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Improvement in Antagonistic Ablility of Antagonistic Bacterium Bacillus sp. SH14 by Transfer of the Urease Gene. (Urease gene의 전이에 의한 길항세균 Bacillus sp. SH14의 길항능력 증가)

  • 최종규;김상달
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.122-129
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    • 1998
  • It were reported that antifungal mechanism of Enterobacter cloacae is a volatile ammonia that produced by the strain in soil, and the production of ammonia is related to the bacterial urease activity. A powerful bacterium SH14 against soil-borne pathogen Fusarium solani, which cause root rot of many important crops, was selected from a ginseng pathogen suppressive soil. The strain SH14 was identified as Bacillus subtilis by cultural, biochemical, morphological method, and $API^{circledR}$ test. From several in vitro tests, the antifungal substance that is produced from B. subtilis SH14 was revealed as heat-stable and low-molecular weight antibiotic substance. In order to construct the multifunctional biocontrol agent, the urease gene of Bacillus pasteurii which can produce pathogenes-suppressive ammonia transferred into antifungal bacterium. First, a partial BamH I digestion fragment of plasmid pBU11 containing the alkalophilic B. pasteurii l1859 urease gene was inserted into the BamH I site of pEB203 and expressed in Escherichia coli JM109. The recombinant plasmid was designated as pGU366. The plasmid pGU366 containing urease gene was introduced into the B. subtilis SH14 with PEG-induced protoplast transformation (PIP) method. The urease gene was very stably expressed in the transformant of B. subtilis SH14. Also, the optimal conditions for transformation were established and the highest transformation frequency was obtained by treatment of lysozyme for 90 min, and then addition of 1.5 ${mu}g$/ml DNA and 40% PEG4000. From the in vitro antifungal test against F. solani, antifungal activity of B. subtilis SH14(pGu366) containing urease gene was much higher than that of the host strain. Genetical development of B. subtilis SH14 by transfer of urease gene can be responsible for enhanced biocontrol efficacy with its antibiotic action.

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A Study on the Present Condition and Reform Plan of School Health in a Rural Area (한 농촌지역 학교보건의 현황과 개선방안에 관한 연구)

  • Shin, Young-Jeon;Noh, Hak-Jae;Choi, Boyul;Park, Hung-Bae;Kim, Hyun-Joo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of School Health
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.55-67
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    • 1996
  • This research has incorporated a postal survey from the principals, nurse-charging teachers and nurse-teachers of the fiftyfive elementary, middle and high school in Yang-pyeong county area where its supplementary rate of nurse-teachers is less than adequate. It is to analyse the current status of the school health service in the area and to come out with a plan to improve the school health program through the participations of the health related experts of the local community. The survey was done in the two months of period of April to May of 1994. The result of the survey follows. The student population in the Yang-pyeong county area is 13,998 and the school employee population is 904 which counts for about 19.2% of the whole population of the area. However, the supplementary rate of nurse-teachers is only 10.8% (4 in 55 schools) which is very low in terms of relativity. School health committee only exist in 17% of the whole number of schools in the area and 50 of school health committee answered that their activity do not meet the adequate level. Only 54. 3% of the whole school numbers has included the school health finance in their financial plans and the amount set for the school health finance is about 500,000 wons (100,000-1,600,000 wons). 64.9% of the schools in the Yang-pyeong county area have the permanent nursing room established in the school. But, often than the equipment for a simple physical examinations, their supply of the health related equipments are less than adequate. Particitations of school doctor in the school health service is at only 67.6% which pretty much include only the physical examinations. Nurse-charging teachers consider their utmost important role is to teach health education but, they answered that they spent most of their times and efforts on physical examinations & immunizations. The average number of students visition to the nursing room is 2.5 persons and complains for basic discomfort as headache, concussion, stomachache and indigestion problems and usual pills used are the analgesics and digestives. Physical examination is done in the most schools every year but, 51.4% of nurse-charging teachers answered the physical examination does not really help. About the emergency treatment ability, 75.7% reports that both manpower & equipment are short. The school food services are present in only 8 schools (21.6%) but, 89.2% of nurse-charging teachers answer that there is a definite need of the food service. The survey says that the utmost important environmental health and safety factors are the traffic accidents followed by improper heat system, lighting, the stools and desks that do not consider the student physical status The overall evaluation of school health program reports that there are adequate physical examination, immunization, environmental hygiene, and management of safety but, on the other hand, health education, health councelling & management of nursing room are not managed properly. The principals of the survey pool report shortage of public agency support, lack of understanding of school health, shortage of nursing equipments and school health finance as the barrier factors of school health. The nurse-charging teachers report on the same questions as their less than qualitifying expertise, extraload of work upon the nursing affairs, shortage of nursing equipments & school health finance. The head masters & nurse-charging teachers answered that they are desperate for the meetings of nurse-charging teachers, construction of school health councelling system & training education in order to improve school health and if these are available, they will actively participate in them. After the careful analysis of the survey result, it is apparent that through the relations of the manpowers, establishment of community-oriented school health is definitely in need in rural area where there is low supplementary rate of nurse-teachers and poor school health environment.

