• Title/Summary/Keyword: height growth

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Developing Dominant Tree Height Growth Curve and Site Index Curves for Pinus densiflora and Chamaecyparis obtusa Grown in Jeolla-do (전라도 지역 소나무와 편백에 대한 수고생장모델 및 지위지수곡선 개발)

  • Park, Hee-Jung;Lee, Sang-Hyun
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.108 no.3
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    • pp.364-371
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    • 2019
  • This study was conducted to provide the basic information for a reasonable forest management plan and sustainable forest management by developing a dominant tree height growth model using diameter at breast height (DBH) and site index curves for Pinus densiflora and Chamaecyparis obtusa growing in Jeolla-do. The altitude, slope, orientation, soil type, height and DBH of a dominant tree, and the ages of trees were measured for 3055 Pinus densiflora trees (611 plots) and 3345 Chamaecyparis obtusa trees (699 plots), and these data were used to develop a customized afforestation map. In the dominant tree height growth model, the relationship to DBH was used in the Petterson, Michailow, and log equations. Also, a dominant tree height growth model in relationship to age used the Chapman-Richards, Schumacher, and Gompertz equations. The Petterson equation, which has a lower mean square error, was used to model dominant tree height growth in relationship to DBH. In the model of dominant tree height growth in relationship to age, three kinds of equations were considered to have little statistical difference. Therefore, the Chapman-Richards equation was chosen for modeling on the national level. Thirtyyears was used as the base age, which is an important factor for estimating the site index curves. In the results, a more varied range of site index family curves with 6-18 was developed for Pinus densiflora, and with 6-22 for Chamaecyparis obtusa. As the new site index curves indicated influences on growth of Pinus densiflora and Chamaecyparis obtusa, a reasonable forest management plan will be possible in the future for Jeolla-do.

Regeneration Process after Disturbance of the Pinus densiflora Forest in Korea (한국 소나무림에서의 교란 후 재생과정)

  • Lee, Chang-Seok
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.189-201
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    • 1995
  • In order to clarify regeneration processes and mechanisms of the disturbed Pinus densiflora forest, responses of Pinus densiflora to gap formed by disturbance were analysed by growth of saplings and mature and growth equations were obtained from branch growth of mature trees and height growth of saplings, and age distribution of saplings and young trees recruited within gap was analysed in relation to gap age. Height growth of saplings within gaps was accelerated after gap formation. Such abrupt increases of growth of saplings after the gap formation might be resulted in the difference of growth of saplings between gap and non-gap areas. In fact, height and diameter of saplings in the central part of gap were larger than those of saplings in marginal parts of gap and non-gap area. However, density of saplings was not different in both parts. In addition, growth of annual rings of mature trees bordering on gap also increased after gap formation. Branch growth of mature trees bodering on gap was 6.3 - 6.5 cm /year and the mean radius of gaps created by death of only one canopy tree was about 3 m. Therefore, for those gaps to be closed by branch growth it will take 46 years. Growth of saplings within gap showed exponential equation. Fifty years will be required for the saplings to enter the forest canopy by the exponential growth equation. Therefore, gap created by only one tree might be closed by branch growth of surrounding canopy trees in advance of being done by height growth of saplings. But gaps created by death of trees more than 2 will be closed by the growth of saplings. Among the regenerating saplings and young trees within gaps, individuals established in advance of gap formation were more than those established after the gap formation. From these results, it was assumed that the disturbed Pinus densiflora forests in these sites were regenerated by height growth of saplings recruited in advance of gap formation.

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Clinical Study on Child's Height Growth of Mixtures of Cynanchum wilfordii and Phlomis umbrosa Extract (백수오-한속단 추출 복합물의 어린이 키 성장에 관한 임상 연구)

