• Title/Summary/Keyword: hepatic encephalopathy

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Hospice and palliative care for the terminal patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (간세포암 환자의 호스피스 완화 의료)

  • Gil, Hyeon-Ja;Mun, Do-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Hospice Care
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.6-14
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    • 2007
  • Purpose: Hepatocellular carcinoma is the 3rd leading cause of cancer death in Korea and its prognosis is very poor. We aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics of terminal patients with hepatocellular carcinoma on admission into a hospice unit, and to know if they had received appropriate hospice and palliative care. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records in 62 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who had admitted, received palliative care, and died in a hospice unit between January 2003 and December 2005. Results: The median age of patients was 56.5 years with 50 men(80.65%) and 12 women(19.35%) and gender ratio(male to female) was 417. Child-Pugh class A, B, and C were 6(9.68%), 22(35.38%), and 34(58.84%) respectively. We divided the patients into two groups and compared, the terminal HCC patients with class C as group I and those with class A & B as group 2. The median time from hospice referral to death was significantly short in group 1 with 15.5 days compared to group 2 with 53 days. Statistically more prevalent symptoms in group I were ascites, dyspnea, peripheral edema, and hepatic encephalopathy with abnormal laboratory findings (jaundice, hypoalbuminemia, or renal insufficiency). There, however, was no significant difference in complications and managements during admission between group 1 and 2. Conclusion: Most terminal HCC patients were often accompanied with chronic liver disease. The length of hospice and palliative care for above patients was not enough to attend them. Therefore, we suggest that proper education and information should be provided to physicians, patients, and their family members for effective hospice and palliative care.

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Metronidazole Reduced Ammonia Toxicity in Human Hep G2 cell and Rat Hepatocytes (Hep G2 세포와 rat 간세포에서 Metronidazole에 의한 암모니아 독성 감소)

  • Kim, Bo-Ae;Kim, Hyun-Jung;Kim, You-Young
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.381-386
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    • 2008
  • Lipophilic ammonia is toxic gas and can easily diffuse across cell membranes. Excess ammonia is implicated in the pathogenesis of several metabolic disorders including hepatic encephalopathy and may result in the death. The purpose of this study was to clarify the inhibition effect of metronidazole on liver cell damage due to ammonia in human Hep G2 cell and rat hepatocytes. The effects of metronidazole were studied in ammonium chloride treated human Hep G2 cell (75 mM) and rat hepatocyte (100 mM) following $0.1{\mu}M$ metronidazole treatment. In MTZ+AC group, cell viabilities increased prominently and LDH activities decreased over 25% than AC group. Furthermore, ammonia level according to ammonium chloride treatment reduced over 30% and lipid peroxidation as an index of cell membrane damage decreased more than twice. By comparison with control, catalase activity showed more than 30% reduction in AC group while less than 10% reduction in MTZ+AC group, respectively. In addition, MTZ+AC group showed the similar cell structure as control in cell morphology study by using light microscope, and represented fluorescent intensity decrement compared with AC group in fluorescent microscopic study with avidin-TRITC fluorescent dye. And cleaved PARP expression due to ammonia reduced twofold or more in MTZ+AC group. As the results suggest, metronidazole may protect the liver cell by inhibiting cell damages due to ammonia and be used for an effective antagonist of ammonia in hyperammonemia.

Evaluation of the Underlying Etiology and Long-Term Prognostic Factors in Neonatal Cholestasis (신생아 담즙정체증의 원인질환 및 장기추적 예후인자에 관한 고찰)

