• Title, Summary, Keyword: high risk region

Search Result 262, Processing Time 0.04 seconds

High Risk Human Papilloma Virus Genotypes in Kurdistan Region in Patients with Vaginal Discharge

  • Hussein, Nawfal R;Balatay, Amer A;Assafi, Mahde S;Al-Mufty, Tamara Abdulezel;Khalil, Amira S
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.17 no.7
    • /
    • pp.3191-3193
    • /
    • 2016
  • Background: The human papilloma virus (HPV) is considered as the major risk factor for the development of cervical cancer. This virus is of different genotypes and generally can be classified into high and low risk types. Objective: To determine the rate of high risk HPV genotypes in women with vaginal discharge and lower abdominal pain in Kurdistan region, Iraq. Materials and Methods: Cervical swabs were taken from 104 women. DNA was extracted and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was used to determine the presence of high risk genotypes. Results: It was found that 13/104 (12.5%) of the samples were positive for high risk HPV genotypes. Amongst those who were positive, 4/13 (30.7%) were typed as genotype 16 and 7/13 (53.8%) showed mixed genotyping. On the other hand, genotypes 53 and 56 were found in only one sample each. Conclusions: High risk HPV genotypes are not uncommon and further community based study is needed to determine the prevalence of HPV and its genotypes and plan for prevention of infection.

Study on Measurement of Flood Risk and Forecasting Model (홍수 위험도 척도 및 예측모형 연구)

  • Kwon, S.H.;Oh, H.S.
    • Journal of the Society of Korea Industrial and Systems Engineering
    • /
    • v.38 no.1
    • /
    • pp.118-123
    • /
    • 2015
  • There have been various studies on measurements of flood risk and forecasting models. For river and dam region, PDF and FVI has been proposed for measurement of flood risk and regression models have been applied for forecasting model. For Bo region unlikely river or dam region, flood risk would unexpectedly increase due to outgoing water to keep water amount under the designated risk level even the drain system could hardly manage the water amount. GFI and general linear model was proposed for flood risk measurement and forecasting model. In this paper, FVI with the consideration of duration on GFI was proposed for flood risk measurement at Bo region. General linear model was applied to the empirical data from Bo region of Nadong river to derive the forecasting model of FVI at three different values of Base High Level, 2m, 2.5m and 3m. The significant predictor variables on the target variable, FVI were as follows: ground water level based on sea level with negative effect, difference between ground altitude of ground water and river level with negative effect, and difference between ground water level and river level after Bo water being filled with positive sign for quantitative variables. And for qualitative variable, effective soil depth and ground soil type were significant for FVI.

Interaction of Tobacco Smoking and Chewing with Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (Insertion/Deletion) Gene Polymorphisms and Risk of Lung Cancer in a High Risk Area from Northeast India

  • Phukan, Rup Kumar;Borah, Prasanta Kumar;Saikia, Bhaskar Jyoti;Das, Mandakini;Sekhon, Gaganpreet Singh;Mahanta, Jagadish
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.15 no.24
    • /
    • pp.10691-10695
    • /
    • 2015
  • Background: Association of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene polymorphisms with lung cancer susceptibility remains uncertain and varies with ethnicity. Northeast India represents a geographically, culturally, and ethnically isolated population. The area reports an especially high rate of tobacco usage in a variety of ways of consumption, compared with the rest of the Indian population. Materials and Methods: We conducted a population based case control study in two major high risk region for lung cancer from Northeast India. A total of 151 consecutive lung cancer cases diagnosed histopathologically and equal numbers of controls were recruited with record of relevant sociodemographic information. Blood samples were collected and processed to identify ACE gene polymorphism. Results: Significantly higher (40.4 % vs 29.1%, OR=1.97, CI=1.04-3.72; p=0.037) prevalence of the ACE II genotype was observed among lung cancer cases. Smoking was significantly associated with increased risk of lung cancer (OR=1.70, CI=1.02-2.81; p=0.041). An enhanced risk was also observed for interaction of ACE II genotype with tobacco smoking (OR=4.09, CI=1.51-11.05; p=0.005) and chewing (OR=3.68, CI=1.22-11.13; p=0.021). Conclusions: The present study indicates significant association s of the ACE II genotype with lung cancer in high risk Northeast India.

