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Quality change of mini sweet pumpkins (suppress cultivation, fall planting) during storage at different conditions (가을작형 억제재배 미니단호박의 저장조건별 품질 변화)

  • Oh, Bong-Yun;Jo, Gyeong-Suk;Lee, You-Seok;Kang, Jeong-Hwa;Jang, Mi-Hyang;Hwangbo, In-Sik
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.779-787
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    • 2015
  • We stored sweet pumpkins at $8^{\circ}C$, $12^{\circ}C$, $12^{\circ}C$ plasma curing and room temperature (control) for 180 days. During this time, the quality characteristics were analyzed within the different groups. No spoiling occurred in either of the storage conditions for up to 120 days, and the marketability was good. After 120 days, spoiling sharply increased by over 70% in the control group, while in the $12^{\circ}C$ group it decreased to 20~60%. Conversely, spoiling was completely absent in the $8^{\circ}C$ and $12^{\circ}C$ plasma curing groups during the overall 180 days of storage. The lowest moisture content was found in the $8^{\circ}C$ group and the quality of the pumpkins was excellent during the entire storage period. The color of pulp was better in the $12^{\circ}C$ and $12^{\circ}C$ plasma curing groups, with best results were found in the latest. Both the $8^{\circ}C$ and $12^{\circ}C$ plasma curing groups maintained their dark green surface colors, while both the $12^{\circ}C$ and control groups turned from green to yellow. All groups showed a reduction in their initial hardness, with the $8^{\circ}C$ group staying the hardest. Soluble solid and mealiness was increased to the storage during 90 days while decreased, that were long to maintain the mealiness texture in the $8^{\circ}C$ storage pumpkin. The overall acceptability from sensory evaluation was higher in the $12^{\circ}C$ plasma curing group, when compared to those of the $8^{\circ}C$, $12^{\circ}C$ and control groups storage conditions.

Effects of Mixed Application of Chemical Fertilizer with Liquid Swine Manure on Agronomic Characteristics, Yield and Feed Value of Sorghum × Sorghum Hybrid for Silage in Paddy Field Cultivation (논 토양에서 사일리지용 수수 × 수수 교잡종 재배시 화학비료와 발효 돈분 액비 혼용 시용이 생육특성 및 영양성분에 미치는 영향)

  • Hwan, Hwang Joo;Lee, Sang Moo
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.290-296
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    • 2015
  • This study was conducted to investigate the influence of the mixed application of chemical fertilizer (CF) with liquid swine manure (LSM) on the agronomic characteristics, dry matter yield, minerals, and free sugar in cultivating Sorghum ${\times}$ Sorghum Hybrid (SSH) on paddy soil. The field experiment was designed in a randomized block design with three replications and consisted of CF 100% (C), CF 70% + LSM 30% (T1), CF 50% + LSM 50% (T2), CF 30% + LSM 70% (T3), and LSM 100% treatment (T4). The application of LSM was based only on the nitrogen (150 kg/ha). Plant length, leaf length, leaf width and stem diameter were significantly the lower in T4 (p<0.05). Stem hardness increased significantly (p<0.05) as the LSM application rate decreased. Fresh yield was the highest in T2, whereas the lowest in T3 (p<0.05). However, dry matter yields and TDN yield did not show significant difference among treatments. Crude protein was the highest in T1 (p<0.05). Crude fat content did not significant differences between the T1, T2, T3 and T4, but C showed a significantly different (p<0.05). NDF and crude fiber were the highest in T3 and C, respectively (p<0.05). However, ADF did not show significant difference among treatments. Total mineral contents were higher in the order of T1> T2> T4> T3> C (p<0.05). Free sugar contents were significantly higher at T1 and C as compared to other treatments. The analysis of all the above results suggests that the application of liquid swine manure is very effective, considering the yield performance and the content of mineral and free sugar. In addition, liquid swine manure may be possible to grow SSH without chemical fertilizer.

