This Study was done to design and test an instrument to measure the health status of the elderly including physical, psychologyical and social dimensions. Data collection was done from July 18 to August 17, 1990. Subjects were 412 older persons in Korea. A convenience sample was used but the place of residence was stratified into large, medium and small city and rural areas. Participants located in Sudaemun-Gu, Mapo-Gu, and Kangnam-Gu, Seoul were interviewed by brained nursing students, and those in Chungju, Jonju, Chuncheon, and Jinju by professors of nursing colleges. Rural residents were interviewed by community health practioners working in Kungsang-Buk-Do, Kyngsang- Nam - Bo, Jonla Buk -Do, and Kyung Ki- Do. The tool developed for this study was a structured questionnaire based on previous literature and then tested for reliability and validity. This tool contained 20 physical health status items, 17 mental-emotional health status items and 38 social health status items. Physical health status items clustered in to six factors such as personal hygiene, activity, home management, digestive, sexual, sensory, and climination functions. Mental-emotional health status items clustered into two factors, mental health and emotional health. Social health status items clustered into seven factors, grandparent, parent, spouse, friend, kinships, group member and religious role functions. Data analysis included percentage, average, S.D., t-test and ANOVA. The results of the analysis were as follows : 1. The tool measuring the health status of the elderly and developed for this research had a relatively high reliavility indicated by a cronbach＝0.97793. 2. Average score of the subjects physical health status was 4, 054 in a 5 point likert scale, mentalemotional health status was 3.803, social health status was 2.939 and the total average was 3.521. The social status of the subjects was the lowest and the next was mental-emotional health status ; physical health status was the highest. 3. Educational background, perceived health status, the amount of pocket money were related to physical and mental-emotional health status and family structure was related mental-emotional physical and social health status. Occupation was related to physical and mental-emotional status. Area of residence was related to metal-emotional and social status. Source of living in the expeneses was related to physical and mental-emotional health status marital status to mental-emotional and social health status, and the number living in the home physical health status and religion to social health status. The following conciusions were derived from the above results ; 1. The health status of Korean elderly was relatively sound but social health status was the most vulnerable. The Social activity for Korean elderly is needed to improve social health. 2. Educational background, perceived health status and the amount of pocket money must be considered in the health assessment criteria of the elderly, Family structure, marial status, occupation, residence variables and sources of living expense must also be considered as significant. 3. A health education program based on the educational background of the elderly, and provision of an occupational socioeconomic welfare policy will be useful in order to increase social health status of Korean elderly.
Purpose: This study was aimed to examine the effect of employment status upon the subjective health status. Methods: The data of the study were from the 11th Korean Labor Panel Data, obtained by using a face to face interview method. These data were analyzed by ANOVA, t-test and multiple regression using the SPSS program. Results: There was a significant, statistical difference on the subjective health status according to employment status. The subjective health status of non-regular workers was lower than that of the regular workers. The significant predictors of the subjective health status of all subjects were economic status, age, gender, education, marital status, drinking, employment status, and egular work time. The significant predictors of the subjective health status of workers were age, economic status, gender, and education. The significant predictors of the subjective health status of non-regular workers were age, economic status, marital status, gender, education, and regular work time. Conclusion: These results indicate an association between the subjective health status and employment status. The subjective health status may be affected by instability of temporary employment. The additional research to clarify the role of employment instability is recommended. Research on social policy to resolve health inequalities is recommended.
