• Title/Summary/Keyword: height growth

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Comparison of Seedling Survival Rate and Growth among 8 Different Tree Species in Seosan Reclamation Area (서산 간척지에서 8개 교목 수종의 묘목 생육 비교)

  • Park, Pil Sun;Kim, Kyung Yoon;Jang, Woongsoon;Han, Ahreum;Jo, Jaechang;Kim, Jun-Beom;Kim, Jee-han
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.98 no.4
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    • pp.496-503
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    • 2009
  • Reclamation area is characterized by high soil salinity and high ground water table that are not favorable environment for tree growth. However, the increasing demand to convert the reclamation area from rice cultivation fields to industrial or residential complex, or parks accompanies the idea of introduction of trees in the area. This study aimed to suggest better performed tree species for the tree planting in the Seosan reclamation area, Chungchungnam-do. Seedlings of 8 tree species (Pinus densiflora, Pinus thunbergii, Metasequoia glyptostroboides, Chionanthus retusus, Cornus kousa, Prunus sargentii, Quercus acutissima, and Zelkova serrata) were planted in 4 types of 10 m ${\times}$ 10 m experimental plots. The survival rate and the height growth of seedlings were measured from April 2006 to November 2008 on an annual basis. The experimental plots were constructed using 2 different soil material (dredged sand and dredged sand + forest soil), and 2 soil covering depth (1.5 m and 2.0 m). The tree species showed different survival rates for 3 years since planting (F = 9.632, P < 0.001). C. kousa, Q. acutissima, and P. sargentii showed high mortality rate while P. thunbergii, M. glyptostroboides and Z. serrata showed lower mortality rates. The seedling height growth for 3 years was also significantly different among species (F=4.749, P=0.002). Most of seedlings showed lower height growth in the second year, and the growth began to recover in the third year after transplanting. The survival rate and the growth of the seedlings were better in higher soil covering depth and forest soil material plots regardless of species. The combination of rank orders in survival rate and relative height growth indicates that P. thunbergii, M. glyptostroboides and Z. serrata would perform better than other species used in the experiment, while C. retusus, C. kousa and P. sargenti may not adapt well to this area.

Studies on the Propagation of the Genus Osmanthus (목서류(木犀類)의 증식(增殖)에 관(關)한 연구(研究))

  • Youn, Ki Sik;Goo, Gwan Hyo;Jo, Chung Suk
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.75 no.1
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    • pp.19-24
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    • 1986
  • Present studies were carried out to understand the way of propagation of Osmanthus which has much value as ornamental trees in southern parts of Korea. The results of these experiments were summarized as follows: 1. In order to increase the survival of Osmanthus, scions of Osmanthus was grafted on the stocks of Ligustrum obtusifolium S. et Z. The survival of the grafts were 63% for Osmanthus fragrans var. aurantiacus Makino and 60% for Osmanthus asiaticus Nakai. 2. The growth of the grafts was initiated from 28th day after the grafting and the height growth resumed three times, and the growth percentage was 63% for Osmanthus fragrans var. aurantiacus and 59% for Osmanthus asiaticus. 3. Cutting medium mixed with perlite and vermiculite (1:1) gave better results than either use of them separately, and the rooting percentage was 93% for Osmanthus fragrans var. aurantiacus and 90% for Osmanthus asiaticus. 4. Rooting percentage of cuttings was lower in hard-wood cutting than that of in green-wood cutting. 5. Grafts showed fairly good height growth in July and September, and ceased growth in October. 6. Correlation between height growth and diameter of root collar of grafts in case of Osmanthus fiagrans var. aurantiacus was highly significant and showed linear correlation ($r=0.70^{**}$)

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Site Index and Height Growth Curve of Larix leptolepis and Pinus koraiensis (낙엽송과 잣나무림(林)의 수고성장곡선(樹高成長曲線) 및 지위지수(地位指數)에 관(關)한 연구(研究))