Effects of Combined Chlorine Dioxide Gas Treatment Using Low-Concentration Generating Sticks on the Microbiological Safety and Quality of Paprika during Storage (저농도 서방형 이산화염소 가스 병합처리가 파프리카의 저장 중 미생물 성장과 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Kang, Ji Hoon;Park, Shin Min;Kim, Hyun Gyu;Son, Hyun Jung;Song, Kyoung Ju;Cho, Miae;Kim, Jong Rak;Lee, Jeong Yong;Song, Kyung Bin
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.619-624
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    • 2016
  • Chlorine dioxide ($ClO_2$) gas treatment (75 ppmv, 30 min) has been suggested to improve the microbial safety of postharvest paprika in a previous study. Based on these results, in this study, an additional combined treatment using low-concentration $ClO_2$ gas-generating sticks (3 ppmv) in paprika samples during storage was carried out at $8^{\circ}C$ and 90% relative humidity to further enhance the quality and reduce the decay rate of paprika for the purpose of lengthy storage. After the combined treatment, the initial populations of total aerobic bacteria as well as yeast and molds in the paprika samples decreased by 3.04 and 2.70 log CFU/g, respectively, compared with those of the control samples, and this microbial inactivation was maintained by the low-concentration $ClO_2$ gas-generating sticks during storage. In particular, the decay rate of samples with combined treatment was significantly lower than that of the control. Vitamin C content, hardness, and color quality parameters of paprika samples were not altered by treatment, while weight loss of the samples treated with the combined $ClO_2$ gas was lower than that of the control during storage. These results indicate that the combination of two different $ClO_2$ gas treatments is effective for retaining the quality of paprika during prolonged storage.

Effects of NaCl Concentration on Physicochemical Properties of Pork Emulsion (NaCl 첨가량에 따른 돈육 유화물의 이화학적 특성)

  • Park, Sin-Young;Kim, Hack-Youn
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.551-556
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    • 2016
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of NaCl concentration on the physicochemical properties of pork emulsion. Pork emulsion was produced containing 0% (control), 0.3%, 0.6%, 0.9%, 1.2%, and 1.5% NaCl. Proximate composition of pork emulsion containing 1.5% NaCl showed the highest moisture content (P<0.05). The ash contents of pork emulsion increased with an increase in NaCl, and protein contents decreased with increasing NaCl concentration. The pH levels of uncooked pork emulsion containing 0.9%, 1.2%, and 1.5% NaCl were lower than those of other treatments (P<0.05), and the pH level of cooked pork emulsion containing NaCl was lower than that of the control (P<0.05). The CIE $L^*$ value of the uncooked pork emulsion samples containing NaCl was higher than that of the control (P<0.05), whereas CIE $a^*$ and CIE $b^*$ values of samples with NaCl were lower than the control (P<0.05). CIE $L^*$ and CIE $b^*$ values of cooked pork emulsion decreased with an increase in NaCl level, and CIE $a^*$ value increased with increasing NaCl concentration (P<0.05). Viscosity of the pork emulsion increased with an increase in NaCl. Texture profile analysis of pork emulsion containing NaCl showed no significant difference in springiness or cohesiveness (P>0.05). Pork emulsion containing 1.5% NaCl showed the highest hardness, gumminess, and chewiness (P<0.05). These results suggest that pork emulsion containing 0.9% and 1.2% NaCl can be used as a low-salt meat product.

A Study on the Moisturizing Effect and Preparation of Liquid Crystal Structures Using Sucrose Distearate Emulsifier (슈크로오스디스테아레이트를 사용한 액정구조의 생성과 보습효과에 관한 연구)

  • Kwak, Myeong-Heon;Kim, In-Young;Lee, Hwan-Myung;Park, Joo-Hoon
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.1-12
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    • 2016
  • This study is to make the liquid crystalline structure using sucrose distearate (Sucro-DS) emulsifier to create the hydrophilic type oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion, the droplets of the emulsion having a structure of a multi-lamellar structure. We have studied the physicochemical properties of Sucro-DS using those techniques. And it has been studied in the emulsion performance. In order to form the liquid crystalline structure applying 3 wt% of Sucro-DS, 5 wt% of glycerin, 5 wt% of squalane, 5 wt% of capric/caprylic triglyceride, 3wt% of cetostearyl alcohol, 1wt% of glyceryl mono-stearate, 78 wt% of pure water in mixture having the lamellar structure of stable multi-layer system was found to formed. By applying them, they were described how to create an unstable active material encapsulated cream. Further, the moisturizing cream was studied using this technique. It reported the results to the skin improvement effect by the human clinical trials. The pH range to produce a stable liquid crystal phase using a Sucro-DS was maintained in 5.2~7.5. In order to increase the stability of the liquid crystal, it was when behenyl alcohol containing 3 wt%, the hardness at this time was 13 kg/mm,min. Viscosity of the same amount was 25,000mPas/min. After a test for the effects of the emulsions, the concentration of 6 wt% Sucro-DS is that was appropriate, the particle size of the liquid crystal was 4~6mm. It was observed through a microscope analysis, reliability of the liquid crystal changes for 3 months was found to get stable at each $4^{\circ}C$, $25^{\circ}C$ and $45^{\circ}C$. In clinical trial test, before applying a moisturizing effect it was $13.4{\pm}7%$. Moisturizing cream liquid crystal was not formed in $14.5{\pm}5%$. Therefore, applying than ever before could see the moisture about 8.2% was improved. On the other hand, it was the moisturizing effect of the liquid cream is $19.2{\pm}7%$. The results showed that 43.3% improvement than that previously used. Applications fields, Sucro-DS emulsifier used liquid cream, lotion, eye cream and a variety of formulations can be developed, as well as the cosmetics industry is expected to be wide fields in the application of the external preparation for skin emulsion technology in the pharmaceutical industry and pharmaceutical industry.