The purpose of this study is to analyze health behavior by comparing the difference between self-perceived health status and health examination results. The study subjects consist of 7,702 people aged over 20, surveyed by Health Interview survey, Health Examination survey, Dietary Life survey, Health Consciousness and Behavior survey. Data used in the study are drawn from raw data from a 1998 National Health and Nutrition survey. General characteristics variables are sex, age, education level, residential area, marital status, occupation, and living standard while dichotomous variables, ‘not healthy’ and ‘healthy’ are used to measure self-perceived health status. Variables for health examination results are high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, liver diseases, liver inflammation, kidney diseases, normal weight, regular diet, optimum sleeping time(7-8 hours), regular health examination and health behavior practice group. Major findings of the study are as follows: 1) Analysis of self-perceived health status and health behavior by disease: Variables significantly correlated with high self-perceived health status have strong associations with high health behavior practice, which supports the hypothesis that as one has high self-perceived health status, one is more likely to practice health promoting behavior. The results of analysis of health behavior differences by dividing subjects into two categories, ‘cases of illness’ and ‘cases of no illness’ indicate that drinking, sleeping time, health examination are significant variables (p〈0.001, 0.05) whereas smoking, weight control, regular exercise, regular diet are not significant. 2) Analysis of disparity patterns between self-perceived health status and health examination: The hypothesis that health behaviors would be different according to the disparity pattern between self-perceived health status and health examination is supported as a result of χ2 test. Among Type I : Self-perceived health status is high and actual health status is good (no disease) Type II: Self-perceived health status is high and actual health status is poor(have disease) Type III: Self-perceived health status is low and actual health status is good(no disease) Type IN: Self-perceived health status is low and actual health status is poor(have disease) Type I and Type IV show no disparity, Type I shows the highest health promoting behavior whereas Type IV shows the lowest health promoting behavior. Type II, and III, compared to Type I, practise lower health promoting behavior. Multi-logistics regression analysis was conducted to find out the degree of impact on health behavior. Independent variables are general characteristics, self-perceived health status and health examination result and presence of illness, while the dependent variable is health promoting behavior. The analysis of the impact of self-perceived health status on the health promoting behavior shows that smoking, drinking, weight control, regular exercise, health examination practice, and/or regular diet are significantly correlated to self-perceived health status. High self-perceived health status is inversely related to high health promoting behavior. This finding supports the hypothesis that the higher one perceives one's health, the more likely one is to practice health promoting behavior. On the contrary, the presence of illness has little impact on health promoting behavior. 3) Multiple logistics analysis on how disparity patterns between self-perceived health status and health examination affect health behavior: The results of multiple logistics analysis made on health behavior variables compared to the standard variable are as follows: When analyzed on the standard of Type I, smoking is a significant risk factor for the Type IV. In case of drinking, all the patterns show a high probability of relative risk ratio. With regard to weight control, it is a risk factor for Type II while all the patterns show high probability of not practising when analyzed on the standard of type IV. Type III and IV show high probability of not doing regular exercise while Type IV, shows a high probability of not taking appropriate sleeping time. When analyzed on the standard of type IV, all the patterns show a high probability of not taking health examinations. Type III and IV show a high probability of not having regular meals. As for overall health promoting behavior, Type III and IV show a high relative risk ratio. These two groups have low self-perceived health status. It implies that self-perceived health status has significant impact on health promoting behavior. This is also supported by the fact that Type I with high self-perceived health status and no illness shows a high practice rate of health promoting behavior. Types II and III the groups with high disparity between self-perceived health status and health examination results, show a low practice rate of health promoting behavior when compared to Type I. Type IV, that is the group with low self-perceived health status and actual illness, shows the lowest practice of health promoting behavior. It is highly probable that this type proves to be the poorest health group.
Objectives: This study gathered basic information for the development of a health promotion policy for employees and the selection of participants for health education by identifying the impact of socioeconomic status and health behavior on the health status of males and females. Methods: The 2008 National Health Nutrition and Examination Survey data were used to examine relationships between socioeconomic status, health behaviors, and health status of male and female employees. For the analysis, the $X^2$ test and logistic regression were used. Results: Heath behaviors had a very slight impact of the association between socioeconomic status and health status among male and female employees. And patterns of health inequality had the gender difference. Conclusions: When developing a health promotion policy for employees, and selecting health education subjects, it is necessary to consider both socioeconomic status and gender.
Purpose: To identify the relationship among economic status, health status and health promotion behavior in school-aged children. Methods: Data was collected from 308 fifth-grade children in Seoul. The instruments used were the self-reported questionnaires on economic status by McLoyd, health status by Shin, and health promotion behavior by Ki. Data was analyzed by SPSS WIN 12.0 program, using descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: Economic status and health status were negatively correlated (r=-.30), as were economic status and health promotion behavior (r=-.26). The relationship between Health status and health promotion behavior were positively correlated (r=.20). Health promotion behavior was significantly related with sex. father's education, mother's education and school record. Conclusions: These results suggested that health status and health promotion behavior in school-age children are affected by economic status.
Objectives: To analyze the relationships of socioeconomic status(SES) to health status and health behaviors in the elderly. Methods: Data were obtained from self-administered questionnaire of 4,587 persons, older than 65 years, living in a community. We measured the sociodemographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, health status (subjective health status, acute disease, admission experience, dental state, chronic disease etc.), activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), and mini-mental state examination-Korean (MMSEK). Binary and multinominal logistic regression analyses were employed to analyze factors affecting on the socioeconomic status of the elderly. Results: With regard to the SES and health status, those with a low SES had poorer subjective health states and lower satisfaction about their physical health. Also, acute disease experiences, admission rates and tooth deciduation rates were higher in those of low SES. In the view of physical and cognitive functions, the ADL, IADL and MMSE-K scores were also lower in those of low SES. However, with regard to health behaviors, lower smoking and alcohol drinking rates were found in the low SES group, and a similar trend was shown with regular physical exercise, eating breakfast, and regular physical health check-up. From these findings, we surmise that those with low SES have a poorer health condition and less money to spend on health, therefore, they can not smoke or drink alcohol, exercise and or have a physical health check-up. Conclusion: This study suggests that socioeconomic status plays an important role in health behaviors and status of the elderly. Low socioeconomic status bring about unhealthy behavior and poor health status in the elderly. Therefore, more specific target oriented(esp. low SES persons) health promotion activities for the elderly are very important to improve not only their health status, but their health inequity also.
