• Title/Summary/Keyword: height growth

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Effects of Shading on Growth of 1-year-old Cornus controversa H$_{EMSL}$, Seedlings (피음이 층층나무 1년생 유묘의 생장에 미치는 영향)

  • 최재형;홍성각;김종진
    • Journal of Korea Foresty Energy
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.20-29
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    • 2000
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effects of shading on the growth of 1 -year-old seedlings of Cornus controversa. The height growth was highest in relative light intensities of 100% and 50%, but relative growth rate in 50% was higher than that in 100% treatment. The growth did not occur under 9% relative light intensity. The root collar diameter growth at different light intensities is similar to height growth. The leaf area was highest in 50% relative light intensity, and the leaf area under the light intensity was small compared with the control. SLA and LAI of seedlings increased with decreasing relative light intensity. The LAR and LWR of seedlings increased with decreasing light intensity, but LWR decreased at 9% relative light intensity. The dry weight of root, stem, leaf and branch, and the number of branch and leaf decreased with decreasing relative light intensity. T/R ratio was highest in 17% and 30% relative light intensity. Lateral root growth decreased with decreasing light intensity except for that in 50% light intensity.

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Comparison of Seedling Growth by Treatments of Vegetation Basis in an Abandoned Coal Mine Area (석탄폐광지에서의 식생기반재 처리별 수목 초기 생육상황 비교)

  • Jeong, Yong-Ho;Lee, Im-Kyun;Lim, Joo-Hoon;Seo, Kyung-Won;Lee, Choong-Hwa
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.13 no.6
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    • pp.87-96
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    • 2010
  • This study was conducted to select environmentally-friendly and low-cost mulching material that could replace soil molding which can be used to restore vegetation in an abandoned coal mine area. To this end, we established 20 experimental plots (4m ${\times}$ 10m in size) on the steep, south west-facing slope of the abandoned coal mine area in Hwangji-Dong, Taebaek City, Gangwon Province in April 2006. We planted two-year-old 1,600 seedlings (at intervals of 0.6m ${\times}$ 0.8m) of drought-resistant tree species including Betula schmidtii, Betula platyphylla var. japonica, Amorpha fruticosa, and Quercus mongolica in the plots. After planting seedlings, mulching was applied by using five different kinds of material such as HWAP (Teracotem), peat moss, straw mats, wood chips, and control (no-mulching) and the effects of different mulching material on the survival rate and growth performance were compared. Three years after planting, the survival rate was the highest in wood chip mulching, followed by straw-mat, peat moss, HWAP, and control. The survival rate was the highest in Quercus mongolica, followed by Betula schmidtii, Betula platyphylla var. japonica, and Amorpha fruticosa. Meanwhile the height growth was the best in Betula platyphylla var. japonica, followed by Betula schmidtii, Quercus mongolica, and Amorpha fruticosa. The height growth of seedlings was the best in HWAP mulching, followed by peat moss, woody chips, straw mat, and control. From an economic point of view, wood chips are considered to be the best mulching material. The results showed that mulching without soil molding and/or mixing applications would be effective for restoring vegetation in an abandoned coal mine areas.

Randomized, Double-blind, and Placebo-controlled Human Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Allium Fistulosum L. Root Extract on Improvement of Child Height Growth: Study Protocol (총백추출물의 어린이 키 성장에 대한 유효성 및 안전성을 평가하기 위한 무작위배정, 이중눈가림, 위약 대조 인체적용시험: 인체적용시험 프로토콜)

  • Shim, Soo Bo;Ko, Byoung Seob;Ryuk, Jin Ah;Lee, Jung Hwan;Lee, Ho Bong;Ha, Ki Chan;Kim, Yeung Mi;Lee, Hye Lim
    • The Journal of Pediatrics of Korean Medicine
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.11-20
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    • 2021
  • Objectives The purpose of the study is to evaluate the safety of the Allium Fistulosum extract in children and its effectiveness in height growth. Methods This study is randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The participants are children between the 3rd and 25th percentiles in height, and between the ages of 5 and 12 years. They are randomly assigned to treatment group or control group. The treatment group will take 5 g (1 g as Allium Fistulosum extract) for 24 weeks, 1 time a day. The control group will take the 5 g (0 g as Allium Fistulosum extract) of placebo for 24 weeks, 1 time a day. The primary outcome is change in height, and the secondary outcomes are growth rate, height standard deviations, Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), IGF1-1/IGFBP-3 ratio, growth hormone, bone age, osteocalcin, and Z-score for growth. Results This protocol has been approved by the institutional review board (IRB) of Daejeon Korean Medicine Hospital of Daejeon University (IRB No. DJDSKH-20-BM-15), and registered in the Clinical Research Information Service (CRIS) (Registry No. KCT0005981). Conclusions This study will provide clinical information about the effectiveness and safety of Allium Fistulosum extract in children for their growth.