  • Cho, Hyun Seo;Chung, Young Gwan
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.68 no.1
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    • pp.11-17
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    • 1985
  • Height growth curve to be required for estimating site index was formulated with 10 models based on the average tree height and tree age. Among them, the model of $H=K-ab^A$ was evaluated to be best fit for estimating average tree height(H) with tree age (A). Equations, $H=28.364-26.125(0.818)^A$ and $H=26.331-25.125(0.886)^A$, were situated from the model for estimating average tree height of Larix leptolepis and Pinus koraiensis, respectively (in this case the tree age was categorized into 0 for 5 -year- old tree, 1 for 10 -year- old tree and 2 for 15 -year- old tree ect.). Result of comparing the site indices calculated by the Bryant method, it was proved that the site index of Larix leptolepis was estimated higher than that of Pinus koraiensis within the limits of site index class 6 to 18. On the contrary the site index of Pinus koraiensis turned out to surpass that of Larix leptolepis at the site index class 20 or over.

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Growth Response and Absorption Capacity of Poplars on Livestock Waste Water (축산폐수(畜産廢水) 처리(處理)에 따른 포플러류(類)의 생육반응(生育反應) 및 축산폐수(畜産廢水) 흡수능력(吸收能力))

  • Yeo, Jin Kie;Koo, Yeong Bon;Son, Doo Sik
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.90 no.6
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    • pp.734-741
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    • 2001
  • The two-month-old rooted-cuttings of Populus alba ${\times}$ glandulosa, P. euramericana and P. nigra ${\times}$ maximowiczii clones were exposed to livestock waste water - one of major water pollutants, and ground water in order to determine the effects of livestock waste water on growth response and absorption capacity of the species. For this purpose, 5 clones of each species were used. In all the species, the height growth of rooted-cuttings was better in livestock waste water treatment than in ground water. Of all the poplar species compared, the height growth was best in P. alba ${\times}$ glandulosa. In the cases of P. euramericana and P. nigra ${\times}$ maximowiczii, the height growth in the livestock waste water treatment was statistically different among clones, whereas there was no significant difference among P. alba ${\times}$ glandulosa clones. Aboveground biomass such as leaf and shoot dry weight of all the species increased in the livestock waste water treatment, while root dry weight decreased. In addition, chlorophyll contents in leaf of all the poplar species increased in the livestock waste water treatment. All the poplar trees showed temporal variation in the absorption amount of livestock waste water during the experimental period. In all the poplar species, the absorption amount of livestock waste water was less than that of ground water. Of 3 poplar species, P. alba ${\times}$ glandulosa was best in the absorption capacity of livestock waste water. Of all 15 poplar clones compared in this study, the 72-16 clone of P. alba ${\times}$ glandulosa showed the best absorption capacity.

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Effect of Soil Conditioner and Loess on Physio-Chemical Properties of Dredged Soil and Seedling Height Growth of Ulmus davidiana var. japonica (토양개량재와 황토가 준설토의 이화학성과 느릅나무의 초기 생장에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Hanna;Park, Chanwoo;Lim, Joo-Hoon;Koo, Namin;Lee, Im Kyun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2015
  • This research was conducted to compare the effect of soil amendment and loess on physial and chemical properties of dredged soil and primary height growth of Ulmus davidiana var. japonica. Three types of research plots: control plot (Dredged soil only), DC treatment plot (Dredged soil + soil amendment) and DCL treatment plot (Dredged soil + soil amendment + Loess) were set at Okgu research site in Saemanguem. 32 trees of U. davidiana var. japonica were planted in each plots after 14 months from the construction. Soil texture, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), organic matter (OM), total nitrogen (TN), available P, exchangeable cation ($K^+$, $Na^+$, $Mg^{2+}$, $Ca^{2+}$) and sodium chloride were measured after 3 years from the construction. Also, survival rate and height of U. davidiana var. japonica were measured 22 months after planting, and the correlation between height of trees and the physico-chemical properties of soil were analyzed. Even though pH in both DC and DCL treatment plots are lower than control plot, they are still alkaline (> pH 8). OM, TN and available P in both DC and DCL treatment were higher than the control. Particularly, the content of available P in both DC and DCL treatment plots are 1.4~5.1 times and 2.0~3.1 times higher than the control respectively. The concentration of exchangeable Mg in DCL treatment plot was 1.1~5.5 times higher than the control (p < .05). The survival rate of the species was the highest in DCL treatment plot (98%) followed by DC treatment plot and the control. The average height of the trees in both DC and DCL treatment plots is 1.1m while the control is 0.8m. OM, TN, available P, K+ were significantly related to the height of U. davidiana var. japonica(p < .01). The results indicate that soil amendment affects on soil physial and chemical properties of dredged soil and height growth of U. davidiana var. japonica.