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Antibacterial Activities of Trace Elements in Combination with Food Additives (미량원소 강화 식품소재의 항균효과)

  • Kim, Bo-Mi;Mok, Jong-Soo;Oh, Eun-Gyoung;Son, Kwang-Tae;Shim, Kil-Bo;Cho, Young-Je
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.35-41
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    • 2006
  • Antibacterial activities of the trace elements in combination with the food additives were measured against 6 kinds of food-borne microorganisms such as Escherichia coli, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The difference of antibacterial activity was not shown among the kinds of food additives, such as dextrin, gelatin and collagen. Zn and Ge in combination with food additives had strong antibacterial effect. Especially, $1\%$ zinc acetate in combination with $1\%$ gelatin was more effective against P. fluorescens and S. aureus than against Bacillus sp., E. coli and V. parahaemolyticus. Minimum inhibitory concentration of zinc acetate in combination with $1\%$ gelatin appeared to be 0.5 mg/mL on S. aureus and P. fluorescens, and 1.0 mg/mL on E. coli, V. parahaemolyticus, B. cereus and B. subtilis. Minimum bactericidal concentration of zinc acetate in combination with $1\%$ gelatin appeared to be 0.5 mg/mL on P. fluorescens and 1.0 mg/mL on E. coli, V. parahaemolyticus, S. aureus, B. cereus and B. subtilis. The zinc acetate in combination with gelatin showed stronger inhibitory effect in acidic range below pH 6.0, and remained active even after heat treatment at $121^{\circ}C$ for 15 min. In comparison with control, the viable cell counts of fish pastes, which were coated with the solution containing both $1\%$ zinc acetate and $3\%$ gelatin, were decreased by more than 100-fold until the storage of 7 days at $10^{\circ}C$. The results indicate that the combined use of zinc acetate and some food additives could prolong the shelf life of fish pastes by 8 days or more at $10^{\circ}C$.

Convenient Nucleic Acid Detection for Tomato spotted wilt virus: Virion Captured/RT-PCR (VC/RT-PCR) (Tomato spotted wilt virus를 위한 간편한 식물바이러스 핵산진단법: Virion Captured/RT-PCR (VC/RT-PCR))