Studies on Optimum Shading for Seedling Cultivation of Cornus controversa and C. walteri (층층나무와 말채나무 양묘(養苗)시 적정(適正) 차광율(遮光率)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Kim, Jong Jin
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.89 no.5
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    • pp.591-597
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    • 2000
  • This studies were carried out to investigate the optimum shading for seedling cultivation of Cornus controversa and C. walteri. The experiment was performed under five different shading scheme such as 100%, 50%, 30%, 10%, and 2% of the natural full sun light intensity for 7 months in the field condition. Two species showed the highest height growth under 50% of relative light intensity, and the highest diameter growth at root collar was observed both under 100% and 50% of relative light intensity. C. controversa seedlings grown under 50% of relative light intensity produced more total biomass than control seedlings, but root biomass was less in the seedlings under 50% of relative light intensity. In case of C. walteri, total biomass production of the seedlings under 50% of relative light intensity was lower than that of the seedlings under full sun light intensity, but leaves and shoot biomass was slightly high under 50% of relative light intensity. Great reductions of height growth and diameter growth at root collar, and biomass production were observed below 30% of relative light intensity in the both species. T/R ratio of the two species was highest under 30% of relative light intensity, and the chlorophyll content of the seedlings tended to be increased by reduction of relative light intensity.

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Postdischarge growth assessment in very low birth weight infants

  • Park, Joon-Sik;Han, Jungho;Shin, Jeong Eun;Lee, Soon Min;Eun, Ho Seon;Park, Min-Soo;Park, Kook-In;Namgung, Ran
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.60 no.3
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    • pp.64-69
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: The goal of nutritional support for very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants from birth to term is to match the in utero growth rates; however, this is rarely achieved. Methods: We evaluated postdischarge growth patterns and growth failure in 81 Korean VLBW infants through a retrospective study. Weight and height were measured and calculated based on age percentile distribution every 3 months until age 24 months. Growth failure was defined as weight and height below the 10th percentile at 24 months. For the subgroup analysis, small-for-gestational age (SGA) and extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants were evaluated. The growth patterns based on the Korean, World Health Organization (WHO), or Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) standard were serially compared over time. Results: At postconception age (PCA) 40 weeks, 47 (58%) and 45 infants (55%) showed growth failure in terms of weight and height, respectively. At PCA 24 months, 20 infants (24%) showed growth failure for weight and 14 (18%) for height. Growth failure rates were higher for the SGA infants than for the appropriate-weight-for-gestational age infants at PCA 24 months (P=0.045 for weight and P=0.038 for height). Growth failure rates were higher for the ELBW infants than for the non-ELBW infants at PCA 24 months (P<0.001 for weight and P=0.003 for height). Significant differences were found among the WHO, CDC, and Korean standards (P<0.001). Conclusion: Advancements in neonatal care have improved the catch-up growth of VLBW infants, but this is insufficient. Careful observation and aggressive interventions, especially in SGA and ELBW infants, are needed.

On the Height Growth of Several Species growing in the Middle Korea (국내주요수종의 수고생장에 대하여)

  • Ma, Sang-Kyu
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.39-45
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    • 1974
  • The objects of this study are to induce the experimental equation suitable to estimate the height growing process, and to get some information that could be to reduce the error percent on determining the site index. The height growing process per sample plot were made up from the height age curve getted through the stem-analysis of the dominant tree. The 11 equations were calculated in the functional formulas between the age and the dominant height of Alnus hirsuta, Larix leptolepsis, L. Gmelini, P. koraiensis, Abies holophylla, P. rigida, Q. acutissima and Q. aliena. The suitable equation for estimating the guide curve were selected with the highest correlation and the low standard error with comparision on the age-height distributed map as Fig. 2. The suitable equation is different between the species as their calculated results as follows; The growing process of tree height are occasionally found to be polymorphous in the growth pattern as Fig. 3. By this result, the site index are practically found to be always not constant but shows variation to age in same plot as example 5. So, that the site index are estimated from the height-growth curve to age drawing by the stem-analysis or the polymorphic-curve, are concluded to be suitable on the study of site evaluation.

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Development of the Ecological Restoration Technique using Direct Seeding without Soil Molding in Abandoned Coal Mine Areas (무복토 직파에 의한 석탄 폐광지의 생태적 복원 기술 개발)