  • Ha, Ki Chan;Baek, Hyang Im;Kim, Hye Mi;Kim, Young Mi;Jeong, Da Young;Hong, Seong Je;Hong, Sang Keun;Choi, Chang Min
    • Journal of Korean Medicine Rehabilitation
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.75-83
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    • 2019
  • Objectives Previous animal studies have shown that mixtures of Cynanchum wilfordii and Phlomis umbrosa extract (IPLUS-CWPU) increases femur length and insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) secretion. IPLUS-CWPU may thus be a promising ingredient in functional foods aimed at growing child's height. The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of IPLUS-CWPU on height growth in children with short stature. Methods For this purpose, we recruited 90 children aged 4 to 12 years who had heights ranging from the 5th to 25th percentiles of Korean children's growth curve and randomized to either the IPLUS-CWPU or the placebo group. Results The IPLUS-CWPU group showed a significant increase in the change of the height growth compared to the placebo group after 20 weeks of administration (p=0.02). The height growth velosity also showed a statistically significant difference in the test group compared to the placebo group at 10 weeks (p=0.04). The IGF-1 levels showed a tendency to increase in the IPLUS-CWPU group (p=0.08). Moreover, the IPLUS-CWPU significantly increased IGF-1/IGFBP-3 ratio (p=0.02). However, there were no significant differences in blood biochemical parameters including growth hormone, bone age, thyroid stimulating hormone, and osteocalcin levels. Conclusions In conclusion, the data of this trial indicate that IPLUS-CWPU is effective and safe, generally well-tolerated without severe adverse events, in the treatment of children with short stature over a 20 weeks period.

Effects of Simulated Acid Rain on Histology, Water Status and Growth of Pinus densiflora (인공산성빗물이 소나무의 조직, 수분수지 및 생장에 미치는 영향)

  • 이창석;길지현;유영한
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.117-124
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    • 1998
  • To clarify the effects of acid precipitates on histological damage, water status, and growth of Pinus densiflora green house experiment applyin simulated acid rain was carried out. Contact angle of water droplet on needles of P. densiflora seedlings treated with simulated acid rain of different pHs simulated acid rain was, the more rapid transpiration was. Leaf water potential after water withdrawal was also reduced rapidly in proportion to acidity of simulated acid rain. Height growth of P. densiflora seedlings treated with simulated acid rain of pH 2 decreased, while growth of seedlings treated with that of pH 3 and 4 increased comparing with that treated with normal rain of pH 5.6. pH of cultivated soil in pH 2 plot was acidified with the amount of simulated acid rain applied but that in pH 3 and 4 plots did not show any directional change. From those results, it could be interpreted that decrease of height growth in pH 2 plot was originated from multiple effects of water deficit from rapid transpiration and soil acidification. On the other hand, increased of height growth in pH 3 and 4 plots would be originated from the supply of N and S included in simulated acid rain.

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Effects of Biomaterials Mixed with Artificial Soil on Seedling Quality of Fraxinus Rhynchophylla in a Containerized Production System

  • Dao, Huong Thi Thuy;Youn, Woo Bin;Han, Si Ho;Seo, Jeong Min;Aung, Aung;An, Ji Young;Park, Byung Bae
    • Journal of Forest and Environmental Science
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.25-30
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    • 2019
  • The composition of artificial soil in a containerized seedling production plays an important role in seedling quality as well as environmental issues. We investigated the effects of different types of biomaterials and mixed ratio with artificial soil on the growth of Fraxinus rhynchophylla seedlings. Soil medium was supplemented with 3 levels (0%, 10%, 20%) of pine bark, mushroom sawdust and rice husk. Root collar diameter (RCD), height growth, and biomass have significantly increased when rice husk was applied. Compared with the control, RCD and height growth showed highest in 20% rice husk treatment with an increase of 5.7% and 17.6%, respectively. In contrast, the treatments of pine bark and mushroom sawdust showed lower results in growth parameters (RCD, height growth, and total biomass) than control. Seedling quality index was also highest at the 20% rice husk treatment, but there was not statistically different among treatments. Our results suggested rice husk can be substituted up to 20% of substrates for containerized F. rhynchophylla seedling production system.

Variation in Growth Characteristics of Pinus densiflora S. et Z. at Eight Experimental Plantations of Korea (8개(個) 시험지(試驗紙)에서 소나무 산지별(山地別) 생장특성(生長特性) 변이(變異))

  • Kim, Kyu Sick;Han, Young Chang
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.86 no.2
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    • pp.119-127
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    • 1997
  • Japanese red pines growing along the Taebaek mountains have been called "Kangsong" and considered to be superior in growth and wood quality. An attempt was made to determine whether their boundaries for planting may be expanded by testing their early growth at eight experimental plantations of the Republic of Korea. Seeds were collected from the six different natural populations including Uljin in Kyongbuk province. For the provenance test, they were planted in eight different regions including Taean in the spring of 1987. Experimental planting was a randomized complete block design with 3 replications. Height growth was measured at the ages of 2, 4, and 6 after planting, and the diameter at root collar at the age of 6 after planting. Significant variation in height growth was observed among the plantations. The height growth measured at the age of 6 after planting showed a positive correlation with the latitude of the test plantation, and the contents of phosphate, potassium and calcium in the soil. A negative correlation, however, was observed between the longitude of the test plantation and height growth. Ponghwa provenance appeared to be the best among the provenances in that the trees from the area grew 16% better in volume growth than the average of all the trees tested in the study, while the worst one was Kyongju from which trees grew 11% less than the average.