  • Cho Jeom-Deog;Kim Jeong-Soo;Kim Hyun-Ran;Chung Bong-Nam;Ryu Ki-Hyun
    • Research in Plant Disease
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.139-143
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    • 2006
  • Virion captured reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (VC/RT-PCR) could detect plant virus quickly and accurately. In the VC/RT-PCR, no antibody is needed unlike immuno-captured RT-PCR (IC/RT-PCR) which had been improved method of RT-PCR for plant viruses, and virus nucleic acids can be obtained easily within 30minutes by property of polypropylene PCR tube which is hold and immobilized viral particles on its surface. For the virion capture of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), the extraction buffer was tested. The optimum macerating buffer for TSWV was 0.01M potassium phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, containing 0.5% sodium sulfite. The viral crude sap was incubated for 30 min at $4^{\circ}C$. The virions in the PCR tubes were washed two times with 0.01M PBS containing 0.05% Tween-20. The washed virions were treated at $95^{\circ}C$ immediately for 1 min containing RNase free water and chilled quickly in the ice. Disclosed virions' RNAs by heat treatment were used for RT-PCR. Dilution end point of $10^{-5}$ from plant's crude sap infected with TSWV showed relatively higher detection sensitivity for VC/RT-PCR. During multiple detection using two or more primers, interference was arisen by interactions between primer-primer and plant species. The result of multiplex RT-PCR was influenced by combinations of primers and the kind of plant, and the optimum extraction buffer for the multiplex detection by VC/RT-PCR should be developed.

Degradation of Microcystin-LR, Taste and Odor, and Natural Organic Matter by UV-LED Based Advanced Oxidation Processes in Synthetic and Natural Water Source (UV-LED기반 고도산화공정을 이용한 수중 마이크로시스틴-LR, 이취미 물질, 자연유기물 분해)

  • Yang, Boram;Park, Jeong-Ann;Nam, Hye-Lim;Jung, Sung-Mok;Choi, Jae-Woo;Park, Hee-Deung;Lee, Sang-Hyup
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.39 no.5
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    • pp.246-254
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    • 2017
  • Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is one of most abundant microcystins, and is derived from blue-green algae bloom. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are effective process when high concentrations of MC-LR are released into a drinking water treatment system from surface water. In particular, UV-based AOPs such as UV, $UV/H_2O_2$, $UV/O_3$ and $UV/TiO_2$ have been studied for the removal of MC-LR. In this study, UV-LED was applied for the degradation of MC-LR because UV lamps have demonstrated some weaknesses, such as frequent replacements; that generate mercury waste and high heat loss. Degradation efficiencies of the MC-LR (initial conc. = $100{\mu}g/L$) were 30% and 95.9% using LED-L (280 nm, $0.024mW/cm^2$) and LED-H (280 nm, $2.18mW/cm^2$), respectively. Aromatic compounds of natural organic matter changed to aliphatic compounds under the LED-H irradiation by LC-OCD analysis. For application to raw water, the Nak-dong River was sampled during summer when blue-green algae were heavy bloom in 2016. The concentration of extracellular and total MC-LR, geosmin and 2-MIB slightly decreased by increasing the LED-L irradiation; however, the removal of MC-LR by UV-LED (${\lambda}=280nm$) was insufficient. Thus, advanced UV-LED technology or the addition of oxidants with UV-LED is required to obtain better degradation efficiency of MC-LR.

Effect of titanium powder on the bond strength of metal heat treatment (티타늄 파우더가 금속의 열처리 시 결합강도에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Sa-Hak;Kim, Wook-Tae
    • Journal of Dental Rehabilitation and Applied Science
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.71-79
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: Ni-Cr alloy does not contain Beryllium, causing the metal compound to form oxides in the furnace but by using Titanium as a chemical catalyst the forming of the oxides can be controlled, and by controlling the impurities formed on the metal surface, the possibility of the Ni-Cr alloy bond strength being increased can be analysed. Materials and Methods: Titanium was used as a chemical catalyst in the porcelain for the oxidation of beryllium-free metal (Ni-Cr) alloy. The T1 group, which does not use Titanium power as a chemical catalyst is a reference model for comparison. The T2 group and T3 group used 10 g and 20 g of Titanium power, respectively. They are fabricated to observe the shear bond strength and surface properties. There was no significance when One-way ANOVA analysis/Tukey Honestly Significant Difference Test was conducted for statistical analysis among groups (P > 0.05). Results: Results of measuring the three-point flexural bond strength of the Ni-Cr alloy and thickness of the oxide film. Experiment T3 using 20 g Titanium chemical catalyst: $39.22{\pm}3.41MPa$ and $6.66{\mu}m$, having the highest bond strength and thinness of oxide film. Experiment T2 using 10 g Titanium chemical catalyst: $34.65{\pm}1.39MPa$ and $13.22{\mu}m$. Experiment T1 using no Titanium chemical catalyst: $32.37{\pm}1.91MPa$ and $22.22{\mu}m$. Conclusion: The T2 and T3 experiments using Titanium chemical catalyst showed higher bond strength for the Ni-Cr alloy and lower thickness of oxide film than experiment T1, and the titanium catalyst being able to increase bond strength was observed.

