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Effect of Halophilic Bacterium, Haloarcula vallismortis, Extract on UV-induced Skin Change (호염 미생물(Haloarcula vallismortis) 용해물의 자외선유발 피부변화에 대한 효과)

  • Kim, Ji Hyung;Shin, Jae Young;Hwang, Seung Jin;Kim, Yun Sun;Kim, Yoo Mi;Gil, So Yeon;Jin, Mu Hyun;Lee, Sang Hwa
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.341-350
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    • 2015
  • Skin carrys out protective role against harmful outer environment assaults including ultraviolet radiation, heavy metals and oxides. Especially, ultraviolet-B (UVB) light causes inflammatory reactions in skin such as sun burn and erythma and stimulates melanin pigmentation. Furthermore, the influx of UVB into skin cells causes DNA damage in keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts, inhibition of extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis which leads to a decrease in elasticity of skin and wrinkle formation. It also damages dermal connective tissue and disrupts the skin barrier function. Prolonged exposure of human skin to UVB light is well known to trigger severe skin lesions such as cell death and carcinogenesis. Haloarcula vallismortis is a halophilic microorganism isolated from the Dead Sea, Its growth characteristics have not been studied in detail yet. It generally grows at salinity more than 10%, but the actual growth salinity usually ranges between 20 to 25%. Because H. vallismortis is found mainly in saltern or salt lakes, there could exist defense mechanisms against strong sunlight. One of them is generation of additional ATP using halorhodopsin which absorbs photons and produces energy by potential difference formed by opening the chloride ion channel. It often shows a color of pink or red because of their high content of carotenoid pigments and it is considered to act as a defense mechanism against intense UV irradiation. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effect of the halophilic microorganism, H. vallismortis, extract was investigated. It was found that H. vallismortis extract had protective effect on DNA damage induced by UV irradiation. These results suggest that the extract of halophilic bacterium, H. vallismortis could be used as a bio-sunscreen or natural sunscreen which ameliorate the harmful effects of UV light with its anti-inflammatory and DNA protective properties.

A Study on the Characteristics of Combustion and Manufacturing Process on Refuse-derived Fuel by Mixing Different Ratios with Organic and Combustible Wastes (유기성폐기물 고체연료화를 위한 연소 및 제조과정의 특성연구)

  • Ha, Sang-An
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.27-38
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    • 2009
  • To investigate the feasibility of refuse derived fuels (RDFs) combined of sewage sludge and combustible wastes such as substitutive fuels instead of a stone coal, several different RDFs made with different mixtures of sewage sludge and combustible wastes were analyzed by various experiments. The combustion characteristics for the RDFs were investigated by analyzing fuel gases, and heating values were also measured by a bomb calorimeter. The fundamental properties such as moisture contents, ratios of combustible materials, amounts of ashes, heavy metals, ratios of each chemical elements and heating values were analyzed in accordance with mixing ratios of wt(%) for researching the characteristics of the RDFs. $RDF_{k-1}$ was made of mixing materials which were dried sewage sludge, food wastes and combustible wastes. $RDF_{k-2}$ was made of mixing materials which were peat-moss, tar and sewage sludge. Combustion experiments were carried out at the optimal conditions which were m=2 under air-fuel condition and $850^{\circ}C$. The retention times in the combustor were set at 5, 10 and 15minutes. 50 g of RDFs was put in the combustor for each experiments. The ranges for heating values of $RDF_{k-1}$ with different mixing ratios were from 6,900 kcal/kg to 8120 kcal/kg. The ranges for heating values of $RDF_{k-2}$ with different mixing ratios were from 4,014 kcal/kg to 8,050 kcal/kg. As a result of this study, the heating values, moisture contents, components of chemical elements and mixing ratios of the materials in RDFs had big effects on the efficiency of the combustion. In $RDF_{k-1}$, the higher amounts of combustible wastes in the mixtures, the higher heating values, concentrations of $C_xH_y$ and amounts of ashes were produced. In $RDF_{k-2}$, the higher tar amounts in the mixtures caused the higher heating values, amounts of ashes, concentrations of CO gas and CxHy.