Quality Characteristics of Pettitoes(Jokbal) added with Coffee Meal (커피박 첨가 돈족(豚足)의 품질특성)

  • Choi, Seok-Bong;An, Sang-Ran;Lee, Myung-Ho
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.115-124
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this paper is to verify improvement of the basic quality of food resources and make the pork legs as the more advanced food products after taking special processing steps with the mixture of traditional medical herbs and hot water extracted coffee meal. The pH level of the pettitoes(Jokbal) showed the highest rate among the control group but it showed no statistical differences in the moisture content between the control and the pettitoes(Jokbal) processed with coffee waste extract as an additional component. In addition, the levels of crude fat and crude ash showed slight increases as the addition of the amount increase. In case of the proteins, however, tendency of slight was decreased but it was not significantly difference as the amount increases. The sodium rate in the pettitoes(Jokbal) was higher in the additional group than in the control group. Texture analysis showed a tendency of wide decrease in the hardness and chewiness depending on amount of the added coffee waste extract. On the other hand, as for the cohesiveness and springiness, there was no significant difference with the control group. In case of the lightness value, as the amount of added coffee waste extract is increased from 10% to 20% and 30%, the 'L' value was reduced significantly compared to that of the control. And the 'a' value was not significantly different compared to the coffee waste extract foil impregnated furniture control. But the 'b' values were significantly increased in accordance with the result of increasing the amount of control is at the lowest level. The result may come from the influence of coffee waste extract, which affects the color of the pettitoes(Jokbal). According to the sensory evaluation, the pork part with 10% of coffee waste extract showed the highest score in looking, chewiness, smell and preference, resulting in the improvement in quality of the pettitoes(Jokbal).

Quality Characteristics of Yanggaeng according to the Addition of Plantain (Plantago asiatica L.) Powder (질경이 분말 첨가량에 따른 양갱의 품질 특성)

  • Cho, In-Sook;Moon, Jong-Hee;Hong, Ki-Woon;Park, In-Soo
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.22 no.8
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    • pp.226-234
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    • 2016
  • In this study, the possibility of developing new type of yanggaeng has been reviewed by evaluating physio-chemical and sensual characteristics of new yanggaeng products using 5~20% of powder of plantain that is a hardy plant resource from most of hillside in Korea. The moisture contents of plantain powder was 1.9%, DPPH radical scavenging ability was 15.67 mg/mL, and total polyphenol contents was 7.00mg/g. By increasing the adding rate of plantain powder the moisture contents and pH of yanggaeng were decreased. From chromatography, by increasing the adding rate of plantain powder the brightness, L-value was decreased along with redness, a-value, yellowness, and b-value. The a-value of sample group adding 5% of plantain powder was the highest and that of sample group adding 20% was the lowest (p<0.001). From texture measurement shown that the hardness of sample group adding 5% of plantain powder was the highest by 3,937.04 and that of sample group adding 20% of plantain powder was the lowest by 2,153.59. The springiness of sample group adding 5% of plantain powder was the highest by 6.79% and that of sample group adding 20% of plantain powder was the lowest by 4.76%. The cohesiveness of sample group adding 20% of plantain powder was the lowest by 177.35 and it was significant (p<0.001). The result of sensory test showed that sample group adding 10% of plantain powder achieved the highest appraisal from most factors, such as color, scent. sweetness, chewiness, moist level, softness level and total preference. As shown from the above results, the sensory preference of yanggaeng can be improved by adding proper volume of plantain powder while making it, so it is understood that the addition of plantain powder in making yanggaeng would give better possibility in commercialization. By considering sensory preference factor the 10% addition rate of plantain powder while making yanggaeng would be the most proper recipe.