Association of a p53 Codon 72 Gene Polymorphism with Environmental Factors and Risk of Lung Cancer: a Case Control Study in Mizoram and Manipur, a High Incidence Region in North East India

  • Saikia, Bhaskar Jyoti;Das, Mandakini;Sharma, Santanu Kumar;Sekhon, Gaganpreet Singh;Zomawia, Eric;Singh, Yanglem Mohen;Mahanta, Jagadish;Phukan, Rup Kumar
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.15 no.24
    • /
    • pp.10653-10658
    • /
    • 2015
  • Background: A very high incidence of lung cancer is observed in Mizoram and Manipur, North East India. We conducted a population based case control study to establish associations of p53 codon 72 polymorphisms and interactions with environmental factors for this high incidence. Material and Methods: A total of 272 lung cancer cases and 544 controls matched for age (${\pm}5years$), sex and ethnicity were collected and p53 codon 72 polymorphism genotypes were analyzed using a polymerase chain based restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. We used conditional multiple logistic regression analysis to calculate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals after adjusting for confounding factors. Results: p53 Pro/Pro genotype was significantly associated with increased risk of lung cancer in the study population (adjusted OR=2.14, CI=1.35-3.38, p=0.001). Interactions of the p53 Pro/Pro genotype with exposure to wood smoke (adjusted OR=3.60, CI=1.85-6.98, p<0.001) and cooking oil fumes (adjusted OR=3.27, CI=1.55-6.87, p=0.002), betel quid chewing (adjusted OR=3.85, CI=1.96-7.55, p<0.001), tobacco smoking (adjusted OR=4.42, CI=2.27-8.63, p<0.001) and alcohol consumption (adjusted OR=3.31, CI=1.10-10.03, p=0.034) were significant regarding the increased risk of lung cancer in the study population. Conclusions: The present study provided preliminary evidence that a p53 codon 72 polymorphism may effect lung cancer risk in the study population, interacting synergistically with environmental factors.

Genotype Distribution and Behavioral Risk Factor Analysis of Human Papillomavirus Infection in Uyghur Women

  • Sui, Shuang;Jiao, Zhen;Niyazi, Mayinuer;Sulaiya, Sulaiya;Lu, Ping;Qiao, You-Lin
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.14 no.10
    • /
    • pp.5861-5865
    • /
    • 2013
  • We investigated the distribution of HPV genotypes in Uyghur women in Xinjiang region of China, and behavioral factors which could predispose them to HPV infection. In this cross-sectional study, women aged 15-59 years were recruited by cluster sampling method in Yutian region in 2009. Liquid-based cytology samples were analyzed centrally for HPV genotype with a linear array detector. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify behavioral risk factors for HPV infection. A total of 883 Uyghur women were recruited successfully. The prevalence of high-risk HPV and low-risk HPV were 7.25% and 1.58%, respectively; the most common HPVs were HPV16, 51, 31, 39 and 58. We found that age of first sexual intercourse was a strong predictor for HPV infection (odds ratio of 4.01 for ${\leq}15$ years versus ${\geq}25$). Having sexual partners ${\geq}3$ was the second predictor (OR 3.69, 95% CI 2.24-7.16). Cleaning the vagina after sex showed an increased risk of HPV infection (OR 2.72; 95% CI 1.98-5.13); Using the condom showed protective factors for HPV infection (OR 0.36; 95%CI0.12-0.53). HPV16, 51, 31, 39 and 58 were the priority types; the age of first sexual intercourse was identified as a major risk factor for HPV infection. Other notable risks were number of sexual partners and cleaning the vagina after sex. Changing these behavioral risk factors could help to reduce the occurrence of cervical cancer in this population.