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Effects of Co-digestate application on the Soil Properties, Leachate and Growth Responses of Paddy Rice (통합혐기소화액의 시용이 벼 생육 및 논토양 환경에 미치는 영향)

  • Hong, Seung-Gil;Shin, Joung-Du;Kwon, Soon-Ik;Park, Woo-Kyun;Lee, Deog-Bae;Kim, Jeong-Gyu
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.31-37
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    • 2010
  • Livestock manures have a potential to be a valuable resource with an efficient treatment. In Korea, 42 million tons of livestock manure were generated in 2008, and 84 % of them were used for compost and liquid fertilizer production. Recently recycling of livestock manure for biogas production through anaerobic digestion is increasing, but its utilization in agriculture is still uncertified. In this study, there was applied co-digestate to the paddy for rice cultivation based on N supplement. Co-digestate was fertilizer fermented with pig slurry and food waste combined with the ratio of 70:30(v:v) in its volumetric basis. For assessing the safety of co-digestate, it was monitored the contents of co-digestate for seasonal variation, resulted in no potential harm to the soil and plant by heavy metals. The results showed that soil applied with co-digestate was increased in exchangeable potassium, copper and zinc mainly due to the high rate of pig slurry in co-digestate applied. Considering high salt content due to the combination with food waste, strict quality assurances are needed for safe application to arable land though it has valuable fertilizer nutrient. Leachate after treatment showed that the concentration of nitrate nitrogen washed out within two weeks. Considering the salt accumulation results in soil, it is highly recommended that the application rate of co-digestate should not exceed the crop fertilization rate based on N supplement. With these results, it was concluded that co-digestate could be used as an alternative fertilizer for chemical fertilizer. More study is needed for the long-term effects of co-digestate application on the soil and water environment.

Improvement of Certification Criteria based on Analysis of On-site Investigation of Good Agricultural Practices(GAP) for Ginseng (인삼 GAP 인증기준의 현장실천평가결과 분석에 따른 인증기준 개선방안)

  • Yoon, Deok-Hoon;Nam, Ki-Woong;Oh, Soh-Young;Kim, Ga-Bin
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.40-51
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    • 2019
  • Ginseng has a unique production system that is different from those used for other crops. It is subject to the Ginseng Industry Act., requires a long-term cultivation period of 4-6 years, involves complicated cultivation characteristics whereby ginseng is not produced in a single location, and many ginseng farmers engage in mixed-farming. Therefore, to bring the production of Ginseng in line with GAP standards, it is necessary to better understand the on-site practices of Ginseng farmers according to established control points, and to provide a proper action plan for improving efficiency. Among ginseng farmers in Korea who applied for GAP certification, 77.6% obtained it, which is lower than the 94.1% of farmers who obtained certification for other products. 13.7% of the applicants were judged to be unsuitable during document review due to their use of unregistered pesticides and soil heavy metals. Another 8.7% of applicants failed to obtain certification due to inadequate management results. This is a considerably higher rate of failure than the 5.3% incompatibility of document inspection and 0.6% incompatibility of on-site inspection, which suggests that it is relatively more difficult to obtain GAP certification for ginseng farming than for other crops. Ginseng farmers were given an average of 2.65 points out of 10 essential control points and a total 72 control points, which was slightly lower than the 2.81 points obtained for other crops. In particular, ginseng farmers were given an average of 1.96 points in the evaluation of compliance with the safe use standards for pesticides, which was much lower than the average of 2.95 points for other crops. Therefore, it is necessary to train ginseng farmers to comply with the safe use of pesticides. In the other essential control points, the ginseng farmers were rated at an average of 2.33 points, lower than the 2.58 points given for other crops. Several other areas of compliance in which the ginseng farmers also rated low in comparison to other crops were found. These inclued record keeping over 1 year, record of pesticide use, pesticide storages, posts harvest storage management, hand washing before and after work, hygiene related to work clothing, training of workers safety and hygiene, and written plan of hazard management. Also, among the total 72 control points, there are 12 control points (10 required, 2 recommended) that do not apply to ginseng. Therefore, it is considered inappropriate to conduct an effective evaluation of the ginseng production process based on the existing certification standards. In conclusion, differentiated certification standards are needed to expand GAP certification for ginseng farmers, and it is also necessary to develop programs that can be implemented in a more systematic and field-oriented manner to provide the farmers with proper GAP management education.

