• Title, Summary, Keyword: hardening

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Strength and Deformation Capacities of Short Concrete Columns with Circular Section Confined by GFRP (GFRP로 구속된 원형단면 콘크리트 단주의 강도 및 변형 능력)

  • Cho, Soon-Ho
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.121-130
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    • 2007
  • To investigate the enhancement in strength and deformation capacities of concrete confined by FRP composites, tests under axial loads were carried out on three groups of thirty six short columns in circular section with diverse GFRP confining reinforcement. The major test variables considered include fiber content or orientation, wrap or tube type by varying the end loading condition, and continuous or discontinuous confinement depending on the presence of vortical spices between its two halves. The circumferential FRP strains at failure for different types of confinements were also investigated with emphasis. Various analytical models capable of predicting the ultimate strength and strain of the confined concrete were examined by comparing to observed results. Tests results showed that FRP wraps or tubes provide the substantial increase in strength and deformation, while partial wraps comprising the vertical discontinuities fail in an explosive manner with less increase in strength, particularly in deformation. A bilinear stress-strain response was observed throughout all tests with some variations of strain hardening. The failure hoop strains measured on the FRP surface were less than those obtained from the tensile coupons in all tests with a high degree of variation. In overall, existing predictive equations overestimated ultimate strengths and strains observed in present tests, with a much larger scatter related to the latter. For more accuracy, two simple design- oriented equations correlated with present tests are proposed. The strength equation was derived using the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion, whereas the strain equation was based on entirely fitting of test data including the unconfined concrete strength as one of governing factors.

Questions and Answers about the Humidifier Disinfectant Disaster as of February 2017 (가습기살균제 참사의 진행과 교훈(Q&A))

  • Choi, Yeyong
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.1-22
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    • 2017
  • 'The worstest environment disaster', 'World's first biocide massacre', 'Home-based Sewol ferry disaster' are all phrases attached to the recent humidifier disinfectant disaster. In the spring of 2011, four of 8 pregnant women including 1 adult man passed away at a university hospital in Seoul due to breathing failure. Epidemiologic investigation conducted by the Korean CDC soon revealed the inhalation of humidifier disinfectant, which had been widely used in Korea during the winter, to be responsible for the disease. As well as lung fibrosis hardening of the lungs, other diseases including asthma, rhinitis, skin disease, liver disease, fetal disease or cancers have been researched for their relation with exposure to the products. By February 9, 2017, 5,342 cases had registered for health problems and 1,131 of them were already dead (20.8% mortality rate). Based on studies by government agencies and a telephone survey of the general population by Seoul National University and civic groups, around 20% of the general public of Korea has used these products. Since the market release of the first product by SK Chemical in 1994, over 7.1 million items from around 20 brands were sold up to 2011. Most of the products were manufactured by well-known large conglomerates such as SK, Lotte, Samsung, Shinsegye, LG, and GS, as well as some European companies including UK-based Reckitt Benckiser and TESCO, the German firm Henkel, the Danish firm KeTox, and an Irish company. Even though this disaster was unveiled in 2011 by the Korean government, the issue of the victims was neglected for over five years. In 2016, an unexpected but intensive investigation by prosecutors found that Reckitt Benckiser manipulated and concealed animal tests for its own brand and brought several university experts and company employees to court. The matter was an intense social issue in Korea from May to June with a surge in media coverage. The prosecutor's investigation and a nationwide boycott campaign organized by victims and environmental groups against Reckitt Benckiser, whose product had been used by more than 70% of victims, led to the producer's official apology and a compensation scheme. A legislative investigation organized after the April 2016 national election revealed the producers' faults and the government's responsibility, but failed to meet expectations. A special law for the victims passed the National Assembly in January 2017 and a punitive system together with a massive environmental epidemiology investigation are expected to be the only solutions for this tragedy. Sciences of medicine, toxicology and environmental health have provided decisive evidence so far, but for the remaining problems the perspectives of social sciences such as sociology and jurisprudence are highly necessary, similar to with the Minamata disease and Wonjin Rayon events. It may not be easy to follow this issue using unfamiliar terminology from medical and chemical science and the long, complicated history of the event. For these reasons the author has attempted to write this article in a question and answer format to render it easier to follow. The 17 questions are: Q1 What is humidifier disinfectant? Q2 What kind of health problems are caused by humidifier disinfectant? Q3 How many victims are there? Q4 What is the analysis of the 1,112 cases of death? Q5 What is the problem with the government's diagnostic criteria and the solution? Q6 Who made what brands? Q7 Has there been a recall? What is still on sale? Q8 Was safety not checked by any producers? Q9 What are the government's responsibilities? Q10 Is it true that these products were sold only in Korea? Q11 Why and how was it unveiled only in 2011 after 17 years of sales? Q12 What delayed the resolution of the victim issue? Q13 What is the background of the prosecutor's investigation in early 2016? Q14 Is it possible to report new victim cases without evidence of product purchase? Q15 What is happening with the victim issue? Q16 How does it compare with the cases of Minamata disease and Wonjin Rayon? Q17 Are there prevention measures and lessons?

