• Title, Summary, Keyword: heavy metals

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Soil Contamination by Heavy Metals in Playgrounds of Kindergartens in Vilnius

  • Valskys, Vaidotas;Ignatavicius, Gytautas;Sinkevicius, Stanislovas;Gasiunaite, Ugne
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.11-21
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    • 2016
  • The soil contamination by heavy metals in playgrounds of kindergartens in Vilnius city is analysed in this article. The aim of this research is to investigate and evaluate soil contamination by heavy metals in playgrounds of kindergartens in different territories of Vilnius city. Concentrations of heavy metals were measured using Thermo Fisher Scientific Niton$^{(R)}$ XL2 X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Maximum allowable and background concentrations that are given in Lithuanian hygiene standard and Lithuania geochemical atlas are used to compare and evaluate concentrations of heavy metals. Concentrations of heavy metals and their spatial distribution were analysed in order to exclude the most contaminated areas relating with different functional areas of the city. Geo-statistical analysis and maps of spatial distribution were developed using IDW interpolator in ArcMap software. Detail soil surveys helps to assess the extent of anthropogenic impact in different parts of the city which can be harmful to the soil ecosystem and human health. Such researches can help to change or select different function for city areas in territorial planning process.

A Study on the Correlation between Heavy Metal Content of Cement Products and Waste Used in Cement Industry (시멘트 산업에 투입되는 폐기물과 시멘트 제품의 중금속 함유량과의 상관관계 분석연구)

  • Kim, Yong-Jun;Um, Nam-Il;Kim, Woo-Il;Lee, Young-Kee;Kim, Ki-Heon
    • Journal of Korea Society of Waste Management
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    • v.35 no.8
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    • pp.721-730
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    • 2018
  • We investigated the effects of heavy metals in cement in the last 3 years and the amount of waste in the cement manufacturing process. The result shows that the average $Cr^{6+}$ content in cement products is controlled at 10 mg/kg. Cu and Pb have lower detection tendency in white cement than in ordinary portland cement. In addition, heavy metals such as Cd show a certain level of detection regardless of the input wastes. Copper slag and phosphate gypsum are the main influencing factors on the heavy metals in cement products. In auxiliary fuels, plastics waste and wood waste are considered to affect heavy metals in cement products. Alternative raw materials are considered to be affected by the alternative raw materials managed as byproducts. In the case of supplementary fuels, auxiliary fuels managed as waste instead of auxiliary fuels managed as byproducts affect the heavy metals in cement. This study examined the input amount without considering the heavy metals in each waste. Therefore, the result may vary in different situations, and further research must be conducted to supplement the findings. However, if the heavy-metal contents in the waste are constant, it can be used as a reference material for the control of heavy metals in cement products.

Current research trends for heavy metals of agricultural soils and crop uptake in Korea (우리나라 농경지 중금속 동태 및 작물흡수 연구동향)

  • Lee, Ji-Ho;Kim, Ji-Young;Go, Woo-Ri;Jeong, Eun-Jung;Kunhikrishnan, Anitha;Jung, Goo-Bok;Kim, Doo-Ho;Kim, Won-Il
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.75-95
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    • 2012
  • BACKGROUND: Increase of heavy metals in agricultural ecosystem has become a social issue nationwide as it is related to public health. This review was performed to find out more systematic and integrated future researches on heavy metals using up to date articles published in the Korean journals related to agricultural environment. METHODS AND RESULTS: Researches on heavy metals in agricultural soils and plant uptake were categorized by the establishment of criteria, analytical methods, monitoring, management of source, characteristics and behavior in soil, plant uptake, bioavailability affecting physico -chemical properties in soil, risk assessment and soil remediation. In the early 1990s, the monitoring for heavy metals in soil has been widely performed. Accumulation of heavy metals in contaminated soil and availability to plants has also attracted interests to study the soil remediation using various physico-chemical methods. The phytoavailability and phytotoxicity of heavy metals have been mainly studied to assess the safety of agro-products using risk assessment techniques in the 2000s. CONCLUSION: Future direction of research on heavy metal in agricultural environment must be carried out by ensuring food safety and sustainability. A steady survey and proper management for polluted regions should be continued. Law and regulation must be modified systematically. Furthermore, studies should expand on mitigation of heavy metal uptake by crops and remediation of polluted fields.