Environmental Changes after Timber Harvesting in (Mt.) Paekunsan (백운산(白雲山) 성숙활엽수림(成熟闊葉樹林) 개벌수확지(皆伐收穫地)에서 벌출직후(伐出直後)의 환경변화(環境變化))

  • Park, Jae-Hyeon
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.84 no.4
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    • pp.465-478
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    • 1995
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the impacts of large-scale timber harvesting on the environment of a mature hardwood forest. To achieve the objective, the effects of harvesting on forest environmental factors were analyzed quantitatively using the field data measured in the study sites of Seoul National University Research Forests [(Mt.) Paekunsan] for two years(1993-1994) following timber harvesting. The field data include information on vegetation, soil mesofauna, physicochemical characteristics of soil, surface water runoff, water quality in the stream, and hillslope erosion. For comparison, field data for each environmental factor were collected in forest areas disturbed by logging and undisturbed, separately. The results of this study were as follows : The diversity of vegetational species increased in the harvested sites. However, the similarity index value of species between harvested and non-harvested sites was close to each other. Soil bulk density and soil hardness were increased after timber harvesting, respectively. The level of organic matter, total-N, avail $P_2O_5$, CEC($K^+$, $Na^+$, $Ca^{{+}{+}}$, $Mg^{{+}{+}}$) in the harvested area were found decreased. While the population of Colembola spp., and Acari spp. among soil mesofauna in harvested sites increased by two to seven times compared to those of non-harvested sites during the first year, the rates of increment decreased in the second year. However, those members of soil mesofauna in harvested sites were still higher than those of non-harvested sites in the second year. The results of statistical analysis using the stepwise regression method indicated that the diversity of soil mesofauna were significantly affected by soil moisture, soil bulk density, $Mg^{{+}{+}}$, CEC, and soil temperature at soil depth of 5(0~10)cm in the order of importance. The amount of surface water runoff on harvested sites was larger than that of non-harvested sites by 28% in the first year and 24.5% in the second year after timber harvesting. The level of BOD, COD, and pH in the stream water on the harvested sites reached at the level of the domestic use for drinking in the first and second year after timber harvesting. Such heavy metals as Cd, Pb, Cu, and organic P were not found. Moreover, the level of eight factors of domestic use for drinking water designated by the Ministry of Health and Welfare of Korea were within the level of the first class in the quality of drinking water standard. The study also showed that the amount of hillslope erosion in harvested sites was 4.77 ton/ha/yr in the first year after timber harvesting. In the second year, the amount decreased rapidly to 1.0 ton/ha/yr. The impact of logging on hillslope erosion in the harvested sites was larger than that in non-harvested sites by seven times in the first year and two times in the second year. The above results indicate that the large-scale timber harvesting cause significant changes in the environmental factors. However, the results are based on only two-year field observation. We should take more field observation and analyses to increase understandings on the impacts of timber harvesting on environmental changes. With the understandings, we might be able to improve the technology of timber harvesting operations to reduce the environmental impacts of large-scale timber harvesting.