Rainfall and Hydrological Comparative Analysis of Water Quality Variability in Euiam Reservoir, the North-Han River, Korea (북한강 의암호의 수질 변동성에 대한 강우·수문학적 비교분석)

  • Hwang, Soon-Jin;Sim, Yeon Bo;Choi, Bong-Geun;Kim, Keonhee;Park, Chaehong;Seo, Wanbum;Park, Myung-Hwan;Lee, Su-Woong;Shin, Jae-Ki
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.50 no.1
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    • pp.29-45
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    • 2017
  • This study explored spatiotemporal variability of water quality in correspondence with hydro-meteorological factors in the four stations of Euiam Reservoir located in the upstream region of the North-Han River from May 2012 to December 2015. Seasonal effect was apparent in the variation of water temperature, DO, electric conductivity and TSS during the study period. Stratification in the water column was observed in the near dam site every year and vanished between August and October. Increase of nitrogen nutrients was observed when inflowing discharge was low, while phosphorus increase was distinct both during the early season with increase of inflowing discharge and the period of severe draught persistent. Duration persisting high concentration of Chl-a (>$25mg\;m^{-3}$: the eutrophic status criterion, OECD, 1982) was 1~2 months of the whole year in 2014~2015, while it was almost 4 months in 2013. Water quality of Euiam Reservoir appeared to be affected basically by geomorphology and source of pollutants, such as longitudinally linked instream islands and Aggregate Island, inflowing urban stream, and wastewater treatment plant discharge. While inflowing discharge from the dams upstream and outflow pattern causing water level change seem to largely govern the variability of water quality in this particular system. In the process of spatiotemporal water quality change, factors related to climate (e.g. flood, typhoon, abruptly high rainfall, scorching heat of summer), hydrology (amount of flow and water level) might be attributed to water pulse, dilution, backflow, uptake, and sedimentation. This study showed that change of water quality in Euiam Reservoir was very dynamic and suggested that its effect could be delivered to downstream (Cheongpyeong and Paldang Reservoirs) through year-round discharge for hydropower generation.

Physicochemical and sensory properties of Yakhobak (Cucurbita maxima subsp. maxima) paste under different high pressure heating conditions (가열조건에 따른 약호박(Cucurbita maxima subsp. maxima) 페이스트의 이화학적 관능적 품질특성)

  • Park, Bo-Ram;Choi, Su-Jeong;Kim, Na-Jeong;Han, Gui-Jung;Kim, Ha-Yun
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.44-51
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    • 2017
  • For the production of Yakhobak (Cucurbita maxima subsp. maxima) paste under various heating conditions, we steamed Yakhobak for roughly 20 min, followed by heating under high pressure treatment for 0 min (HHP0), 20 min (HHP20), 40 min (HHP40), and 60 min (HHP60). The physicochemical and sensory characteristics were subsequently investigated. Generally, no significant difference was observed in organic acid content and sensory characteristics score between Yakhobak paste treated with and without high-pressure heating. However, there was a significant difference in color value, soluble solids, and free sugar content. The L value for color of the group HHP0, untreated control Yakhobak paste (no high-pressure heating), decreased as time increased from 20 min to 60 min, with L values of 44.33, 44.25, and 42.86, respectively. The b value for the color of Yakhobak paste also decreased, showing a significant difference. Soluble solids and free sugar (fructose, glucose, sucrose) contents of the high-pressure heat-treated groups HHP20, HHP40, and HHP60 decreased compared with untreated group HHP0. Organic acid composition of Yakhobak paste included citric acid, malic acid, and fumaric acid, and the major organic acid was malic acid. Sensory score of HHP40 was the highest among all experimental groups in terms of overall preference, but there was no significant difference.

