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Effects of Ramulus mori Extract on Obesity and Lipid Metabolism in High Fat Diet Rats (상지추출물이 고지방식이에 의한 체중 변화와 지질대사에 미치는 영향)

  • 김현수;정지천
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.64-72
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    • 2002
  • Objective: Ramulus mori (RM) has been known to be effective for the treatment of obesity. To show the effectiveness of RM in a more scientific way, RM extract was prepared and evaluated in high fat diet rats by measuring the changes of body weight and lipid metabolism as described briefly below. Methods: 200 g of crushed RM was extracted withmethyl alcohol. The extract was evaporated under reduced pressure to give 33.4 g. For 10 weeks, control group rats were fed a high fat diet, while the test group rats were fed with the same diet plus RM extract. The normal group was fed with a normal diet. 150 mg of RM extract per 1 kg of body weight was added to the diet in the test group rats. Results: The control group rats on the high fat diet gained weight significantly, whereas the test group rats on the high fat diet plus RM extract gamed less weight. The significant increase of liver weight caused by the high fat diet was also inhibited by the RM extract treatment. Total lipid, triglyceride and total cholesterol levels of serum in the high fat diet rats were remarkably increased, whereastheir levels on the high fat diet plus RM extract were less increased. While serum HDL-cholesterol levels were remarkably decreased in the high fat diet, its level was less decreased in the high fat diet plus RM extract. Furthermore, we observed that the activities of hepatic acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase increased under the high fat diet, while their activities under the high fat diet plus RM extract were getting back nearly to the normal levels of the normal diet rats. Conclusions: These result show that the obesity caused by a high fat diet was effectively inhibited by an RM extract. Our results also showed that the abnormal lipid metabolism caused by a high fat diet was effectively cured by adding RM extract.

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Effects of High Fat Diet on Serum Leptin and Insulin Level and Brown Adipose Tissue UCP 1 Expression in Rats (흰쥐에서 고지방식이가 혈중 렙틴 및 인슐린과 갈색지방조직의 UCP 1 발현에 미치는 영향)

  • 홍경희;강순아;김소혜;조여원
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.34 no.8
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    • pp.865-871
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    • 2001
  • The adipose tissue hormone leptin has been proposed to be involved in the regulation of flood intake and energy expenditure via thermogenesis by uncoupling protein(UCP) in brown adipose tissue(BAT). The objective of the study was to examine the effects of high fat diet on the serum leptin levels, BAT UCPl expression and the body fat mass in rats after weaning. During experimental period of 12 weeks, 4 male Sprague-Dawley rats were killed for the baseline experiment at 4 weeks of age while the remaining rats were fed the two different diets: the control diet AIN-76A(n = 20), high fat(beef tallow) diet(n = 20) ad libitum, which provided 11.7% or 40% of calories as fat, respectively. At 16 weeks of age, the increase in the food efficiency ratio(FER) was related to fat mass in rats on high fat diet. Serum leptin level was increased by age and dietary high fat. There was no difference in serum insulin level between groups until 10 weeks of age, but rats fed high fat diet for 12 weeks showed hyperinsulinemia. The amount of body fat pads was increased significantly in high fat group compared to normal diet group. Visceral fat mass affected acutely by high fat diet, as a result, it was higher in rats fed high fat diet for 2 weeks than normal diet. At 16 weeks of age, BAT and visceral fat mass were significantly high in high fat group. Also, the serum leptin levels reflected the amount of body fat mass. BAT UCPI mRNA expression increased with age and dietary high fat. This study demonstrates that dietary high fat increased serum leptin levels, BAT UCPI expression and body fat mass. Futhermore, in rats fed high fat diets, the increases in leptin and UCPI expression counteracts only in part the excess adiposity and obesity.

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Antioxidative and Anti-aging Effects of Sancho (Zanthoxylum schinifolium) Extract in Rats Fed High Fat Diet