The Journal of Korean Society for School & Community Health Education
Objectives: This study was conducted in order to determine how the association between socioeconomic status and health behaviors with self-rated health status among Korean aged 20-64 years. Methods: A nationally representative sample(2,027 men and 2,626 women) from the 2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Surveys was analyzed. To estimate the odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals, logistic regression was conducted. Results: The study shows that socioeconomic status was related with self-rated health status. that was, lower education and income led to a significant increase in poor health status. The odds ratio of self-rated health status after controlling for age was 2.83(95% CI, 1.60-5.00) for men, 2.32(95% CI, 1.15-3.46) for women among those with the lowest-educated group compared to the highest-educated group. When household income was considered, the odds ratio of self-rated health for men was 3.50(95% CI, 2.11-5.79) and 2.21(95% CI, 1.53-3.20) for women among those in the lowest-income group compared to the highest-income group. Health behaviors had little effect on the relationship between socioeconomic status and self-rated health status. Conclusions: This study found that there existed socioeconomic differences in poor health status in Korean. The effect of education was stronger than that of income for both men and women.
Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to Identify the physical health status and health behavior practice of elderly people in order to provide basic data for effective nursing interventions to promote health and quality of lift. Method: The participants for this study were 299 elderly persons in D city. Data were collected by interview with a questionnaire. Results: Average score for the physical health status of the participants was 3.98. There was a significant difference in average scores for physical health status for the variables age, sex, marital status, education level, religion, monthly income, source of living expense, perceived health status, alcohol use and type of household. The average score for the health behavior practice of the participants was 99.52, which means that elderly persons have good health behavior. There was a significant difference in average scores for health behavior practice for the variables age, sex, education level, perceived health status and type of household. Perceived health status, education level and alcohol use explained 50.6% of the variance for physical health status. Perceived health status and education level explained 27.4% of the variance for health behavior practice. Conclusion: To promote health behavior in elderly people, it is necessary to develop nursing interventions that take into consideration sociocultural traditions and demographic characteristics.
This study was done for the purpose of investigating nursing students' health promotion behavior and health status and analyzing the relationship between health promotion behavior and health status. The subjects for this study were 249 nursing students obtained by a convenience sampleing from two Junior Colleges Located in Kangwon-do. The instruments used for this study were health promotion behavior scale developed by the researcher and modified Cornell Medical Index developed by Brodman, Erdmann, Lorge, Wolff & Broadbent. Data were collected from November 21 to December 10, 1994 by means of questionaire. The data were analyzed through the SPSS program by use of descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA and Pearson Correlation Coefficient. The results of the study were as follows; 1) The subject's degree of health promotion behavior was about middle level 2) When the relationships between health promotion behavior and their general characteristics were explored, economic status, importance of health & perceived health status were revealed to have significant differences. 3) The subject's health status was at slightly high level, therefore viewed their health as slightly good. 4) When the relationships between health status and their general characteristics were explored, age and perceived health status were revealed to have significant differences. 5) In regard to the relationship between health promotion behavior and health status, psychological health status correlated positively with health promotion behavior (r=.193, p=0.002) ; physical health status correlated positively with psychological health status (r=0.493, p=0.000). But, physical health status did not show a significant correlation with health promotion behavior. In conclusion, it is important for late adolescents including nursing students to lay the foundation for chronic disease prevention by promoting and maintaining healthy lifestyles. Many of the leading causes of disease are preventable, through changes in lifestyle. The need to increase individual awareness of relationships between lifestyle and health and to enhance knowledge regarding the long-term effects of negative health behaviors, is an important nursing strategy for health promotion.
Purpose: This study identified socioeconomic factors affecting the health status of Korean adults. Methods: Secondary data from 12,921 adults aged 19 to 64 old in the 7th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. The participants' health status was measured using the indicators that included health behaviors (smoking, high-risk drinking, strength exercise, and aerobic physical activity) and health outcomes (metabolic syndrome, and subjective health status). Results: For all health behaviors and health outcomes, gender, age, educational level, and income were common affecting factors. Regarding health behaviors, the employment status was related to smoking, high-risk drinking, strength exercise, and aerobic physical activity. The marital status was related to high-risk drinking, strength exercise, and aerobic physical activity. The household type was related to smoking. The residential area was related to smoking, high-risk drinking, and aerobic physical activity. For health outcomes, the household type was related to obesity, and subjective health status; residential area was related to obesity. Conclusion: This study presented basic data for assessing the differences in health status. The characteristics of the affecting factors to health status should be considered, depending on the health behaviors and health outcomes.
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