• Title, Summary, Keyword: heavy metal

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A study on the removal of mixed heavy metal ions using crab shell (게 껍질을 이용한 수중의 복합 중금속 제거에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Dong-Seog
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.11 no.7
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    • pp.729-735
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    • 2002
  • In order to examine the inhibition effect of other heavy metal ions on the removal of heavy metal ions by crab shell in aqueous solution, 10 heavy metal ions $(Cr^{3+},\;Cd^{2+},\;Ni^{2+},\;Zn^{2+},\;Hg^{2+},\;Cu^{2+},\;Mn^{2+],\;Fe^{2+},\;Fe^{3+},\;Pb^{2+})$ were used as single heavy metal ions and mixed heavy metal ions, respectively. In single heavy metal ions, $Pb^{2+},\;Cr^{3+},\;Cu^{2+}$ were well removed by crab shell, however, $Cd^{2+},\;Ni^{2+},\;Zn^{2+},\;Mn^{2+}$ were not. The heavy metal removal increased as the increase of covalent index (Xm$^2$r), and the relationship classified heavy metal ions as 2 heavy metal groups $(Fe^{3+},\;Fe^{2+},\;Cu^{2+},\; Cr^{3+},\;Mn^{2+},\;Ni^{2+},\;Zn^{2+}\;group\;and\;Pb^{2+},\;Hg^{2+},\;Cd^{2+}\;group)$. In mixed heavy metal ions, the removals of $Fe^{2+},\;Fe^{3+},\;Pb^{2+},\;Cu^{2+}$ as 0.49 m㏖/g, regardless of the existence of other heavy metal ions, were similar to the result of single heavy metal ions experiment. The removals of $Mn^{2+},\;Cd^{2+},\;Ni^{2+}$ decreased as the existence of other heavy metal ions, however, the removal of $Zn^{2+},\;Cr^{3+},\;Hg^{2+}$ increased.

Availability of Carboxylated Magnetic Beads for Extracting Heavy Metals from Aqueous Solution

  • So, Hyung-Suk;Yoo, Yeong-Seok;Schaeffer Andreas
    • Journal of Magnetics
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.98-102
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    • 2006
  • It was examined in this study that magnetic beads, which are assumed to be environmentally functional, could be effective in processing heavy metals that are water pollutants. For the purpose, magnetic beads containing carboxyl groups, which has strong binding force with heavy metals, are mixed with each Cd, Pb, Ni, Cu and Cr(III) solution, then stirred in pH 6. As a results of the process, it was proven that heavy metals bind quickly with magnetic beads through the reaction. In order to analyze heavy metal concentration, magnetic beads bind with heavy metal were collected by external magnetic force and dissolved in acid. The graphite furnace AAS was used to get heavy metal concentration melted in the acid solution. The results showed that heavy metal extractions by magnetic beads were influenced by the type and the concentration of a heavy metal, and over 90% of a heavy metal can be extracted in ppm level save for Cr(III). It was also examined in the study whether heavy metal extraction is influenced when other ions exist in each heavy metal solution. According to experiment, adding other heavy metals to a solution did have little influence on extracting an intended heavy metal. But in case salt or heavy metal chelate was added, Ni extraction changed sensitively although extracting other heavy metals were influenced only when the concentration of an added substance is high. In conclusion, it was shown that magnetic beads could be used to treat wastewater with relatively high heavy metal concentration.

Characteristics of Heavy Metal Distribution in Bottom Sdeiments of Tributaries of the Han River (한강유역 주요지천의 저질내 중금속 분포)

  • 허준무;박종안
    • Journal of environmental and Sanitary engineering
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.71-79
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    • 1999
  • The Hg, Cd, Cu, Mn, and Zn in bottom sediments of han river and their tributaries were analyzed to evaluate the seasonal variations of heavy metals. Leaching tests were also performed for estimation of availability of heavy metal retention in sediments. Sediments of Anyang stream showed the highest concentration of heavy metal in the sediment samples. Heavy metal concentration was heavily depended upon the heavy metal source of tributaries of han river and particle distribution. Clay and silt had higher concentration of heavy metals than very fine san and fine sand due to difference of retention capability of heavy metal. The highest concentration of heavy metal was observed in bottom sediments irrespective of sites investigated. Heavy metals and ignition loss showed positive relations, and higher relationships with p-value <0.01 were observed between copper and lead. copper and zinc, and depended on the pH condition of leaching test, and leachated fraction increased with decrease of the pH.