  • Jang Mi-Jin;Woo Mi-Hee;Rhee Soon-Jae;Cho Sung-Hee
    • Nutritional Sciences
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.159-166
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    • 2006
  • This study was performed to investigate antioxidative and anti-aging action of extracts from Sancho (Zanthoxylum schinifolium) leaves. Two extracts were obtained by 80% methanol extraction followed by subsequent fractionation with methylene chloride (MC) and n-butanol (B) and fed at one or three levels to rats on normal level (5%) of fat (control) and high fat(20%) in diets. Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing about 100 g were divided into ten groups such as control diet group(C), control diet+0.50%B group (CB), control diet+0.50%MC group (CMC), high-fat diet group (HF), high-fat diet+0.25%B group (HBL), high-fat diet+0.50%B group (HBM), high-fat diet+0.75%B group (HBH), high-fat diet+0.25%MC group (HMCL), high-fat diet+0.50%MC group (HMCM) and high-fat diet+ 0.75%MC group (HMCH) and fed each diet for four weeks. The effects of the extracts on antioxidant enzyme activities and indices of lipid peroxidation and aging were seen only in high fat diet groups. Hepatic superoxide dismutase and aryleaterase activities were not changed by Sancho extracts. But glutathione peroxidase, catalase and paraxonase activities were significantly restored by both MC and B at the level of 0.75% lipid peroxide which was increased by high fat diet was significantly reduced by B and MC at the level of 0.25% and over. Lipofuscin fluorescence and cabonyl value were increased by high fat diet were reduced by B and MC at the level of 0.5% and over. It is concluded that the Sancho extracts can be utilized as functional ingredients of health foods for reducing oxidative stress.

Anti-obesity Effects of SBY-III in High Fat Diet-Fed Obese Rats Continued by High Fat Diet and Regulated by Normal Diet (SBY-III이 비만 및 비만 후 식이조절 흰쥐에 미치는 영향)

  • Woo, Kyung-Ha;Chung, Seok-Hee;Lee, Jong-Su;Kim, Sung-Soo;Shin, Hyun-Dae
    • Journal of Korean Medicine Rehabilitation
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.117-117
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    • 2005
  • Objectives : This experimental study was designed to investigate the effect of SBY-III extract on the weight, cell size of epididymal fat-pad, fat accumulation area in liver, serum lipid level and UCP1 mRNA in brown adipose tissue of high fat diet-fed obese rats continued by high fat diet and regulated by normal Diet. Methods : The body weight gain, weight of the internal organs(epididymis, liver, brown adipose tissue), insulin, triglyceride, total cholesterol, total lopod, free fatty acid, expression of UCP1 mRNA were measured in high fat diet-fed obese rats continued by high fat diet and regulated by normal diet. The experimental study are divided into exp-I and exp-II. Each study was administered normal diet, high fat diet and SBY-III according to each situation. Normal group is normal diet for 8 weeks. Exp-I are divided into control group(high fat diet for 8 weeks) and sample group(high fat diet for 8 weeks and SBY-III for last 2 weeks). Exp-II are divided into control group(high fat diet for 6 weeks and normal diet for 2 weeks) and sample group(high fat diet for 6 weeks and normal diet with SBY-III for 2 weeks). These were then compared mutually. Results : 1. Irrespective of diet control, sample group taken SBY-III showed the more effective decrease of weight gain than control group and diet control-fed sample group with SBY-III showed the more effective decrease of weight loss including weight gain than control group. 2. Irrespective of diet control, sample group taken SBY-III showed the more effective decrease cell size of epididymal fat-pad, fat accumulation area in liver than control group. 3. Non diet control-fed sample group taken SBY-III showed the more effective decrease of serum triglyceride, total lipid, free fatty acid than control group and diet control-fed sample group taken SBY-III showed the decrease of serum triglyceride, free fatty acid than control group. 4. Only diet control-fed sample group taken SBY-III showed the decrease of UCP1 volume. Conclusions : These results shows that SBY-III has effects on anti-obesity, especially keeping pace with diet control.

Changes of Serum Lipid Profiles after Eating Lycii Fructus in Rats Fed High Fat Diet (구기자 섭취에 의한 고지방식이를 하는 흰쥐의 혈중 지질상태 변화)

  • 김희선
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.263-270
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    • 1998
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Lycii fructus on the serum lipid in rats fed high fat diet. We compared the effects of L. fructus and L.fructus water extract both adminstered with high fat diets on rats that had previously been on high fat or standard diets. Two separate experiments were conducted for 6 weeks. respectively. In experiment I, 4 groups of rats were fed experimental diets consisting of either \circled1 6 weeks of a standard diet(control), \circled2 6 weeks of a high-fat diet(HHC), \circled3 3 weeks of a high-fat diet followed by 3 weeks of a high-fat diet containing L. fructus(HHL) or \circled4 6 weeks of a high-fat diet with L. fructus extract in place of water for the last 3 weeks (HHT). In the second set of experiments, a high-fat diet (SHC), high-fat diet containing L.fructus(SHL) or high-fat diet with L. fructus extract in place of water (SHT) were fed for 3 weeks after 3 weeks of standard diet feeding. Rats fed L. fructus diet consumed more diets than high-fat diets. THe results of experiment I showed significant decreases(p<0.05) in serum triglyceride(TB) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels with L. fructus feedings, but did not show andy changes in total cholesterol (TC) level. High density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) level was increased significantly(p<0.05) with L. fructus feedings. Therefore, the ration of LDL-C to HDL-C(LDL-C/HDL-C) which is used as an atherosclerosis index was significantly (p<0.05) low, while the HDL-c/TC ration was significantly(p<0.05) high with L.fructus intake. However, no significant were found in serum cholesterols and TG levels in experimentII. The results of these experiments indicate that , regardless of the feeding from, L. fructus can be beneficial in lowering serum TG and LDL-C levels for habitual high-fat diet intakers. L.fructus also seems to be effective in elevating serum HDL-C level, theregy having beneficial effects on atherosclerosis by influencing the serum lipoprotein profile.