Material Characteristics and Deterioration Assessment of the Stone Buddhas and Shrine in Unjusa Temple, Hwasun, Korea (화순 운주사 석조불감의 재질특성과 풍화훼손도 평가)

  • Park, Sung-Mi;Lee, Myeong-Seong;Choi, Seok-Won;Lee, Chan-Hee
    • Journal of Conservation Science
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    • v.24
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    • pp.23-36
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    • 2008
  • The stone Buddhas and Shrine of Unjusa temple (Korea Treasure No. 797) in Hwasun formed in Koryo Dynasty are unique style which the Buddha faces each other the back parts of south and north within the stone Shrine. The stone Buddhas and Shrine are highly evaluated in historical, artistic and academic respects. But, the stone properties have been exposed in the open system various aspects of degradations weathered for a long time without specific protective facilities. The rock materials of the stone Buddhas and Shrine are about 47 blocks, and total press load is about 56.6 metric ton. The host rocks composed mainly of white grey hyaline lithic tuff and rhyolitic tuff breccia. In addition, biotite granite used as part during the restoration works. The chemical index of alteration for host tuffaceous rocks and the replacement granites range from 52.1 to 59.4 and 50.0 to 51.0, respectively. Weathering types for the stone Buddhas and Shrine were largely divided with physical, chemical and biological weathering to make a synthetic deterioration map according to aspects of damage, and estimate share as compared with surface area. Whole deterioration degrees are represented that physical weathering appeared exfoliation. Chemical weathering is black coloration and biological weathering of grey lichen, which show each lighly deterioration degrees. According to deterioration degree by direction of stone Buddhas and Shrine, physical weathering mostly appeared by 39.1% on the sorthern part, and chemical weathering is 61.2% high share on the western part. Biological weathering showed 38.3% the largest distribution on the southern part. Therefore, it is necessary to try hardening for the parts with serious cracks or exfoliations, remove secondary contaminants and organisms through regular cleaning. Also necessary to make a plan to remove moisture of the ground which causes weathering, and estimate that need established and scientific processing through clinical demonstration of conservation plan that chooses suitable treatment.