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Family Selection on Height Growth in Open-Pollinated Progeny Trials of Pinus densiflora Using Relative Height Growth Rate (상대수고생장속도를 이용한 소나무 우수가계 선발)

  • Oh, Chang-Young;Han, Sang-Urk;Lee, Kyung-Joon;Kim, Chang-Soo;Oh, Chan-Jin;Ji, Dong-Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Breeding Science
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.220-227
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    • 2009
  • This study was conducted to select superior families based on the open-pollinated (OP) progeny tests of P. densiflora. A total of 232 OP families were analyzed for relative height growth. The OP progeny test trials were established at 1 to 4 sites from 1975 to 1987. To minimize temporal and spatial variation, we applied the standardization method for family selection. In each progeny test, superior and inferior families were selected at ages of 10, 20 and 30. Relative height growth rate (RHGR), growth speed at a given time unit, was comparatively high at age of 10 with range from 0.1 to 0.6 and showed a large variation among families. However, after age 15, the RHGR was low (average 0.04) and also the variation was not significantly different among families. To reduce selection errors due to age differences (from age 23 to 35) of tests, we made the family selection after age 15 when the values of RHGR were stable. Height growth at each age was transformed to be height growth at age 35 based on the RHGR. As the results, family CB2, CB3, KW99 and KW2 were selected as superior families and KW158, KW22, KB40 and GG1 were considered as inferior ones, respectively. Rank correlations (r) between test ages and selection age 35 were high and statistically significant; r = 0.881 between age 30 and 35, 0.653 between age 20 and 35, and -0.222 between age 10 and 35.

Height Growth Models for Pinus thunbergii in Jeju Island

  • Park, Gildong;Lee, Daesung;Seo, Yeongwan;Choi, Jungkee
    • Journal of Forest and Environmental Science
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.255-260
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    • 2015
  • Height growth models for Pinus thunbergii in Jeju Island were developed in this study using four widely used nonlinear growth models; Exponential, Modified Logistic, Chapman-Richards, and Weibull. All functions were found to be significant at the 1% level. Chapman-Richards model for height-DBH allometry and Weibull model for height-age allometry was chosen as the best model on the all validation. All the model curves showed the similar pattern. Additionally, there was no abnormal pattern when the previous studies were compared. Therefore, these models are highly expected to be used to estimate the tree height using DBH or age for Pinus thunbergii especially in Jeju Island.

Estimation of Height Growth Patterns and Site Index Curves for Japanese Red Cedar(Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) Stands planted in Southern Regions, Korea

  • Lee, Young-Jin
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.29-31
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    • 2002
  • The purpose of this study is to estimate height growth patterns and site index cuties (base index age 50 years) for Japanese red cedar trees(Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) grown in southern regions of Korea. The Chapman-Richards growth function was selected for stand height prediction using on the results of stem analysis data sets. Anamorphic base age invariant site index cuties were presented based on this height prediction equation. The resulting site index prediction equation can provide an indication of the productivity of the site quality based on Japanese red cedar trees plantation ages planted in southern regions of Korea.

Estimating Diameter and Height Growth for Pinus densiflora S. et Z. Using Non-linear Algebraic Difference Equations (비선형(非線型) 대수차분(代數差分) 방정식(方程式)을 이용(利用)한 소나무 직경(直徑) 및 수고(樹高) 생장(生長) 추정(推定))

  • Lee, Sang-Hyun
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.90 no.2
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    • pp.210-216
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    • 2001
  • Pinus densiflora S. et Z. has widely been distributed, and is one of the important main foret resources in Korea. Diameter and height growth patterns were estimated using non-linear algebraic difference equation, which requires two-measurement times $T_1$ and $T_2$. To maximize data use, all possible measurement interval data were derived using Lag and Put statements in the SAS. In results, of the algebraic difference equations applied, the Schumacher and the Gompertz polymorphic equations for diameter and height, respectively showed the higher precision of the fitting. In order to allow more precise estimation of growth than those of the basic Schumacher and the Gompertz, further refinement that combine biological realism as input into the equation would be necessary.

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