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Gene Expression Profile in the Liver Tissue of High Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice

  • Minho Cha;Bongjoo Kang;Kim, Kyungseon;Woongseop Sim;Hyunhee Oh;Yoosik Yoon
    • Nutritional Sciences
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.8-16
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    • 2004
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the gene profiles that were up- or down-regulated in the livers of high-fat diet-induced obese mice and $db_-/db_-$ mice with deficient leptin receptor. C57/BL6 normal mice and $db_-/db_-$ mice, respectively, were divided into two groups and fed a standard or high-fat diet for four weeks. Liver weight was unchanged in the normal mice but the high-fat diet led to a 10% weight increase in the $db_-/db_-$mice. Adipose tissue mass increased by about 88% in the normal mice that were fed a high-fat diet and by about 17% in the $db_-/db_-$mice on the high-fat diet. In terms of serum lipids, total cholesterol significantly increased in mice on the high-fat diet. Microarray analysis was carried out using total RNA isolated from the livers of standard or high-fat diet-fed mice of the normal and $db_-/db_-$ strains. The change of gene expression was confirmed by RT-PCR. About 1.6% and 6.8% of total genes, respectively, showed different expression patterns in the normal mice fed the high-fat diet and $db_-/db_-$ mice. As a result of microarray, many genes involved in metabolism and signal pathways were shown to have different expression patterns. Expression of Mgst3 gene increased in the livers of normal and $db_-/db_-$ mice that were fed a high-fat diet. Wnt7b and Ptk9l were down-regulated in the livers of the normal mice and $db_-/db_-$ mice that were fed a high-fat diet. In conclusion, a high-fat diet induced obesity and affected gene expression involved in metabolism and signal pathway.

Effects of High fat and High Cholesterol Diet on Kidney Function (식이성 유발 고지혈증이 체내지질대사 및 신기능에 미치는 영향)

  • 박영주
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.187-194
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    • 1997
  • The effects of diet induced hyperlipidemia on kidney function were studied in Sprague-Dawley rats fed high fat diet containing 20% beef tallow and high cholesterol diet containing 5% cholesterol for 8, 12, 16 weeks, respectively. The concentrations of serum total lipid, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were significantly high cholesterol diet groups during all experimental periods (p<0.05). HDL-cholesterol concentration was the lowest value in high cholesterol diet group of 16 weeks(p<0.05). Triglyceride concentration was not affected by experimental diets. Serum total protein, albumin and creatinine concentration tended to higher in high cholesterol diet groups than those in high fat diet groups. And serum urea-N concentration was higher in high fat diet group of 16 weeks than that in other diet groups. Urinary total protein and urea-N were higher in high cholesterol diet groups than those in other diet groups regardless of experimental period period. There was no significant difference in urinary creatinine concentratin among diet groups(p<0.05). GFR was lower in high cholesterol diet groups than that in high fat diet groups at 8, 16 weeks, respectively. Wet weight per body weight, total lipid, triglyceride, total cholesterol concentations of liver tissue were apparently high in high cholesterol diet groups(p<0.05). Kidney wet weight per body weight wer not affected by experimently diets, total lipid concentration of kidney tissue was significantly high in high fat diet groups of 12 weeks(p<0.05), kidney tissue triglyceride concentrations of high cholesterol diet groups of 12, 16 weeks apparently low, and total cholesterol concentration of kidney tissue was higher in experimental diet groups than that of control groups at 12, 16 weeks(p<0.05). Fecal excretion, total lipid, triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations of feces were markedly high in all high cholesterol diet groups except high fat diet group of 16 weeks. The results of light microscopic examination indicated that glomerulosclerosis was not obsrved in rats fed experimental diets.