Photocatalytic Oxidation of Arsenite Using Goethite and UV LED (침철석과 자외선 LED를 이용한 아비산염의 광촉매 산화)

  • Jeon, Ji-Hun;Kim, Seong-Hee;Lee, Sang-Woo;Kim, Soon-Oh
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.9-18
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    • 2017
  • Arsenic (As) has been considered as the most toxic one among various hazardous materials and As contamination can be caused naturally and anthropogenically. Major forms of arsenic in groundwater are arsenite [(As(III)] and/or arsenate [(As(V)], depending on redox condition: arsenite and arsenate are predominant in reduced and oxidized environments, respectively. Because arsenite is much more toxic and mobile than arsenate, there have been a number of studies on the reduction of its toxicity through oxidation of As(III) to As(V). This study was initiated to develop photocatalytic oxidation process for treatment of groundwater contaminated with arsenite. The performance of two types of light sources (UV lamp and UV LED) was compared and the feasibility of goethite as a photocatalyst was evaluated. The highest removal efficiency of the process was achieved at a goethite dose of 0.05 g/L. Based on the comparison of oxidation efficiencies of arsenite between two light sources, the apparent performance of UV LED was inferior to that of UV lamp. However, when the results were appraised on the basis of their emitting UV irradiation, the higher performance was achieved by UV LED than by UV lamp. This study demonstrates that environmentally friendly process of goethite-catalytic photo-oxidation without any addition of foreign catalyst is feasible for the reduction of arsenite in groundwater containing naturally-occurring goethite. In addition, this study confirms that UV LED can be used in the photo-oxidation of arsenite as an alternative light source of UV lamp to remedy the drawbacks of UV lamp, such as long stabilization time, high electrical power consumption, short lifespan, and high heat output requiring large cooling facilities.

Reliability of a Cobalt Silicide on Counter Electrodes for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (코발트실리사이드를 이용한 염료감응형 태양전지 상대전극의 신뢰성 평가)

  • Kim, Kwangbae;Park, Taeyeul;Song, Ohsung
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2017
  • Cobalt silicide was used as a counter electrode in order to confirm its reliability in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) devices. 100 nm-Co/300 nm-Si/quartz was formed by an evaporator and cobalt silicide was formed by vacuum heat treatment at $700^{\circ}C$ for 60 min to form approximately 350 nm-CoSi. This process was followed by etching in $80^{\circ}C$-30% $H_2SO_4$ to remove the cobalt residue on the cobalt silicide surface. Also, for the comparison against Pt, we prepared a 100 nm-Pt/glass counter electrode. Cobalt silicide was used for the counter electrode in order to confirm its reliability in DSSC devices and maintained for 0, 168, 336, 504, 672, and 840 hours at $80^{\circ}C$. The photovoltaic properties of the DSSCs employing cobalt silicide were confirmed by using a simulator and potentiostat. Cyclic-voltammetry, field emission scanning electron microscopy, focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectrometry analyses were used to confirm the catalytic activity, microstructure, and composition, respectively. The energy conversion efficiency (ECE) as a function of time and ECE of the DSSC with Pt and CoSi counter electrodes were maintained for 504 hours. However, after 672 hours, the ECEs decreased to a half of their initial values. The results of the catalytic activity analysis showed that the catalytic activities of the Pt and CoSi counter electrodes decreased to 64% and 57% of their initial values, respectively(after 840 hours). The microstructure analysis showed that the CoSi layer improved the durability in the electrolyte, but because the stress concentrates on the contact surface between the lower quartz substrate and the CoSi layer, cracks are formed locally and flaking occurs. Thus, deterioration occurs due to the residual stress built up during the silicidation of the CoSi counter electrode, so it is necessary to take measures against these residual stresses, in order to ensure the reliability of the electrode.