Sodium Intake, Salt Taste and Gastric Cancer Risk According to Helicobacter Pylori Infection, Smoking, Histological Type and Tumor Site in China

  • Zhong, Chen;Li, Kai-Nan;Bi, Jing-Wang;Wang, Bao-Cheng
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.13 no.6
    • /
    • pp.2481-2484
    • /
    • 2012
  • Aim: The risk factors mostly strongly associated with gastric cancer are gastric bacteria Helicobacter pylori and diet. Using a case-control study among residents in Jinan, we examined the association between the salt taste and gastric cancer according to H. pylori infection, smoking and histological type as well as tumor site. Methods: This population-based case-control study included 207 cases and 410 controls. Data on potential risk factors of gastric cancer were obtained by interview of cases and controls with a questionnaire, salt taste preference was measured for all subjects, and IgG antibodies to H. pylori were applied to assess infection. Risk measures were determined using unconditional logistic regression. Results: The proportions of salt taste at intervals of 1.8-7.2 g/L and ${\geq}7.2$ g/L were significantly higher in cases than controls, with ORs of 1.56 (1.23-3.64) and 2.03 (2.12-4.11), respectively, subjects with high salt intake having an elevated risk for gastric cancer when infected with H. pylori. Significant modification by smoking and tumor site was observed across the different measures of salt intake, the highest salt taste showed higher cancer risk in ever smokers or with non-cardia cancers. Conclusion: Our study supports the view that high intake of sodium is an important dietary risk factor for gastric cancer, with a synergistic effect found between salt and H.pylori and smoking, dependent on the tumor site.

Interaction of XRCC1 and XPD Gene Polymorphisms with Lifestyle and Environmental Factors Regarding Susceptibility to Lung Cancer in a High Incidence Population in North East India

  • Saikia, Bhaskar Jyoti;Phukan, Rup Kumar;Sharma, Santanu Kumar;Sekhon, Gaganpreet Singh;Mahanta, Jagadish
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.15 no.5
    • /
    • pp.1993-1999
    • /
    • 2014
  • Background: This study aimed to explore the role of XRCC1 (Arg399Gln) and XPD (Lys751Gln) gene polymorphisms, lifestyle and environmental factors as well as their possible interactions in propensity to develop lung cancer in a population with high incidence from North East India. Materials and Methods: A total of 272 lung cancer cases and 544 controls were collected and XRCC1 (Arg399Gln) and XPD (Lys751Gln) genotypes were analyzed using a polymerase chain reaction based restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. Conditional multiple logistic regression analysis was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals after adjusting for confounding factors. Results: The combined Gln/Gln genotype of XRCC1 and XPD genes (OR=2.78, CI=1.05-7.38; p=0.040) was significantly associated with increased risk for lung cancer. Interaction of XRCC1Gln/Gln genotype with exposure of wood combustion (OR=2.56, CI=1.16-5.66; p=0.020), exposure of cooking oil fumes (OR=3.45, CI=1.39-8.58; p=0.008) and tobacco smoking (OR=2.54, CI=1.21-5.32; p=0.014) and interaction of XPD with betel quid chewing (OR=2.31, CI=1.23-4.32; p=0.009) and tobacco smoking (OR=2.13, CI=1.12-4.05; p=0.022) were found to be significantly associated with increased risk for lung cancer. Conclusions: Gln/Gln alleles of both XRCC1 and XPD genes appear to amplify the effects of household exposure, smoking and betel quid chewing on lung cancer risk in the study population.

High Temperature of Food and Beverage Intake Increases the Risk of Oesophageal Cancer in Xinjiang, China

  • Tang, Li;Xu, Fenglian;Zhang, Taotao;Lei, Jun;Binns, Colin William;Lee, Andy Ho-Won
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.14 no.9
    • /
    • pp.5085-5088
    • /
    • 2013
  • Background: The north-western region of China has a high incidence of oesophageal cancer. This study aimed to investigate whether the intake of food and beverage at high temperature is associated with the risk of oesophageal cancer among adults residing in this remote part of China. Materials and Methods: A case-control study was undertaken in Urumqi and Shihezi, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China, between 2008 and 2009. Participants were 359 incident oesophageal cancer patients and 380 hospital-based controls. Information on temperature of food and beverage intake was obtained by face-to-face interview. Logistic regression analyses were performed to ascertain the association between intake temperature and the risk of oesophageal cancer. Results: The oesophageal cancer patients consumed foods and beverages at higher temperatures than controls, p<0.001. High temperature of tea, water and food intake appeared to increase the risk of oesophageal cancer by more than two-fold, with adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) of 2.86 (1.73-4.72), 2.82 (1.78-4.47) and 2.26 (1.49-3.45), respectively. Conclusions: Intake of food and beverage at high temperature was positively associated with the incidence of oesophageal cancer in north-western China.