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Effects of Laminariae Thallus Extracts on Body Weight and Lipid Metabolism in High Fat Diet Rats (곤포(昆布)추출물이 고지방 식이에 의한 체중변화와 체내 지질대사에 미치는 영향)

  • Jeong Ji-Cheon;Nam Won-Gi;Shin Hyeon-Cheol
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.1296-1302
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    • 2005
  • Laminariae Thallus has been known to be effective for the treatment of obesity. Te show the effectiveness of Laminariae Thallus in a more scientific way, Laminariae Thallus extract was prepared and evaluated in high fat diet rats by measuring the changes of body weight and lipid metabolism as described briefly below. 200 g of crushed Laminariae Thallus was extracted with methyl alcohol. The extract was evaporated under reduced pressure to give 14.4g. For 10 weeks, control group rat were ingested high fat diet, while the test group rat were fed with a fat diet pius Laminariae Thallus extract. Normal group was fed with normal diet. 150 mg of Laminariae Thallus extract per 1 kg of body weight was added to the diet in a test group rats. Control group rats on a high fat diet gained weight significantly, whereas the test group rats on a high fat diet plus Laminariae Thallus extract gained weight less. Significant increase of liver weight caused in a high fat diet was also inhibited by the Laminariae Thallus extract treatment. Total lipid, triglyceride, phospholipid and total cholesterol levels of serum in the high fat diet rats were remarkably increased, whereas their levels on a high fat diet plus Laminariae Thallus extract were less increased. While serum HDL-cholesterol levels was remarkably decreased in a high fat diet, its level was less decreased in a high fat diet plus Laminariae Thallus extract. Furthermore, we observed that the activities of hepatic acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase increased in a high fat diet, while their activities in a high fat diet plus Laminariae Thallus extract were getting back nearly to the normal levels of normal diet rats. These result showed that the obesity caused by a high fat diet was effectively inhibited by a Laminariae Thallus extract. Our results also showed that the abnormal lipid metabolism caused by a high fat diet was effectively cured by adding Laminariae Thallus extract.

The Effects of Shellfish Hydrolysates on Lipid Metabolism in Rats Fed High-Fat Diet (고지방식이를 급여한 흰쥐의 패류가수분해물 급여 효과)

  • 김은미
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.386-394
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    • 2000
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of shellfish hydrolysate on lipid metabolism in rats fed high fat diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rate weighting approximately 110g were fed basal control diet, high fat diet and high fat diet plus 4 different shellfish hydrolyates for 4 weeks. The shellfish hydrolysates from the different sources, were oyster, hard-shelled mussel, little neck clam and march clam. After 4 weeks, serum GOT, GPT, ${\gamma}$-GTP, triglyceride and total cholesterol was significantly decreased in shellfish hydrolysates supplementation with high fat diet compared to basal control and high-fat group(p<0.05). The total lipid and cholesterol content in liver showed significant decrease(p, 0.05). There were no different in serum GPT, HDL-cholesterol, liver total cholesterol and lipid of rats between basal control diet and high-fat diet. The unsaturated fatty acids, specific components of shellfishes were a little components in shellfish hydrolysate as they were a low and not different among the groups and were most well reflected in liver and plasma. Considering digestive and absorptive process of in human body, it was assumed that the hypolipidemic effect of shellfish was not under the influence of unsaturated fatty acids but the other components, peptides, taurine and betaine and so on was detected in the process of hyperlipidemia induced by high-fat diet.

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Grape skin improves antioxidant capacity in rats fed a high fat diet

  • Lee, Su-Jin;Choi, Soo-Kyong;Seo, Jung-Sook
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.3 no.4
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    • pp.279-285
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    • 2009
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary grape skin on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system in rats fed high fat diet. The Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either control (5% fat) diet or high fat (25% fat) diet which was based on AIN-93 diet for 2 weeks, and then they were grouped as control group (C), control + 5% grape skin group (CS), high-fat group (HF), high fat + 5% grape skin group (HFS) with 10 rats each and fed corresponding diets for 4 weeks. The hepatic thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) were increased in high fat group as compared with control group, but reduced by grape skin. The serum total antioxidant status, and activities of hepatic catalase and superoxide dismutase, xanthine oxidase and glucose-6-phosphatase were increased by supplementation of grape skin. Glutathione peroxidase activity was significantly higher in CS group than in C group. Grape skin feeding tended to increase the concentration of total glutathione, especially in control group. The ratio of reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione was lower in high fat groups than in control groups. The ratio was increased by dietary supplementation of grape skin in control group. These results suggest that dietary supplementation of grape skin would be effective on protection of oxidative damage by lipid peroxidation through improvement of antioxidant defense system in rats fed high fat diet as well as rats with low fat diet.