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Free Sugar and Organic Acid in the Fruit of Hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge) Selected Clones as Honey Plant in Korea

  • Park, Youngki;Kim, Jae-Hee
    • Journal of Apiculture
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.297-301
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    • 2018
  • Hawthorn is widely distributed in Korea and has been used as herbal medicine for treating various cardiovascular disease, arteriosclerosis and hypertension in Korea. In order to select superior honey tree plant from Korea, the free sugar and organic acid in hawthorn fruits, including five Korean clones and four Chinese cultivars, were evaluated. We also compared these hawthorn fruits of five clones (selected from different area of Korea) with Chinese hawthorn cultivars. Glucose, galactose, fructose and sucrose were the major sugar components of hawthorn. In this study, we observed that sucrose, glucose and fructose content. The highest sucrose content of hawthorn fruit was 188.12g/100g in Daegeumseong cultivar. The sweetness index, which plays important role of taste, was also calculated from the content of sucrose, glucose and fructose. The contribution of each carbohydrate was calculated, based on the fact that fructose is 2.30 and sucrose 1.35 times sweeter than glucose. The highest sweetness of hawthorn fruit was 579.52 in Pocheon clone. Main organic acid detected in hawthorn fruit were citric acid, malic acid and shikimic acid. The highest citric acid and malic acid content in hawthorn fruit were 157.50g/100g (Pocheon 3) and 34.12g/100g (Daegeumseong), respectively. The results of this study would be helpful for using food and functional food products, due to the beneficial effects of free sugar and organic acid for human health such as antioxidants and anticarcinogenic properties.

Anti-inflammatory effect of the water fraction from hawthorn fruit on LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells

  • Li, Chunmei;Wang, Myeong-Hyeon
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.101-106
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    • 2011
  • The hawthorn fruit (Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge var. typica Schneider) is used as a traditional medicine in Korea. The objective of this study was to understand the mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory effects of the water fractionated portion of hawthorn fruit on a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cellular model. The level of nitric oxide (NO) production in the water fraction and LPS-treated RAW 264.7 cells were determined with an ELISA. The cytotoxicity of the water fraction and LPS was measured with an MTT assay. Expression of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-${\alpha}$, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and interleukin $1{\beta}$ (IL-$1{\beta}$) mRNA were analyzed with a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The water fraction of hawthorn fruit was determined to be safe and significantly inhibited NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and suppressed COX-2, (TNF)-${\alpha}$, IL-$1{\beta}$, and IL-6 expression. The observed anti-inflammatory effects of the water fraction of hawthorn fruit might be attributed to the down-regulation of COX-2, (TNF)-${\alpha}$, IL-$1{\beta}$, and IL-6 expression in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells.

Antioxidant Activity of Hawthorn Fruit in vitro

  • Li, Chunmei;Han, Woong;Wang, Myeong-Hyeon
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.53 no.1
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    • pp.8-12
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    • 2010
  • The antioxidant activity of hawthorn fruit (Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge var. typica Schneider) extracts was investigated by several in vitro antioxidants properties, including DPPH free radical scavenging activity, total phenolic and flavonoid contents, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, reducing power activity, iron-chelating capacity and nitrite scavenging activity. Among the extracts in this study, the 70% EtOH extract showed higher antioxidant activity than the others. The $IC_{50}$ value of DPPH free radical scavenging activity was $99.26\;{\mu}g/mL$. Furthermore, the 70% EtOH extract also showed significantly high total phenolic and flavonoids contents and reducing power activity. However, the MeOH extract exhibited stronger effects on hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, iron-chelating capacity and nitrite scavenging activity. All the results implicated that, the hawthorn fruit may has the available potential to be utilize as a potential source of natural antioxidant.

Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Different Fractions from Hawthorn Fruit

  • Park, Jae-Hyo;Li, Chunmei;Hu, Weicheng;Wang, Myeong-Hyeon
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.44-50
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    • 2010
  • Hawthorn fruit is a conventional medicine used in treating cardiovascular diseases. Its therapeutic effects may relate to its antioxidant compounds. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant activity of $CH_2Cl_2$, EtOAc, n-butanol and water fractions from 70% methanolic hawthorn fruit extract by total phenolic and flavonoid contents, total antioxidant activity, DPPH free radical scavenging activity, superoxide radical scavenging activity, reducing power assay, lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity and protective effect against hydroxyl-radical-induced DNA damage. Results showed that the EtOAc fraction contained significantly greater antioxidant activities than other fractions, which suggests that the potent EtOAc fraction should be used for further studies to identify the antioxidant compounds.

Fruit Characteristics and Variation of Phenolic Compounds in the Fruit of Hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge) Selected from Korea and Chinese Cultivars

  • Park, Young-Ki;Hwang, Suk-In;Lee, Moon-Ho;Jang, Yong-Seok
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.223-227
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    • 2010
  • In order to select superior tree from Korea, five major phenolic compounds including (-)-epicatechin(EC), chlorogenic acid (ChA), hyperoside (HP), isoquercitrin (IQ), and procyanidin B2 (PC-$B_2$) in hawthorn fruit were evaluated. We also compared these hawthorn fruits of five clones with Chinese hawthorn cultivars. HPLC with a diode-array detector was used to determine the contents of the individual compounds. Hawthorn fruits of five clones (selected from different area of Korea), and four Chinese hawthorn cultivars grown in the Korea Forest Research Institute (Suwon) were utilized. With their high functional components, Jungsun is the clone including the highest contents of EC (11.26 mg/g) and PC-$B_2$ (24.46 mg/g). The clone of Chuncheon 15 had highest HP (0.53 mg/g) and IQ (0.41 mg/g). From the results, the clone of Jungsun and Chuncheon 15 can be evaluated to be selected breeding material for cultivar development.