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Biosorption of Heavy Metal in Aqueous Solution by Heavy Metal Tolerant Microorganism Isolated from Heavy Metal Contaminated Soil (중금속으로 오염된 토양에서 분리한 중금속 내성 미생물의 수용액내 중금속 흡착)

  • Kim, Sung-Un;Choi, Ik-Won;Seo, Dong-Cheol;Han, Myung-Hoon;Kang, Byung-Hwa;Heo, Jong-Soo;Shon, Bo-Kyoon;Cho, Ju-Sik
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.379-385
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    • 2005
  • This study was conducted to find out a useful bioremediation technology for heavy metal contaminated soil and water. We isolated strain CPB from heavy metal contaminated soil and evaluated the tolerance level and adsorption capacity of strain CPB to heavy metals (Strain is not determined yet). Strain CPB showed variable tolerance limit to different kinds heavy metal or concentrations of heavy metals. The growth of strain CPB was significantly inhibited by mixed heavy metals (Cd+Cu+Pb+Zn) than that of by single heavy metal. Strain CPB showed high binding capacity with Pb (Pb>Cd>Cu>Zn). In general, strain CPB showed high uptake of heavy metals such as Pb, Cd and Cu. It was observed that the capacity of heavy metal uptake from mixture of heavy metals was reduced in comparison with single heavy metal treatment. But total contents of heavy metal bound with cell in mixed heavy metal showed higher than in single heavy metal treatment. Heavy metal adsorption in cells was affected by several external factors, such as temperature and pH etc.. The optimum temperature and pH of the adsorption of heavy metal into cells were ca. $25{\sim}35^{\circ}C$ and pH ca. $5{\sim}7$, respectively. A large number of the electron dense particles were found mainly on the cell wall and cell membrane fractions, which was determined by transmission electron microscope. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed that the electron dense particles were the heavy metal complexes the substances binding with heavy metals.

Effect of External Factors on Heavy Metal Accumulation in the Cell of Heavy Metal-Tolerant Microorganisms (중금속내성균의 중금속 축적에 미치는 외부요인의 영향)

  • Cho, Ju-Sik;Lee, Hong-Jae;Lee, Won-Kyu;Heo, Jong-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.124-129
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    • 1997
  • This study was performed to develop the biological treatment technology of wastewater polluted with heavy metals. Heavy metal-tolerant microorganisms, such as Pseudomonas putida, P. aeruginosa, P. chlororaphis and P. stutzeri possessing the ability to accumulate cadmium, lead, zinc and copper, respectively, were isolated from industrial wastewater and mine wastewater polluted with various heavy metals. The effect of several external factors, such as temperature, pH and heavy metal compounds on heavy metal accumulation in the cells was investigated. The amount of heavy metal accumulation into cells according to the kind of heavy metal compound was slightly increased in the case of the heavy metal compound with -nitrate group, but generally, there is little change according to the kind of compound in the amount of heavy metal accumulation. The amount of heavy metal accumulation according to the precultured time was increased in the case of the cell precultured for 24 hours, but generally the precultured time did not affect to the amount of heavy metal accumulation. Heavy metal accumulation into cells was affected by several external factors, such as temperature and pH. The optimum temperature and optimum pH of the accumulation of heavy metal into cells were $20{\sim}37^{\circ}C$ and pH $6{\sim}8$, respectively. By increasing the concentration of each heavy metal-tolerant microorganism in the solution, the total amount of heavy metal accumulated was increased, whereas the amount of heavy metal accumulated per cell(mg, heavy metal/g, dry cells) was decreased. These results indicated that the amount of heavy metal accumulated was not proportional to the concentration of microorganisms.