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Limno-Biological Investigation of Lake Ok-Jeong (옥정호의 육수생물학적 연구)

  • SONG Hyung-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.1-25
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    • 1982
  • Limnological study on the physico-chemical properties and biological characteristics of the Lake Ok-Jeong was made from May 1980 to August 1981. For the planktonic organisms in the lake, species composition, seasonal change and diurnal vertical distribution based on the monthly plankton samples were investigated in conjunction with the physico-chemical properties of the body of water in the lake. Analysis of temperature revealed that there were three distinctive periods in terms of vertical mixing of the water column. During the winter season (November-March) the vertical column was completely mixed, and no temperature gradient was observed. In February temperature of the whole column from the surface to the bottom was $3.5^{\circ}C$, which was the minimum value. With seasonal warming in spring, surface water forms thermoclines at the depth of 0-10 m from April to June. In summer (July-October) the surface mixing layer was deepened to form a strong thermocline at the depth of 15-25 m. At this time surface water reached up to $28.2^{\circ}C$ in August, accompanied by a significant increase in the temperature of bottom layer. Maximum bottom temperature was $r5^{\circ}C$ which occurred in September, thus showing that this lake keeps a significant turbulence Aehgh the hypolimnial layer. As autumn cooling proceeded summer stratification was destroyed from the end of October resulting in vertical mixing. In surface layer seasonal changes of pH were within the range from 6.8 in January to 9.0 in guutuost. Thighest value observed in August was mainly due to the photosynthetic activity of the phytoplankton. In the surface layer DO was always saturated throughout the year. Particularly in winter (January-April) the surface water was oversaturated (Max. 15.2 ppm in March). Vertical variation of DO was not remarkable, and bottom water was fairly well oxygenated. Transparency was closely related to the phytoplankton bloom. The highest value (4.6 m) was recorded in February when the primary production was low. During summer transparency decreased hand the lowest value (0.9 m) was recorded in August. It is mainly due to the dense blooming of gnabaena spiroides var. crassa in the surface layer. A. The amount of inorganic matters (Ca, Mg, Fe) reveals that Lake Ok-Jeong is classified as a soft-water lake. The amount of Cl, $NO_3-N$ and COD in 1981 was slightly higher than those in 1980. Heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd and Hg) were not detectable throughout the study period. During the study period 107 species of planktonic organisms representing 72 genera were identified. They include 12 species of Cyanophyta, 19 species of Bacillariophyta, 23 species of Chlorophyta, 14 species of Protozoa, 29 species of Rotifera, 4 species of Cladocera and 6 species of Copepoda. Bimodal blooming of phytoplankton was observed. A large blooming ($1,504\times10^3\;cells/l$ in October) was observed from July to October; a small blooming was present ($236\times10^3\;cells/l$ in February) from January to April. The dominant phytoplankton species include Melosira granulata, Anabaena spiroides, Asterionella gracillima and Microcystis aeruginota, which were classified into three seasonal groups : summer group, winter group and the whole year group. The sumner group includes Melosira granulate and Anabaena spiroides ; the winter group includes Asterionella gracillima and Synedra acus, S. ulna: the whole year group includes Microtystis aeruginosa and Ankistrodesmus falcatus. It is noted that M. granulate tends to aggregate in the bottom layer from January to August. The dominant zooplankters were Thermocpclops taihokuensis, Difflugia corona, Bosmina longirostris, Bosminopsis deitersi, Keratelle quadrata and Asplanchna priodonta. A single peak of zooplankton growth was observed and maximum zooplankton occurrence was present in July. Diurnal vertical migration was revealed by Microcystis aeruginosa, M. incerta, Anabaena spiroides, Melosira granulata, and Bosmina longirostris. Of these, M. granulata descends to the bottom and forms aggregation after sunset. B. longirostris shows fairly typical nocturnal migration. They ascends to the surface after sunset and disperse in the whole water column during night. Foully one species of fish representing 31 genera were collected. Of these 13 species including Pseudoperilnmpus uyekii and Coreoleuciscus splendidus were indigenous species of Korean inland waters. The indicator species of water quality determination include Microcystis aeruginosa, Melosira granulata, Asterionelta gracillima, Brachionus calyciflorus, Filinia longiseta, Conochiloides natans, Asplanchna priodonta, Difflugia corona, Eudorina elegans, Ceratium hirundinella, Bosmina longirostris, Bosminopsis deitersi, Heliodiaptomus kikuchii and Thermocyclops taihokuensis. These species have been known the indicator groups which are commonly found in the eutrophic lakes. Based on these planktonic indicators Lake Ok-Jeong can be classified into an eutrophic lake.

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