Differential role of endothelium in hawthorn fruit extract-induced relaxation of rat cerebral, coronary, carotid, and aorta

  • Chan, Hoi Yun;Chen, Zhen-Yu;Yao, Xiaoqiang;Lau, Chi-Wai;Zhang, ZeSeng;Ho, Walter Kwok Keung;Huang, Yu
    • Advances in Traditional Medicine
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.87-93
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    • 2002
  • The present study was aimed to examine the role of endothelium in the relaxant effect of hawthorn fruit extract of Crataegus pinnatifida in four different types of rat arteries, posterior cerebral communicating artery, right descending coronary artery, common carotid artery, and aorta. In $9,11-dideoxy-11{\alpha}$, $9{\alpha}-epoxy-methanoprostaglandin$ $F_{2{\alpha}}$ (U46619)-preconstricted arterial rings except for aorta, the extract produced endothelium-independent relaxations with similar potency. This relaxation was unaffected by pretreatment with $100\;{\mu}M\;N^G-nitro-L-arginine$ methylester (L-NAME, the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), $3\;{\mu}M$ 1H-[l,2,4]oxadiazolo$[4,2-{\alpha}]$quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, the guanylate cyclase inhibitor), or $10\;{\mu}M$ indomethacin (the cyclooxygenase inhibitor). Putative $K^+$ channel blockers (charybdotoxin plus apamin or glibenclamide) did not affect the extract-induced relaxation in cerebral or coronary artery rings. In contrast, in rat aortic rings the extract produced significantly smaller relaxant response in endothelium-denuded rings than that in endothelium-intact rings. Pretreatment with L-NAME or ODQ abolished the extractinduced endothelium-dependent aortic relaxation, whilst indomethacin $(3\;{\mu}M)$ had no effect. The present results indicate that hawthorn fruit extract possesses a vasorelaxing effect in cerebral, coronary and carotid arteries and this effect is independent of the presence of a functional endothelium. However, the extract-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation in rat aorta was mediated through endothelial nitric oxide and cyclic GMP-dependent mechanisms, suggesting that active components in the extract may act on endothelium to stimulate release of nitric oxide in large conduit arteries of the rats.

Control Efficacy of Controlled Atmosphere and Temperature Treatment System Against the Hawthorn Spider Mite, Tetranychus viennensis (환경조절열처리 기술을 이용한 벚나무응애(Tetranychus viennensis) 살비 효과)

  • Son, Ye-Rim;Lee, Jong-Ho;Kim, Yong-Gyun
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.51 no.2
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    • pp.131-140
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    • 2012
  • The hawthorn spider mite, Tetranychus viennensis, is a pest of apples and a quarantine pest from some countries that import apples from Korea. A controlled atmosphere and temperature treatment system (CATTS) was developed as an alternative disinfestation method to methyl bromide fumigation treatment, and has been applied to control various insects and other arthropod pests on fruits. We applied CATTS to disinfect T. viennensis under conditions that were previously developed to control the peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii. First, T. viennensis was sampled from Japanese apricot, Prunus mume, and identified by its morphological characters. In addition, both cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences supported the morphological identification. Second, the heat-tolerant developmental stage was determined in T. viennensis. When a $46^{\circ}C$ heat treatment was applied to egg, nymph, and adult stages of T. viennensis, adults were the most tolerant stage. Third, when heat temperature was used along with 1% $O_2$ and 15% $CO_2$, the mites showed a significant increase in susceptibility to the heat treatment. Finally, CATTS at $46^{\circ}C$ with 15% $CO_2$ and 1% $O_2$ for 30 min resulted in 100% mortality of all T. viennensis development stages. These results indicated that CATTS isapplicable to disinfest T. viennensis in post-harvest apples.

Quality Monitoring of Specification of Crataegi Fructus in the Korean Pharmacopoeia and Studies HPLC Standard Chromatogram (산사(山楂)의 규격 기준 모니터링 및 HPLC 표준크로마토그램 연구)

  • Kim, Kyoung Hee;Kim, Sun Mi;Lee, Young Jong;Baek, Wan Sook
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.55-62
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    • 2017
  • Objectives : Crataegi Fructus has been used as traditional medicines for more digestion action, amenorrhea due to blood stasis, and hyperlipemia. The aim of this study was to compare of Crataegi Fructus in South Korea collected during three years according to the standards in monographs of the Korean Pharmacopoeia Eleventh edition (KP 11). Methods : Crataegi Fructus was carried out identification test (Qualitative reaction, Thin layer chromatography), heavy metal test, and total ash registered at KP. Add to we tested loss on dry, contents of ethanol-soluble extracts, and HPLC profiling. Results : Identification test (TLC) was on comparing with ursolic acid standard solution in $R_f$ value, all samples showed red purple spot ($R_f$ value 0.9). Ursolic acid spot in $R_f$ value 0.35 showed by changing mobile phase condition. Heavy metals showed contents for Pb, Cd, As, and Hg range of 0.0 ~ 0.5 ppm, 0.0 ~ 0.2 ppm, 0.0 ~ 0.3 ppm, and 0.0 ~ 0.1 ppm. Loss on drying was ranged from 5.5 to 11.9 %, total ash was between the range 2.7 ~ 4.0 %. Contents of ethanol-soluble extracts was ranged from 17.8 to 44.9 %. The content of chlorogenic acid was ranged from 0.0 to 0.1 % based on the chlorogenic acid standard curve. Conclusion : We have verified the current specification standard of Crataegi Fructus and standard that is not set. We hope that it will help the standardization of Crataegi Fructus.