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Monitering of Heavy Metal (loid)s Contamination of Arable Soils near Industrial Complexes in Gyeongnam Province of South Korea

  • Park, Hye Jin;Lee, Hyun Ho;Hong, Chang Oh
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.49 no.5
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    • pp.589-597
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    • 2016
  • There are a number of industrial complexes which could be a source of heavy metal (loid)s contamination of arable soil in Gyeongnam province of South Korea. Heavy metal (loid)s accumulation of plant is more related to the concentration of plant available heavy metal (loid)s in arable soil than that of total heavy metal (loid)s. The objectives of this study were 1) to examine heavy metal concentrations in soils located near industrial complexes in Gyeongnam province and 2) to determine the relationship between concentration of plant available heavy metal (loid)s and chemical properties of soil. Soil samples were collected from 85 sites of arable lands nearby 7 industrial complexes in Gyeongnam province. Total heavy metal (loid)s concentration, available heavy metal (loid)s concentration, and chemical properties of collected soils were measured. The mean concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in the soils were $5.8mg\;kg^{-1}$, $1.3mg\;kg^{-1}$, $0.03mg\;kg^{-1}$, $51.5mg\;kg^{-1}$, and $68.7mg\;kg^{-1}$, respectively. Total concentration of Cd and Zn in arable soil located near ${\nabla}{\nabla}$ industrial complex exceeded the warning criteria ($4mg\;kg^{-1}$ and $300mg\;kg^{-1}$ for Cd and Zn, respectively) as described by in the soil environmental conservation Act of Korea. The concentration of plant available heavy metal (loid)s was negatively related to the soil pH and available Pb and Zn concentrations had relatively high correlation coefficient when compared with other heavy metal (loid)s. The concentration of plant available Pb and Zn was negatively related to that of organic matter (OM). Based on the above results, it might be a good soil management to control pH and OM concentration with soil amendments such as lime and compost to reduce phytoavailability of heavy metal (loid)s in arable soil located near industrial complex.

A Study on the Characteristics of Heavy Metal Concentration and Indoor Atmospheric Environments ; Heavy Metal Concentration in School Environments (실내 대기환경과 중금속농도의 분포특성에 관한 연구 - 학교 환경의 중금속농도)

  • 박종길;장난심
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.6 no.5
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    • pp.451-459
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    • 1997
  • This paper alms to describe the indoor-outdoor air quality in school environment through the analyses of heavy metal concentration by inductively Coupled Plasma(ICPI, which were observed at some school environment, such as traffic area, industrial area seme-industrial area, and residence area. The results are as follows : (1) Regardless Indoor and outdoor, the area with the highest concentration of heavy metal is industrial area followed by traffic area, residence area and semi-industrial area in descending order of magnitude. And the heavy metal concentration of indoor is higher than that of outdoor. (2) The main heavy metal components with more high level concentration of Indoor than those of outdoor are Zn, Al, Ca and these heavy metal concentrations are higher in class than In corridor and outdoor.

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Comparions of Removal Performances of Divalent Heavy Metals by Natural and Pretreated Zeolites (천연 및 전처리 제올라이트에 의한 2가 중금속 이온 제거능의 비교.검토)