  • Kim, Kyung-Mo;Seo, Jeong-Kee
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.46-58
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    • 1999
  • Purpose: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term clinical profile including the underlying etioligy and the prognostic factors of the neonatal cholestasis. Method: We studied the 190 infants presented with neonatal cholestasis for the last 12 years (from 1981 to 1992). The underlying causes, clinical findings and long-term outcomes were evaluated. And the prognostic factors were also analyzed. Result: Underlying disease were neonatal hepatitis in 101 (idiopathic in 77 and infectious in 24), intrahepatic bile duct paucity in 5, biliary atresia in 79, choledochal cyst in 5. Metabolic disease was not observed in this study. The important clinical problems during follow-up were persistent high fever, gastrointestinal bleeding, hepatic encephalopathy and ascites. The main causes of the death were hepatic encephalopathy and gastrointestinal bleeding. While three fourth of infants with idiopathic and infectious neonatal hepatitis recovered usually within a year, five-year survival rate for biliary atresia was just 40%, the mortality observed usually within the first year after Kasai operation and prognostic factor was the time of operation. Underlying disease was the most important prognostic factor of neonatal cholestasis. Conclusion: This study showed that most common causes of neonatal cholestasis were biliary atresia and idiopathic neonatal hepatitis, infectious neonatal hepatitis, choledochal cyst and Alagille syndrome, but few neonatal cholestasis of genetic or metabolic liver disease was observed. The most important long-term prognostic factor of neonatal cholestasis was the underlying disease.

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Hospice and Palliative Care in End Stage Liver Disease (말기 간질환 환자에서의 호스피스 완화의료)

  • Kim, Moon Young
    • Journal of Hospice and Palliative Care
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.167-172
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    • 2017
  • End-stage liver disease (ESLD) is a terminal condition of cirrhosis which cannot be treated without liver transplantation. Thus, it is natural for patients to consider hospice/palliative care (HPC). Since the recent legislation of the Act on Decisions on Life-Sustaining Treatment for Patients in Hospice and Palliative Care or at the End of Life (Act No. 14013) in Korea, the practicality of this law has become an issue. The criteria for HPC should be defined with consideration to how the severity of each ESLD complication may vary by individual patients. Generally, patients qualify if they have an intractable condition despite aggressive treatment such as the hepatorenal syndrome, hepatic encephalopathy or variceal hemorrhage. However, the option of liver transplantation should be sufficiently discussed with patients and their families before making a decision on HPC. The evaluation of which ESLD patients should receive HPC should be based on a long-term doctor-patient relationship and sufficient objective data. Therefore, a multidisciplinary approach and mutual consultation among cirrhosis specialists and doctors with other expertise are essential to offer optimal and balanced treatments between liver-specific treatment and HPC. Discussed in this review are adequate criteria for HPC and special considerations for ESLD at the point of HPC.

Percutaneous Catheter Drainage of Lung Abscess (폐농양의 경피적 카테타 배농법)

  • Kim, Chang-Ho;Cha, Seoung-Ick;Han, Chun-Duk;Kim, Yeon-Jae;Lee, Yeung-Suk;Park, Jae-Yong;Jung, Tae-Hoon
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.158-164
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    • 1993
  • Background: Recently, lung abscess tends to be increased in patients with underlying disease, most of whom are unsuitable for surgery when medical treatment fails. The patients with giant lung abscesses do not frequently respond to antibiotics and often have life-threatening complications. Therefore, more intensive cares are required in these patients. We studied the results and effects of percutaneous catheter drainage in these patients. Method: We performed fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous pigtail catheter (8.3 F) drainage by Seldinger technique in 9 cases of lung abscess (in 7 cases, intractable to medical treatment for an average of 8.4 days and in 2 cases, catheter drainage immediately performed due to a large cavity that was initially 10 cm in diameter). We compared 10 cases of lung abscess as control group which had receieved conventional medical treatment alone. Results: Seven of the 9 patients in study group of percutaneous drainage and 7 of the 10 patients in control group of medical treatment alone clinically improved in the average of 1.8 and 8.7 days, respectively. The mean duration of drainage was 13.2 days. There were 3 cases of death from massive hemoptysis, asphyxia of pus, and sepsis in control group, as compared with 2 cases of death from hepatic encephalopathy and sepsis in study group. The malfunctions of catheter occurred in these 2 cases, obstruction and dislodgement. But there were no significant pleuropulmonary complications of percutaneous drainage. Conclusion: Percutaneous drainage is effective and relatively safe in the management of lung abscesses refractory to medical therapy or giant lung abscesses.

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