Genetic Polymorphism of Glutathione S-transferases M1 and T1, Tobacco Habits and Risk of Stomach Cancer in Mizoram, India

  • Malakar, Mridul;Devi, K. Rekha;Phukan, Rup Kumar;Kaur, Tanvir;Deka, Manab;Puia, Lalhriat;Barua, Debajit;Mahanta, Jagadish;Narain, Kanwar
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.13 no.9
    • /
    • pp.4725-4732
    • /
    • 2012
  • Aim: The incidence of stomach cancer in Mizoram is highest in India. We have conducted a population based matched case-control study to identify environmental and genetic risk factors in this geographical area. Methods: A total of 102 histologically confirmed stomach cancer cases and 204 matched healthy population controls were recruited. GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes were determined by PCR and H. pylori infections were determined by ELISA. Results: Tobacco-smoking was found to be an important risk factor for high incidence of stomach cancer in Mizoram. Meiziol (local cigarette) smoking was a more important risk factor than other tobacco related habits. Cigarette, tuibur (tobacco smoke infused water) and betel nut consumption synergistically increased the risk of stomach cancer. Polymorphisms of GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes were not found to be directly associated with stomach cancer in Mizoram. However, they appeared to be effect modifiers. Persons habituated with tobacco smoking and/or tuibur habit had increased risk of stomach cancer if they carried the GSTM1 null genotype and GSTT1 non-null genotype. Conclusion: Tobacco smoking, especially meiziol is the important risk factor for stomach cancer in Mizoram. GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes modify the effect of tobacco habits. This study is a first step in understanding the epidemiology of stomach cancer in Mizoram, India.

Evaluation of Risk Factors for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in a High-risk Area of India, the Northeastern Region

  • Lourembam, Deepak Singh;Singh, Asem Robinson;Sharma, T. Dhaneshor;Singh, Th Sudheeranjan;Singh, Thiyam Ramsing;Singh, Lisam Shanjukumar
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.16 no.12
    • /
    • pp.4927-4935
    • /
    • 2015
  • Northeastern India is a major nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) high risk-area although the rest of the country has very low incidence. A case-control study of 105 NPC cases and 115 controls was conducted to identify the potential risk factors for NPC development in this region. Information was collected by interviewer about socio-demographic characteristics, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, dietary history, occupational history, and a family history of cancer. Epstein-Barr viral load was assayed from the blood DNA by real time PCR. Associations between GSTs genotypes, cytochrome P450 family including CYP1A1, CYP2E1 and CYP2A6 polymorphisms and susceptibility to relationship between the diseases were studied using PCR-RFLP assay. Results indicate that Epstein-Barr virus load was significantly higher in patients compared to controls (p<0.0001). Furthermore, concentration of blood EBV-DNA was significantly higher in advanced stage disease (Stage III and IV) than in early stage disease (Stage I and II) (p<0.05). Presence of CYP2A6 variants that reduced the enzyme activity was significantly less frequent in cases than controls. Smoked meat consumption, exposure to smoke, living in poorly ventilated house and alcohol consumption were associated with NPC development among the population of Northeastern India. Thus, overall our study revealed that EBV viral load and genetic polymorphism of CYP2A6 along with living practices which include smoked meat consumption, exposure to smoke, living in poorly ventilated houses and alcohol consumption are the potential risk factors of NPC in north eastern region of India. Understanding of the risk factors and their role in the etiology of NPC are helpful forpreventive measures and screening.