  • 감상규;김덕수;이민규
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.399-409
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    • 1999
  • The three domestic natural zeolites(Yong dong-ri (Y), Daesin-ri (D), Seogdong-ri (S)) harvested in Kyeongju-shi and Pohang-shi, Kyungsangbug-Do, were pretreatd with each of the NaOH, $Ca(OH)_2$ and NaOH following HCl solutions, and the removal performances of divalent haevy metals(Cu, Mn, Pb, and Sr) for natural and pretreated zeolites were investigated and compared in the single and mixed solutions. The natural zeolite-heavy metal system attained the final equilibrium plateau within 20 min, irrespective of initial heavy metal concentration. The heavy metal uptakes increased with increasing initial heavy metal concentration and pH. The heavy metal uptakes for natural zeolites decreased in the following sequences : D>Y>S among the natural zeolites; Pb>Cu>Sr>Mn among the heavy metals. The pretreated zeolites showed higher heavy metal removal performances than natural zeolites and decreased in the order of NaOH, NaOH following HCl, $Ca(OH)_2$ treatment among the pretreatment methods. The heavy metal ion exchange capacity by natural and pretreated zeolites was described either by Freundlich equation or Langmuir equation, but it followed the former better than the latter. The heavy metal uptakes for natural zeolites decreased in the mixed solution, in comparing with those in the single solution and especially, the manganese uptake decreased greatly in the mixed solution. The pretreated zeolites showed the improved removal performances of heavy metals in the mixed solution than in the single solution and the heavy metal uptakes by those in the mixed solution showed the same trends in the single solution among the chemical treatment methods and heavy metals.

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Biosorption of Heavy Metals by Saccharomyces uvarum (Saccharomyces uvarum에 의한 중금속 생체흡착에 관한 연구)

  • 안갑환;서근학
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.4 no.5
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    • pp.527-534
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    • 1995
  • The waste biomass of Sacchromyces uvarum, used in fermentation industries to produce ethanol, were studied for their ability to absorb various heavy metal ions. Heavy metal ions studied in this research were Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb. The order of the sorption capacity was Pb>Cu>Co=Cr=Cd>Ni. The living Sacchromyces uvarum exhibited higher metal-uptake capacity than the dead Sacchromyces uvarum. After we compare the uptake capacity of the Sacchromyces uvarum for individual metal ions with for a mixture of them, the following was observed: in the mixed heavy metal solution the uptake capacity was decreased than the one heavy metal solution. The selective uptake was observed when all . the heavy metal ions were dissolved in a mixed solution. The adsorption isotherm modelling was decribed with the Langmuir and Freundlich model. The results were in good agreement with the Langmuir model.

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Distribution of Heavy Metals in Soils of Shihwa Tidal Freshwater Marshes

  • Yun, Seok-In;Choi, Woo-Jung;Choi, Young-Dae;Lee, Seung-Heon;Yoo, Sun-Ho;Lee, Eun-Ju-;Ro, Hee-Myong
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.65-70
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    • 2003
  • Shihwa tidal freshwater marsh was constructed recently to treat pollutants entering Shihwa lake. In this study, we examined the spatial and temporal patterns of heavy metal accumulation in soils of Shihwa marsh and sought correlations between several soil variables (pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter, and acid ammonium oxalate-extractable Fe and Al contents) and the heavy metal concentration of soils. Surface soil samples (0∼20 cm) were collected in June 2000, November 2000, and July 2001, and were analyzed for heavy metals (Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr, As, and Hg) and soil chemical properties. The neutral pH and water-saturated conditions of Shihwa marsh appeared to favor immobilization of heavy metal through adsorption onto soils. The concentrations of heavy metal (especially Zn, Cu, and Cr) in soils of Shihwa marsh increased along the sampling occasions, suggesting that soils of Shihwa marsh serve as a sink of heavy metal. Among the sub-marshes, metal concentrations were highest in Banweol high marshes and lowest in Samhwa marshes. The temporal and spatial variations in the heavy metal concentrations of soils were correlated positively with organic matter and oxalate extractable Fe and Al contents, but negatively with electrical conductivity. These results suggest that organic matter and hydrous oxide of Fe/Al may playa key role in removing heavy metals in soils of Shihwa marsh, and that heavy metal removing capacity would increase with desalinization. However, the removal patterns of heavy metal by reeds warrant further studies to evaluate the total removal capacity of heavy metals by Shihwa marsh.