Quality and Antioxidant Properties of Iced Cookie with Black Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) Powder (흑토마토 분말을 첨가한 냉동 쿠키의 품질 및 항산화 특성)

  • O, Hyeonbin;Choi, Byung Bum;Song, Ka-Young;Zhang, Yangyang;Kim, Young-Soon
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.65-72
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    • 2016
  • Black tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) is known to have more ${\beta}-carotene$, lycopene, and vitamin C than general red-colored tomatoes. In this study, we evaluated the quality properties, antioxidant activities and sensory characteristics of black tomato cookies. Cookies were prepared by replacing 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7% of flour with black tomato powder. Density of black tomato cookies tended to be decreased between control (1.20) and 3% added groups (1.12). pH value was decreased from control (6.66) to 7% added group (5.16). Spread factor and loss rate were increased with increasing amounts of black tomato powder. Hardness was gradually increased from $107.77g/cm^2$ in control to $170.50g/cm^2$ in 7% added group. Color measurement indicated that L-value (brightness) was highest in control (70.46) and lowest in 7% added group (45.23); whereas, a-value (redness) increased while b-value (yellowness) tended to decrease with increasing amounts of black tomato powder. Total polyphenol contents and DPPH radical scavenging activities were directly proportional to the amount of black tomato powder. Consumer preference scores in color and flavor of black tomato powder added group were higher than those of control. Characteristic strength test was not significantly different among the groups. Overall, the results indicated that adding 5% black tomato powder is desirable for making black tomato cookies.

Gel and Texture Properties of Fish-meat Gel Prepared with Pagrus major in Comparison to Different Grades of Alaska Pollock (도미를 활용하여 제조한 연제품의 겔 및 texture 특성)

  • Gao, Ya;Oh, Jung Hwan;Karadeniz, Fatih;Lee, Seul-Gi;Kim, Hyung Kwang;Kim, Se Jong;Jung, Jun Mo;Cheon, Ji Hyeon;Kong, Chang-Suk
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.26 no.8
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    • pp.955-962
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    • 2016
  • Fish-meat gel is an intermediate product used in a variety of surimi-based seafood. One of the most-used raw materials of fish-meat gel is Alaska Pollock due to its high-quality meat in terms of gel strength and texture. However, increasing demand for fish-meat gel, along with overexploitation of the wild catch Alaska Pollock, has put the industry in need of low-cost sustainable alternative sources for fish-meat gel. Pagrus major (PM) is a widely aquacultured fish known for having white meat that is low in fat. The current study compares the quality of fish-meat gel prepared from aquacultured PM to that of high and mid-grade Alaska Pollock fish-meat gel. Gels were compared in terms of gel strength, texture, color, and protein pattern. Results indicated that fish-meat gels prepared from PM were superior to Alaska Pollock fish-meat gels with regard to gel strength, hardness, springiness, chewiness, cutting strength, and breaking force. In addition, although not matching in quality, PM exhibited a cohesiveness, whiteness, and expressible moisture content comparable to Alaska Pollock of both grades. Protein pattern analysis also showed that PM and Alaska Pollock fish-meat gels had similar protein profiles before and after gel preparation. Therefore, P. major is suggested as a potential substitute for Alaska Pollock in fish-meat gel production.

Reduction in bitter taste and quality characteristics in pickled bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) by different pretreatment conditions (전처리 조건에 따른 여주(Momordica charantia L.) 초절임의 쓴맛 감소와 품질평가)

  • Park, HyoSun;Moon, BoKyung;Kim, Suna
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.48 no.5
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    • pp.466-473
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    • 2016
  • This study was performed to investigate the reduction in bitter taste and quality characteristics by pretreatments (brining; 1, 5% and blanching; 1, 3 min) in pickled bitter melon, respectively. We prepared picked bitter melon samples at 1%-1 min, 1%-3 min, 5%-1 min, 5%-3 min. Total polyphenol and total flavonoid contents were found to be the highest in 5%-1 min at $14.23{\pm}0.40mg\;CE/g$ (dry) and $4.46{\pm}0.10mg\;RE/g$ (dry), respectively. L-ascorbic acid level was the highest in control samples. Arginine and glutamic acid were increased by brining and blanching. ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activity were found to be the highest at $43.60{\pm}0.40$ and $44.88{\pm}0.20%$ at 5%-1 min, respectively. ${\alpha}-glucosidase$ inhibitory activity was the highest at 5%-1 min. The a value was statistically different, whereas L and b values were similar among different pretreatments. Hardness in pretreated samples was decreased as compared to that in the control. Among sensory evaluations, 'color' did not indicate any statistical difference, while 'texture', 'bitterness preference' and 'overall preference' increased with pretreatments, and 'bitter intensity' decreased.