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Effects of Semolina on Quality Characteristics of the Rice Noddles (세몰리나 첨가가 쌀국수의 품질특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Byong Ki;Park, Jung Eun;Zu, Genuine
    • Food Engineering Progress
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.56-63
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    • 2011
  • Durum wheat semolina was added into wet-milled rice flour in order to improve chewy texture, firm bite ("al dente"), and resistance to overcooking of the ordinary rice noodles. Wet noodles were prepared by mixing 0 (control), 5, 10, 15, and 20% (w/w) of semolina per semolina and rice flour mixtures. Vital gluten (4%, w/w) and salt (2%, w/w) were added to form the pliable strands of wet noodles and final moisture contents of the raw mixtures were equalized at 45%. Pasting properties of the suspended flour mixtures as measured by the Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA) showed slight increases (up to $1.2^{\circ}C)$ in pasting temperatures along with the considerable decreases in peak viscosities as semolina increased at over 15%. Reduced shear thinning and retrogradation of the starch solution that leads to hardening of the cooked noodles were indicated by lowered breakdown viscosities and gaps between finaland setback viscosities from the RVA viscogram as semolina increased at over 10%. Reduced water uptake and turbidity increases of the cooking water as caused by the soluble starches from the noodle were also noted as the content of semolina increased. More or less significant (p<0.05) decreases in colorimetric L (lightness) value of the raw- and cooked noodles were observed as semolina increased while a- (redness) and b (yellowness) values were rather increased at the same moment. Textural properties of the cooked noodles such as hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness from TPA tests were significantly (p<0.05) influenced by added semolina, even at 5%-levels or more. It can be concluded that addition of semolina into rice flour could provide easy handling of the wet noodles without distortion during transportation, integrity and firm bite of the cooked noodles, and less loss of starch to the cooking water in comparison with the ordinary rice noodle. It was finally suggested that optimum level of the semolina in the product was approximately 10% for the quality wet rice noodle products.

A Comparative Study on the CT Effective Dose by the Position of Patient's Arm (전신 PET/CT 검사에서 환자의 팔 위치에 따른 CT 유효선량의 비교 연구)

  • Seong, Ji-Hye;Park, Soon-Ki;Kim, Jung-Sun;Park, Seung-Yong;Jung, Woo-Young
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.44-49
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: In the whole body PET/CT scan, it is natural to lift the patient's arm for its quality improvement. However, when the lesion is located in head and neck, the arms should be located lower. This study was designed to compare the CT effective dose for each arm position applying Automatic Exposure Control (AEC). Materials and Methods: 45 patients who had $^{18}F$-FDG whole body PET/CT scan were studied with Biograph Truepoint 40 (SIEMENS, GERMANY), Biograph Sensation 16 (SIEMENS, GERMANY), Discovery STe 8 (GE healthcare, USA). The CT effective dose of 15 patients for each equipment was measured and comparatively analyzed in both arm-lifted position and lower-arm position. ImPACT v1.0 program was used as the method of measurement for CT effective dose. For the statistics analysis, Paired t-test which paired with SPSS 18.0 statistic program was applied. Results: In the case of arm-lifted, it was measured as $6.33{\pm}0.93mSv$ for Biograph Sensation 16, $8.01{\pm}1.34mSv$ for Biograph Truepoint 40, and $9.69{\pm}2.32mSv$ for Discovery STe 8. When arms are located lower position, it was measure as $6.97{\pm}0.76mSv$, $8.95{\pm}1.85mSv$, $13.07{\pm}2.87mSv$ for each. CT effective dose according to the arm position was 9.2% for Biograph Truepoint 40, 10.5% for Biograph Sensation 16, and 25.9% for Discovery Ste 8. The statistics analysis showed the meaningful difference ($p$<0.05). Conclusion: For the whole body PET/CT case, CT effective dose applying AEC was decreased the radiation exposure of the patients when the arm was lifted for 15.2% of average value. The patient who has no lesion in head and neck would decrease the artifact occurrence in objective part and lower the CT effective dose. Also, for the patient who had lesion in head and neck, the artifact in objective part can be lower by putting the arms down, the fact that CT effective dose increases should be concerned in its whole body PET/CT scan.

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Study on Pretreatment Methods to Prevent Tissue Softening of Heated Onion (가열 양파의 조직 연화 방지를 위한 전처리 방법에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, Jun-Bong;Cho, Won-Il
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.47 no.1
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    • pp.56-62
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    • 2015
  • Various pretreatment methods were evaluated to prevent tissue softening of heated onion. Changes in onion tissue firmness during heating were explained by 3-mechanism model consisting of texture hardening at low temperature ($60-80^{\circ}C$) and substrate softening at high temperature. Preheating of onion in a $Ca^{2+}$-containing solution significantly improved its texture after high-temperature heating. The improvement of firmness by preheating at low temperature was related to the formation of strong cross-linking between carboxyl groups and $Ca^{2+}$ by the action of pectin methylesterase in onion. The highest firmness was obtained by pre-heating at $70^{\circ}C$ for 120 min in 0.5% calcium solution. This result was supported by chemical analysis showing that the amount of bound calcium was the highest at $70^{\circ}C$. Further investigation should be carried out to establish the optimal conditions to prevent the softening of various vegetables.