Growth and Heavy Metal Absorption Capacity of Aster koraiensis Nakai According to Types of Land Use (토지이용 형태별 벌개미취의 생육 및 중금속 흡수능)

  • Ju, Young-Kyu;Kwon, Hyuk-Jun;Cho, Ju-Sung;Shin, So-Lim;Kim, Tae-Sung;Choi, Su-Bin;Lee, Cheol-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.48-54
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    • 2011
  • This study was performed to analyze the possibility of using Korean native Aster koraiensis Nakai for phytoremediation at various fields. A. koraiensis was cultivated at paddy, upland and forest soils contaminated with heavy metals. After 8 weeks of cultivation, and growth and its absorbing capacity of heavy metals were analyzed. The results showed that A. koraiensis was grown well even at the soil highly contaminated with heavy metals, which means it has a tolerance to heavy metals. As analysis results of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead and zinc contents absorbed from various soils contaminated with heavy metals, heavy metal absorbing capacity of A. koraiensis was depending on the heavy metal contents in the soils and soil property. In case of arsenic, cadmium and copper, heavy metal accumulation capacities of Aster koraiensis were much influenced by contents of heavy metals in the soils. Absorbing capacity of plants was increased when heavy metal contents in the soils were high. Lead absorbing capacity was depending more on soil property than lead contents in the soil, and was great at sandy soil of forest. Zinc absorbing capacity was influenced by both soil properties and Zn contents in the soil, was increased at paddy soil contaminated with high concentrations of heavy metals and upland soils. In general, A. koraiensis had a tolerance to heavy metals and showed great absorbing capability of heavy metals. So A. koraiensis can be used as a good landscape material for phytoremediation at various soils contaminated with heavy metals.

The removal of heavy metals by crab shell in aqueous solution (게 껍질을 이용한 수중의 중금속 제거)

  • An, Hee-Kyung;Park, Byung-Yoon;Kim, Dong-Seog
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.9 no.5
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    • pp.409-414
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    • 2000
  • In order to examine the availability and effectiveness of crab shell for the removal of heavy metals in aqueous solution the crab shell was compared with cation exchange resin(CER), zeolite granular activated carbon (GAC) and powdered activated carbon(PAC) on aspects of heavy metal removal capacity rate and efficiency. In the removal of Pb, Cd and Cr, the heavy metal removal capacity of crab shell was higher than those of any other sorbents (CER, zeolite, GAC, PAC) and the order of heavy metal removal capacity was crab shell>CER>zeolite>PAC GAC. However in the removal of Cu, the result of crab shell was slightly lower than that of CER. The initial heavy metal removal rate was affected by the sorts of sorbents and metals. In all heavy metals the heavy metal removal rate of crab shell was higher than those of any other sorbents. Under the heavy metal concentration of 1.0 mmole/$\ell$ the heavy metal removal efficiency of crab shell was maintained as 93~100% which was much higher than those of any other sorbents.

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Daily Intakes and the Blood Levels of Heavy Metals of the College Women Living in Choongchung-NamDo Area (충남지역 일부 여대생의 식이를 통한 중금속 섭취량과 혈중 중금속 농도)

  • 박수진;조여원
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.48-53
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    • 2001
  • As the severity of environmental pollution increases, the foodstuffs are contaminated more the ever. There are 40 kinds of heavy metals that we are able to consume through the heavy metal contaminated-foodstuffs. Arsenic, lead, cadmium, and chromium out or them have been know to be a potential cause for a alzheimers disease, kidney diseases, and cancer. However, research data on the daily intakes of such heavy metals are limited. This study was performed to evaluate the daily intakes of nutrients and the dietary heavy metals of the college women living in Choongchung-NamDo Area, where had been reported to have high contents of heavy metals for the seafoods. We also investigated the blood levels of the heavy metals. The mean age, height, weight, BMI and percent ideal body weight(PIBW) of the subjects were 20$\pm$1.0yr, 158.4$\pm$0.7cm, 55.1$\pm$1.4kg, 22.4$\pm$.04, and 103.3$\pm$2.5 %, resp-ectivly. The mean of daily energy intake was 1,717.03$\pm$55.99kacl/day(86% of RDA for women). The ratio to energy from carbohydrate, fat and protein was 60: 24: 16. Daily intakes of Vit A, Vit B$_2$, CA, and Fe were under the RDA for those nutrients. The mean adequate ratio of the subjects was 0.92 . The daily intakes of heavy metal, such as As, Pb, Co, Cr and Mn , were 1.80$\pm$0.27mg, 75.21$\pm$4.12$\mu\textrm{g}$, 21.12$\pm$12.34$\mu\textrm{g}$, 60.07$\pm$6.24$\mu\textrm{g}$ and 6.23 $\pm$0.12mg respectively. the blood levels of As, Pb, Co, Cr and Mn were 16.10$\pm$2.10$\mu\textrm{g}$/dl, 4.32$\pm$0.58$\mu\textrm{g}$/dl, 0.02$\pm$0.01$\mu\textrm{g}$/dl, 4.23$\pm$0.41$\mu\textrm{g}$/dl, and 4.40$\pm$0.21$\mu\textrm{g}$/dl, respectively. In conclusion, daily intake of heavy metals for the college women living in Choongchung-NamDo area was lower than that of WHOs re-commendation, however, the blood levels of each heavy metals were higher than those of Japanese, american, and italian, There were no correlations between the dietary intakes and blood levels of each heavy metals. (Korean J Nutrition 34(1):48-53, 2001)