  • Jeong, Yongho;Lim, Joohoon;Lee, Imkyun;Kim, Hyesoo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.12 no.6
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    • pp.76-85
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    • 2009
  • This study was carried to select the proper vegetation base materials which improve soil quality in abandoned coal mine areas. Also, we aimed at the feasibility of the direct seeding method without soil molding for the ecological restoration in those areas. We set total eight plots within the study site established on an abandoned coal mine area near Taebaek city, Gangwon province in April 2006. The plots were classified as two groups(straw mats mulching and no mulching), and the four treatments (C; control, MI; microbial innoculation, WC; wood chip, OF; organic fertilizer) were applied in each two groups for the soil conditioning. The survival of Pinus densiflora was highest among other species(Betula platyphylla var. japonica, Amorpha fruticosa and Arundinella hirta). For the non straw mat, the survival rate of Pinus densiflora seedlings was highest in the WC treatment($1,756trees/m^2$). For the straw mat, survival rate of Pinus densiflora seedlings was also highest in the WC treatment ($1,622trees/m^2$). In addition, for the non straw mat, the height growth of Pinus densiflora seedling was highest in the OF treatment($12.4{\pm}3.9cm$). For the straw mat, the height growth of Pinus densiflora seedling was also highest in the OF treatment($18.7{\pm}5.3cm$). In general, organic fertilizer treatment with the straw mat was most effective for seedling growth. Also, we suggested that the direct seeding method without soil molding could be sufficiently possible for revegetating abandoned coal mine, Korea.

Pilot Study of Effect to the Growth after the Administration of Herbal Medicine to the Prepuberty Children (한약 투여가 사춘기 전 소아의 신장성장에 미치는 영향에 대한 예비 연구)

  • Jeong, Min-Jeong;Gok, Su-Yeong;Lee, Seung-Yeon
    • The Journal of Pediatrics of Korean Medicine
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.25-34
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    • 2008
  • Objectives : The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect to the height-growth after the administration of herbal medicine to the prepuberty children Methods : This clinical study has been carried out with 18 children, who visited to the Department of Pediatrics, Dong-eui oriental medical center from January 2005 to August 2008. They had been treated for height-growth with herbal medicine more than 6 months. This study has been carried out by chart-review to see the effectiveness. Height percentile, BMI and GV(Growth Velocity) after medication was compared with the ones before medication. Results : 1. This clinical study has been carried out with 18 children, 12 boys(66.7%) and six girls(23.3%). Their average age was 10.30 years old. 2. Generally total children's average height percentile was increased compared to after medication. Especially eight of them has significantly increasd height percentile(44.4%). 3. Total children's average GV/6months was also increased after medication. Especially ten of them has significantly increasd GV/6months (55.6%). 4. Total children's average BMI also increased (17.01 to 17.85) after medication. Conclusions : Herbal medicine affects to the growth of pre-puberty children.

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A STUDY ON THE BODY HEIGHT AND WEIGHT OF STUDENTS IN SEOUL (서울 지역 학생의 신장 및 체중에 관한 연구)

  • Zun, Kee Hwan
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.31-40
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    • 1974
  • The age of maximum growth increments-the adolescent spurt-is not only of developmental interest but is used as a marker for timing other growth events. And the mandibular growth rate follows the general growth curve, it is essential for an orthodontist to take the current and exact information about physical growth of patients. The author measured and studied the body height and weight of 11,694 children living in Seoul, and calculated out the mean, standard deviation, coefficient value, annual increments, percentage increments of each value, and made diagram to compare it with others. 1. The growth curve shows linear increment tendency until 17 years of age in male, 15 years in female. 2. The annual increment curves of body height and weight reveals the most peak value in 14-16 years in male and 11-14 years in female. 3. During 11-14 years of age, female growth exceed the male growth in the body height growth. And in weight growth, female growth exceed the male growth during 6-7 years and 11-12 years to show twice crossing. 4. It seemed that until 11-12 years in male and until 9-10 years in female the height growth show the priority to weight growth. And from 17 years in male and 15 years in female the body growth reveals the balanced growth pattern. 5. The time of changes of standard deviation curves of body height and weight coincided with that of annual increments. 6. The prominent high value of body height and weight in the comparison with other data may be due to the secioeconomical and nutritional, environmental influence. 7. The growth accerlation phenomena was detectable.

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The Comparison of Tree Growth by the Residual Stand Density in Artificial Coniferous Forests (침염수 조림지에서의 잔존임분밀도에 따른 임목생장 비교에 관한 연구)

  • 강성기;김완수;이원섭;김지홍
    • Journal of Korea Foresty Energy
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.46-57
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    • 2001
  • This study was conducted to provide tending operation information for the effective management in unmanaged artificial forests of Pinus densiflora for. erecta, Pinus rigida, and larix leptolepis, based on the study of the comparison of tree growth pattern by residual stand density after thinning practices. Followings are summarized results of this study. 1. The diameter growth of residual trees was increased as residual stand density decreased by thinning practices in the stands of Pinus densiflora for. erecta, and Pinus rigida, and subcompartment (Ga) and (Na) of Larix leptolepis. The statistical analysis noted that the tree growth was significantly different by the residual stand density. 2. The height growth did not show corresponding results by stand density treatment pattern, which indicated that the height growth was not directly influenced by residual stand density, but by site quality of the stand. 3. The diameter increment for the last six years was proportionately increased in larger diameter classes and less dense stands.

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