Study on the Manufacturing techniques & Conservation of Iron Pot from Cheonmachong Ancient Tomb (천마총 출토 철부(鐵釜)의 제작기법 및 보존처리)

  • Lee, Seung Ryul;Shin, Yong Bi;Jung, Won Seob
    • Journal of Conservation Science
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.263-275
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    • 2014
  • It's shown how to proceed the study on Manufacturing techniques & Conservation to the Iron Pot from Cheonmachong Ancient Tomb(the 155th Tomb in Hwangnam-dong). In order to investigate manufacturing techniques of the Iron Pot, some parts of the relic were gathered. After mounting, polishing and etching on the relic, analyzing the metal microstructure was conducted. Also it's conducted a SEM-EDS analysis on the nonmetallic inclusion. White iron structure was observed in the metallurgical structure inspection, SEM-EDS analysis. It seems to be dried slowly at room temperature after casting, doesn't look as particular heat treatment to improve brittleness. It is estimated that it's as the handle seam side were verified about 3cm inch wide, 1.5 thick in center of body, so 2 separate half-completed products was cast with width-type mould. The manufacturing techniques Using white cast iron structure, width-type mould are observable to the Iron Pot excavated from Sikrichong Ancient Tomb & Hwangnamdaechong grand Ancient Tomb around those were constructed the same time. It's able to recognize that it's almost identical manufacturing techniques at that time. Conservation is generically following those are survey of pretreatment, foreign material removal, stabilization, restoration and color matching in the order. cleaning & drying were added to the process as occasion demands. The strengthening treatment were difficult with artifact's volume, low concentration Paraloid NAD-10 solution was spread two or three times with a brush, surface hardening also came up with 15wt% Paraloid NAD-10 solution after the conservation was complete. There were connection & restoration for the restoration to the damage after modeling forms that it's similar to damaged parts by using the Fiber Reinforced Plastic resins(POLYCOAT FH-245, mold laminated type). Throughout this research, capitalizing on accumulations of measurements about the production technique of Iron Pot in the time of the fifth and 6th centuries is no less important than the Iron artifact's conservation for a better study in the future.

Effect of the Dose Reduction Applied Low Dose for PET/CT According to CT Attenuation Correction Method (PET/CT 저선량 적용 시 CT 감쇠보정법에 따른 피폭선량 저감효과)

  • Jung, Seung Woo;Kim, Hong Kyun;Kwon, Jae Beom;Park, Sung Wook;Kim, Myeong Jun;Sin, Yeong Man;Kim, Yeong Heon
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.127-133
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: Low dose of PET/CT is important because of Patient's X-ray exposure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of low-dose PET/ CT image through the CTAC and QAC of patient study and phantom study. Materials and Methods: We used the discovery 710 PET/CT (GE). We used the NEMA IEC body phantom for evaluating the PET data corrected by ultra-low dose CT attenuation correction method and NU2-94 phantom for uniformity. After injection of 70.78 MBq and 22.2 MBq of 18 F-FDG were done to each of phantom, PET/CT scans were obtained. PET data were reconstructed by using of CTAC of which dose was for the diagnosis CT and Q. AC of which was only for attenuation correction. Quantitative analysis was performed by use of horizontal profile and vertical profile. Reference data which were corrected by CTAC were compared to PET data which was corrected by the ultra-low dose. The relative error was assessed. Patients with over weighted and normal weight also underwent a PET/CT scans according to low dose protocol and standard dose protocol. Relative error and signal to noise ratio of SUV were analyzed. Results: In the results of phantom test, phantom PET data were corrected by CTAC and Q.AC and they were compared each other. The relative error of Q.AC profile was been calculated, and it was shown in graph. In patient studies, PET data for overweight patient and normal weight patient were reconstructed by CTAC and Q.AC under routine dose and ultra-low dose. When routine dose was used, the relative error was small. When high dose was used, the result of overweight patient was effectively corrected by Q.AC. Conclusion: In phantom study, CTAC method with 80 kVp and 10 mA was resulted in bead hardening artifact. PET data corrected by ultra- low dose CTAC was not quantified, but those by the same dose were quantified properly. In patients' cases, PET data of over weighted patient could be quantified by Q.AC method. Its relative difference was not significant. Q.AC method was proper attenuation correction method when ultra-low dose was used. As a result, it is expected that Q.AC is a good method in order to reduce patient's exposure dose.