The long-term follow-up of height in children with epilepsy (소아 간질 환자에서 장기적인 신장 변화의 추적 관찰)

  • We, Ju Hee;Nam, Sang Ook
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.51 no.10
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    • pp.1090-1095
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    • 2008
  • Purpose : To assess the height growth of children with epilepsy receiving antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and the related factors. Methods : The subjects were 148 children diagnosed with epilepsy at Pusan National University Hospital between January 1996 and December 2003, who received AEDs for more than 3 y. We measured height at the initiation of AED medication and at the last visit during AED medication. We analyzed the mean height standard deviation score (SDS) according to several factors, including sex, age at initial medication, seizure type, underlying causes of epilepsy, seizure frequency before AED medication, seizure control, number of AEDs, height SDS before medication, and duration of medication. Results : In the total population, height SDS at initial therapy and last follow-up were $-0.06{\pm}1.39$ versus $0.10{\pm}1.12$ (P=0.09). Children with controlled seizures showed a significant increase in height SDS, from $-0.12{\pm}1.39$ to $0.10{\pm}1.09$ (P=0.04), and children on medication for less than 6 y showed a significant increase in height SDS, from $-0.09{\pm}1.54$ to $0.21{\pm}1.07$ (P=0.03). Also, children with negative initial height SDS showed a significant increase in height SDS (P<0.05). No height SDS changes were observed in any of the other groups, regardless of sex, seizure type, underlying causes of epilepsy, or age at initial medication. Conclusion : Neither epilepsy nor AED medication affects long-term height growth. Controlled seizure and short duration of AED medication are positive factors for height growth in children with epilepsy.

Experimental Research for Prevention of Stone Hazarding Guizhou, China (중국 귀주성 석막화 방지를 위한 실험적 연구)

  • Park, Jae Hyeon;Jun, Jaehong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.28-39
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    • 2008
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the rehabilitation measures and select appropriate tree species and rehabilitation methods for rehabilitating the rock desert areas in Guizhou, China. The study was carried out during the periods from 2003 to 2006 and results are as follows. Afforestation site is classified as a dolomite sandstone hilly country, a halfstony hilly country, a karst physiognomy, a rock desertification farmland and an latent rock desertification farmland by soil type and rock desertification status. Total afforestation area of Xuiwen is 1,300ha and afforestation area of a dolomite sandstone hilly country, a halfstony hilly country, a karst physiognomy, a rock desertification farmland and an latent rock desertification farmland are respectively 104.0ha (8.0%), 146.6ha (11.3%), 200.5ha (15.4%), 705.7ha (54.3%) and 143.2ha (11.0%). Planted tree species were selected by five site types. Robinia pseudoacacia, Chamaecyparis obtusa, Thuja orientalis, Cupressus duclouxiana and Juniperus chinensis L. var. chinensis were planted in a dolomite sandstone hilly country and Choerospondias axillaris and Robinia pseudoacacia were planted in a halfstony hilly country. Cupressus duclouxiana, Zanthoxylum bungeanum, Lonicera fulvotomentosa, Ilex kudincila, Quercus aliena, Quercus variabilis, Choerospondias axillaris, Koelreuteria bipinnata, Cryptomeria japonica, Cinnamomum camphora and Cinnamomum bodinieri were planted in a karst physiognomy. Cupressus duclouxiana, Toona sinensis, Robinia pseudoacacia, Lonicera fulvotomentosa, Eucommia ulmoides, Ilex kudincha. Zanthoxylum bungeanum and Magnolia officinalis were planted in a rock desertification farmland. Lonicera fulvotomentosa, Juglans sinensis, Pyrus pyrifolia, Choerospondias axillaris, Prunus salicina and Diospyros Kaki was planted in an latent rock desertification farm land. Robinia pseudoacacia showed high survival rate in 2004 and 2005, but Zanthoxylum bungeanum and Cinnamomum camphora showed slightly low survival rate in 2004. Survival rate of planting species in 2005 was over 80% because some species which showed low survival in 2004 were changed with other species and a proper afforestation method was applied. Growth rate of tree species was evaluated by height and diameter growth rate. Cupressus duclouxiana showed a highest height growth rate in 2004. Toona sil1ensis, Choerospondias axillaris, Koelreuteria bipinnata, and Cinnamomum camphora showed almost 100% height growth rate in 2005, although they showed a negative height growth rate in 2004. Robinia pseudoacacia showed a good growth rate in the rock desertification farmland and the halfstony hilly country so it could give a commercial benefit like honey as well as an afforestation effect.