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Heavy Metal Accumulation in Oxyloma hirasei from the Upo Wetland

  • Kim, Heung-Tae;Kim, Jae-Geun
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.81-86
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    • 2007
  • Human activities have enhanced the influx of heavy metals to aquatic ecosystem and hanged the abiotic environment such as the sediments supporting benthic organisms. The levels of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the benthic gastropod Oxyloma hirasei and the sediments around their habitat were investigated to examine heavy metal levels and the potential of the gastropod as a bioindicator. We detected different levels of heavy metals in the sediments of two wetland areas, Upo and Mokpo, in the relatively well-conserved Upo wetland, Ramsar Convention Area. Oxyloma hirasei had higher concentrations of heavy metals except Cr and Ni in their soft tissues than in their shells (Cd: $2.10{\sim}3.16$, Cu: $19.73{\sim}28.66$, Pb: $0.67{\sim}1.17$, Zn: $216.1{\sim}285.7\;{\mu}g/g$ dry weight in the soft tissues; Cr: $1.19{\sim}2.58$, Ni: $0.47{\sim}1.16\;{\mu}g/g$ dry weight in the shells). Differences in the Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb concentrations in O. hirasei soft tissues reflected differences in heavy metal concentrations in the sediments at the sampling sites. The coefficients of variation for Cd, Cu and Pb were lower than those for other metals in the soft tissues. Levels of Cd in the tissues of O. hirasei were the highest among the metals examined in this study. Therefore, the soft tissue of O. hirasei appears to be a promising bioindicator particularly for Cd.

Removal Efficiency of Heavy Metals in Acidic Mine Drainage from Microbial Mats (바이오매트 형성에 의한 산성광산배수 내 중금속 유출질량 제거효율)

  • Yu, Hun-Sun;Kwon, Byung-Hyuk;Kim, Park-Sa;So, Yoon-Hwan;Kang, Dong-Hwan
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.667-676
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    • 2012
  • This research investigated to reduce mass of heavy metals in AMD(acid mine drainage) by microbial mats formed on the channel bed. As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn components were monitored in water and microbial mats, at three points (AMD1, AMD2 and AMD3), in a total of six times. Average daily discharge mass of heavy metals was highest in July, Fe component contained more than 76% of total discharge mass. Discharge mass of heavy metals of AMD and heavy metal contents in microbial mats decreased with downstream at channel. Heavy metal components that average daily discharge mass is over 0.5 kg were Fe, Cu and Zn, and they were highest in July. Average removal efficiency of heavy metals in AMD was highest about 21% in Fe, this microbial mats were due to form from precipitation of Fe component in AMD by aerobic iron bacteria. Relative content for As component in microbial mats than AMD was over 16 times, this As components were due to absorb at iron oxide and iron hydroxide on the surface of microbial mats.

Heavy Metals in Sediments and shellifish along Mangyong River (만경강유역 저질토 및 패류의 중금속 함량 조사)

  • Yoo, I.S;Yoo, E.J;Lee, J.S.;Park, H.;Soh, C.T.
    • The Korean Journal of Malacology
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.35-41
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    • 1989
  • Heaty metals in mollusks and in sedimints collected from five stations along Mangyong river area in Jeonra Bug Do were examined during 1988 through 1989. Concentration of heavy metals in Cipangopaludina chinensis malleata and Anodonta woodiana were highly correlated with that in sediments, And concentration of heavy metals in both of millusks and sediments from industrialized area was higher than the other stations. Above results suggested that Mangyong river was polluted with heavy metals and heavy metals were accumulated in molluscan soft bodies.

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An Immunohistochemical and Ultrastructural Study of the Heavy Metals accumulated in the Kidney of an Antarctic Clam, Laternula elliptica (중금속이 축적된 남극 큰띠조개의 신장에 대한 면역조직학적 및 미세구조적 연구)

  • 이용석;안인영;김완종;정계헌
    • The Korean Journal of Malacology
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.15-21
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    • 2002
  • The kidney of bivalve mollusks often contains remarkably high concentrations of both essential and non-essential metals and perform regulating and detoxicating activities. The kidney has also been proposed as a biological indicator for radioactive as well as for stable metals in the sea. The present study of the Antarctic clam, Laternula elliptica, concerns the functional morphology of the kidney epithelium, which contains highly accumulated heavy metals. The immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study was undertaken in order to find out the localization of metallothionein and heavy metals accumulated in the kidney of Laternula elliptica. In the immunohistochemical investigation, an intense metallothionein immunostaining reaction was found in the epithelial cells of the kidney of Laternula elliptica. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the epithelial cells contained numerous electron-dense inclusion bodies which were considered to be accumulated heavy metals.

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