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Laterally Unbraced Length for Preventing Inelastic Lateral-Torsional Buckling of High-Strength Steel Beams (고강도 강재보의 비탄성 횡-비틀림좌굴 제어를 위한 횡지지 거리)

  • Park, Chang Hee;Lee, Cheol Ho;Han, Kyu Hong;Kim, Jin Ho;Lee, Seung Eun;Ha, Tae Hyu;Kim, Jin Won
    • Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.115-130
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    • 2013
  • In this study, lateral-torsional buckling (LTB) strength of high-strength H-beams built up from 800MPa tensile-strength steel was experimentally and analytically evaluated according to current lateral stability provisions (KBC 2009, AISC-LRFD 2010). The motivation was to evaluate whether or not current LTB provisions, which were originally developed for ordinary steel with different stress-strain characteristics, are still applicable to high-strength steel. Two sets of compact-section specimens with relatively low (Set A) or high (Set B) warping stiffness were prepared and tested under uniform moment loading. Laterally unbraced lengths of the test specimens were controlled such that inelastic LTB could be induced. All specimens exhibited LTB strength exceeding the minimum limit required by current provisions by a sufficient margin. Moreover, some specimen in Set A reached a rotation capacity required for plastic design, although its laterally unbraced length belonged to the inelastic LTB range. All the test results indicated that extrapolation of current provisions to high-strength steel is conservative. In order to further analyze the test results, the relationship between inelastic moment and laterally unbraced length was also derived in explicit form for both ordinary- and high-strength steel based on the effective tangent modulus of inelastic section. The analytical relationship derived again showed that extrapolation of current laterally unbraced length limit leads to a conservative design in the case of high-strength steel and that the laterally unbraced length to control the inelastic LTB behavior of high-strength steel beam should be specified by including its unique post-yield strain-hardening characteristics.

Evaluation of Radiation Dose for Dual Energy CBCT Using Multi-Grid Device (에너지 변조 필터를 이용한 이중 에너지 콘빔 CT의 선량 평가)

  • Ju, Eun Bin;Ahn, So Hyun;Cho, Sam Ju;Keum, Ki Chang;Lee, Rena
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.31-36
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    • 2016
  • The paper discusses radiation dose of dual energy CT on which copper modulation layer, is mounted in order to improve diagnostic performance of the dual energy CT. The radiation dose is estimated using MCNPX and its results are compared with that of the conventional dual energy CT system. CT X-ray spectra of 80 and 120 kVp, which are usually used for thorax, abdominal, head, and neck CT scans, were generated by the SPEC78 code and were used for the source specification 'SDEF' card for MCNPX dose modeling. The copper modulation layer was located 20 cm away from a source covering half of the X-ray window. The radiation dose was measured as changing its thickness from 0.5 to 2.0 mm at intervals of 0.5 mm. Since the MCNPX tally provides only normalized values to a single particle, the dose conversion coefficients of F6 tally for the modulation layer-based dual energy CBCT should be calculated for matching the modeling results into the actual dose. The dose conversion coefficient is $7.2*10^4cGy/output$ that is obtained from dose calibration curve between F6 tally and experimental results in which GAFCHORMIC EBT3 films were exposed by an already known source. Consequently, the dose of the modulation layer-based dual energy cone beam CT is 33~40% less than that of the single energy CT system. On the basis of the results, it is considered that scattered dose produced by the copper modulation layer is very small. It shows that the modulation layer-based dual energy CBCT system can effectively reduce radiation dose, which is the major disadvantage of established dual energy CT.