduction or prevention in edema. And interface pressure was greater during dynamic wheelchair propulsion compared with static seating. Therefore, the optimal seating position and seating system ought to provide postural control and pressure relief. We need an education on optimal seating position and a suitable propulsion speeds for wheelchair users.

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