• Title, Summary, Keyword: hepatic encephalopathy

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Longitudinal Intrinsic Brain Activity Changes in Cirrhotic Patients before and One Month after Liver Transplantation

  • Cheng, Yue;Huang, Li-Xiang;Zhang, Li;Ma, Ming;Xie, Shuang-Shuang;Ji, Qian;Zhang, Xiao-Dong;Zhang, Gao-Yan;Zhang, Xue-Ning;Ni, Hong-Yan;Shen, Wen
    • Korean Journal of Radiology
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.370-377
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    • 2017
  • Objective: To evaluate the spontaneous brain activity alterations in liver transplantation (LT) recipients using resting-state functional MRI. Materials and Methods: Twenty cirrhotic patients as transplant candidates and 25 healthy controls (HCs) were included in this study. All patients repeated the MRI study one month after LT. Amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) values were compared between cirrhotic patients (both pre- and post-LT) and HCs as well as between the pre- and post-LT groups. The relationship between ALFF changes and venous blood ammonia levels and neuropsychological tests were investigated using Pearson's correlation analysis. Results: In the cirrhotic patients, decreased ALFF in the vision-related regions (left lingual gyrus and calcarine), sensorimotor-related regions (left postcentral gyrus and middle cingulate cortex), and the default-mode network (bilateral precuneus and left inferior parietal lobule) were restored, and the increased ALFF in the temporal and frontal lobe improved in the early period after LT. The ALFF decreases persisted in the right supplementary motor area, inferior parietal lobule, and calcarine. The ALFF changes in the right precuneus were negatively correlated with changes in number connection test-A scores (r = 0.507, p < 0.05). Conclusion: LT improved spontaneous brain activity and the results for associated cognition tests. However, decreased ALFF in some areas persisted, and new-onset abnormal ALFF were possible, indicating that complete cognitive function recovery may need more time.

Evaluation of the Underlying Etiology and Long-Term Prognostic Factors in Neonatal Cholestasis (신생아 담즙정체증의 원인질환 및 장기추적 예후인자에 관한 고찰)

  • Kim, Kyung-Mo;Seo, Jeong-Kee
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.46-58
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    • 1999
  • Purpose: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term clinical profile including the underlying etioligy and the prognostic factors of the neonatal cholestasis. Method: We studied the 190 infants presented with neonatal cholestasis for the last 12 years (from 1981 to 1992). The underlying causes, clinical findings and long-term outcomes were evaluated. And the prognostic factors were also analyzed. Result: Underlying disease were neonatal hepatitis in 101 (idiopathic in 77 and infectious in 24), intrahepatic bile duct paucity in 5, biliary atresia in 79, choledochal cyst in 5. Metabolic disease was not observed in this study. The important clinical problems during follow-up were persistent high fever, gastrointestinal bleeding, hepatic encephalopathy and ascites. The main causes of the death were hepatic encephalopathy and gastrointestinal bleeding. While three fourth of infants with idiopathic and infectious neonatal hepatitis recovered usually within a year, five-year survival rate for biliary atresia was just 40%, the mortality observed usually within the first year after Kasai operation and prognostic factor was the time of operation. Underlying disease was the most important prognostic factor of neonatal cholestasis. Conclusion: This study showed that most common causes of neonatal cholestasis were biliary atresia and idiopathic neonatal hepatitis, infectious neonatal hepatitis, choledochal cyst and Alagille syndrome, but few neonatal cholestasis of genetic or metabolic liver disease was observed. The most important long-term prognostic factor of neonatal cholestasis was the underlying disease.

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Hospice and Palliative Care in End Stage Liver Disease (말기 간질환 환자에서의 호스피스 완화의료)

  • Kim, Moon Young
    • The Korean Journal of Hospice and Palliative Care
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.167-172
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    • 2017
  • End-stage liver disease (ESLD) is a terminal condition of cirrhosis which cannot be treated without liver transplantation. Thus, it is natural for patients to consider hospice/palliative care (HPC). Since the recent legislation of the Act on Decisions on Life-Sustaining Treatment for Patients in Hospice and Palliative Care or at the End of Life (Act No. 14013) in Korea, the practicality of this law has become an issue. The criteria for HPC should be defined with consideration to how the severity of each ESLD complication may vary by individual patients. Generally, patients qualify if they have an intractable condition despite aggressive treatment such as the hepatorenal syndrome, hepatic encephalopathy or variceal hemorrhage. However, the option of liver transplantation should be sufficiently discussed with patients and their families before making a decision on HPC. The evaluation of which ESLD patients should receive HPC should be based on a long-term doctor-patient relationship and sufficient objective data. Therefore, a multidisciplinary approach and mutual consultation among cirrhosis specialists and doctors with other expertise are essential to offer optimal and balanced treatments between liver-specific treatment and HPC. Discussed in this review are adequate criteria for HPC and special considerations for ESLD at the point of HPC.

Percutaneous Catheter Drainage of Lung Abscess (폐농양의 경피적 카테타 배농법)

  • Kim, Chang-Ho;Cha, Seoung-Ick;Han, Chun-Duk;Kim, Yeon-Jae;Lee, Yeung-Suk;Park, Jae-Yong;Jung, Tae-Hoon
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.158-164
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    • 1993
  • Background: Recently, lung abscess tends to be increased in patients with underlying disease, most of whom are unsuitable for surgery when medical treatment fails. The patients with giant lung abscesses do not frequently respond to antibiotics and often have life-threatening complications. Therefore, more intensive cares are required in these patients. We studied the results and effects of percutaneous catheter drainage in these patients. Method: We performed fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous pigtail catheter (8.3 F) drainage by Seldinger technique in 9 cases of lung abscess (in 7 cases, intractable to medical treatment for an average of 8.4 days and in 2 cases, catheter drainage immediately performed due to a large cavity that was initially 10 cm in diameter). We compared 10 cases of lung abscess as control group which had receieved conventional medical treatment alone. Results: Seven of the 9 patients in study group of percutaneous drainage and 7 of the 10 patients in control group of medical treatment alone clinically improved in the average of 1.8 and 8.7 days, respectively. The mean duration of drainage was 13.2 days. There were 3 cases of death from massive hemoptysis, asphyxia of pus, and sepsis in control group, as compared with 2 cases of death from hepatic encephalopathy and sepsis in study group. The malfunctions of catheter occurred in these 2 cases, obstruction and dislodgement. But there were no significant pleuropulmonary complications of percutaneous drainage. Conclusion: Percutaneous drainage is effective and relatively safe in the management of lung abscesses refractory to medical therapy or giant lung abscesses.

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