The Variation of Seeds and Seedlings in Pinus thunbergii Parl. by Location (산지별(産地別) 해송종자(種子) 및 묘목(苗木)의 변이(變異)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Lee, Kang-Young
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.43-49
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    • 1975
  • These studies were carried out to know the variation of seeds and top height growth of seedlings by locations along the southern sea coast in Korea. The results obtained were summarized as follows: 1. The number of seeds per cone was showed to be the highest in Chung-mu and the lowest in Wul-jin. 2. The variations of seed length and seed width were showed to be high in Wul-jin and Young-duck along the eastern sea and Bul-kyo, Mok-po along the southern sea. 3. The number of cotyledons was not correlations between seed length and seed width. And the number of cotyledon was showed to be 7 leaves ie. all locations. 4. The results of T-test were not significant by all locations. 5. By the locations, the results of analysis of variance were not significant in top height growth of seedlings by sowing of the present year, but high significant in July of the next year. In conclusion, the number of seeds per cone was showed to be high in the variation of seed characters and the top height growth of seedlings was showed to be significant in sowing of the next year.

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III. Plant Characters of Korean Indigenous Corn Lines (재래종 옥수수 수집종에 대한 특성조사 (III))

  • In-Sup Lee;Bong-Ho Chae
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.92-98
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    • 1979
  • Korean local corn lines from various regions in the country were studied for the plant characters such as flowering days. plant height. growth rate. number of ears per plant. leaf size. brace roots and tillers. All the lines without exception were different in plant characters studied and the difference were also apparent among regions from where the original lines were obtained. The variation among lines and original regions indicated that the plant characters were quite dependent upon the magnitude of traditional cultural practices and other environmental factors such as precipitation or cropping systems in regions concerned.

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Effects of Stand Growth on Viewshed Analysis Using GIS (임분의 생장효과가 GIS 응용 가시권 분석에 미치는 영향 분석)

  • Jang, Kwang-Min;Song, Jung-Eun;Seol, A-Ra;Han, Hee;Chung, Joo-Sang
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Geographic Information Studies
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.11-20
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    • 2010
  • In this study, the effects of stand height growth on GIS-based viewshed analysis were investigated. DSM was created by combining stand height layers on DEM using map algebra functions. In developing the tree height layers, the digital forest-type maps, forest site maps and stand yield tables of Korea Forest Research Institute were used. The time horizon for viewshed analysis were 40 years. Two viewpoints in crossings of downtown for viewshed analyses were chosen using a projective mapping technique. The effects of tree height growth over time on visibility were measured in terms of the depth of blind areas and the area of visible regions. The results of viewshed analyses show that 17% of visible regions is reduced when we use DSM instead of DEM. As the tree height grows, the visibility gets worse and worse and the depth of blind area increases.