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Genetic Relationship among the Korean Native and Alien Horses Estimated by Microsatellite Polymorphism

  • Cho, G.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.784-788
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    • 2006
  • Microsatellite polymorphism and the genetic relationship were estimated using genotype information of 305 horses from 11 microsatellite loci. The breeds include the indigenous Korean breeds, Korean native horse (102) and Jeju racing horse (56) together with Japan Hokkaido horse (5), Mongolian horse (19), Thoroughbred horse (108), Quarter horse (11) and Przewalskii horse (4). Allelic frequencies, the number of alleles per locus were estimated by direct counting from observed genotype, and genetic variability was computed using the CERVUX software and DISPAN. The number of alleles per locus varied from 6 (HMS6) to 18 (ASB17) with an average value of 10.45 in horse breeds. The expected total heterozygosity ($H_T$) and coefficient of gene differentiation ($G_{ST}$) ranged 0.764-0.921 (the average value was 0.830) and 0.102-0.266 (the average value was 0.180) in horse breeds, respectively. Four populations (Przewalskii horse, Japan Hokkaido horse, Quarter horse, Thoroughbred horse) showed lower heterozygosity than the average value (the average value was 0.710). The expected heterozygosity within breed ($H_S$) and mean no. of observed alleles ranged from $0.636{\pm}0.064$ (Japan Hokkaido horse) to $0.809{\pm}0.019$ (Mongolian horse), and from 2.73 (Przewalskii horse) to 8.27 (Korean native horse), respectively. The polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.490 (Przewalskii horse) to 0.761 (Mongolian horse) with an average value of 0.637 in horse breeds. The results showed three distinct clusters with high bootstrap support: the Korean native horse cluster (Korean native horse, Mongolian horse), the European cluster (Przewalskii horse, Thoroughbred horse), and other horse cluster (Jeju racing horse, Japan Hokkaido horse, and Quarter horse). A relatively high bootstrap value was observed for the Korean native horse cluster and European cluster (87%), and the Korean native horse and Mongolian horse (82%). Microsatellite polymorphism data were shown to be useful for estimating the genetic relationship between Korean native horse and other horse breeds, and also be applied for parentage testing in those horse breeds.

Ultrasonographic Evaluation of the Thyroid Glands, Jugular Vein and Carotid Artery in Horse (말에서 갑상선, 경정맥 및 경동맥의 초음파상)

  • 김명철;김용준;변홍섭;신상태;이경광;한용만;김병선
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.67-72
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    • 1998
  • Nowadays many kinds of foreign breed horse and Korean native Cheju horse are raised in Korea. Horse has complicated structure and function to maintain normal health, and to overcome severe condition during gallop at full speed. Sometimes the disease take a bad turn becuase of difficulty of correct diagnosis for horse disease. In recent times, horse farm for fattening and reproduction is gradually increasing. However, thoracic disease and abdominal disease are frequently occuring by defect in raising management. But the diagnosis of these kinds of disease is difficult by former diagnostic method. Ultrasonographic diagnostic method is a method to slove the problem. In abroad, nowadays ultrasonography has been reported for circulatory organs and abdomonal organs in horse, cattle, sheep, and dog, and the importance of ultrasonographic diagnosis is recognized in veterinary clinical medicine. In the country, ultrasonography of Korean native goat, cattle and dog was recently reported, but there was no report for the ultrasonography of horse. So, ultrasonogram for the thyroid glands, jugular vein and carotid artery was evaluated in Cheju horse and Thoroughbred horse. Thyroid gland, jugular vein and carotid artery were determined on both sides of neck. The length of right thyroid lobe at the Thoroughbred horse, Thoroughbred foul, Cheju horse and Cheju foul were 54.8, 45.1, 46.1 and 42.2 mm, respectively. The width of right thyroid lobe at the Thoroughbred horse, Thoroughbred foul, Cheju horse and Cheju foul were 18.1, 14.3, 14.6 and 14.2 mm, respectively. The height of right thyroid lobe at the Thoroughbred horse, Thoroughbred foul, Cheju horse and Cheju foul were 27.3, 25.6, 26.2 and 25.5 mm, respectively. Similar ultrasonographic measurements were obtained for the left thyroid gland. The internal diameter of left jugular vein at the Thoroughbred horse, Thoroughbred foul, Cheju horse and Cheju foul were 10.6, 9.7, 10.5 and 9.2 mm, respectively. Similar ultrasonographic measurements were obtained for the right jugular vein. The internal diameter of right carotid artery at the Thoroughbred horse, Thoroughbred foul, Cheju horse and Cheju foul were 9.5, 8.8, 9.1 and 8.5 mm, respectively. Similar ultrasonographic measurements were obtained for the left carotid artery. It is concluded that the ultrasonographic values of this study provides references for the diagnosis of morphologic changes in the thyroid gland, jugular vein and carotid artery in Korean native Cheju horse and Thoroughbred horse.

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A Study on Fostering Equestrian Industry for Rural Development of Korea (농촌지역 활성화를 위한 승마산업 도입방안 연구)

  • Kim, Myung-Hee;Choe, Pyeong-Ik
    • Journal of Agricultural Extension & Community Development
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.327-346
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    • 2010
  • This study was carried out to investigate the status and development direction of horse riding industry for rural development of Korea. Library research and field survey were conducted to collect relevant data such as number of horse and size of horse farms, facilities for horse riding and educational institutions for youths and farmers and the results obtained were as follows : Only a few institutions among high schools, colleges and universities were observed to deliver horse riding programs. For farmers, no equestrian specialist was available in agricultural extension offices. Horse meat is consumed mostly in Jeju Island in Korea. Relevant institutions should be also strengthened including formal and nonformal education for horse riding and much more schools and universities should adopt horse riding program for the training of youths and farmers. Considering the obesity problem, the nutritional composition of horse meat is better than those of pork or beef, so promotion of horse meat consumption also should be strengthened.

HorseDB; an Integrated Horse Resource and Web Service (말 데이터베이스 구축)

  • Kim Dae-Soo;Jo Un-Jong;Huh Jae-Won;Choe Eun-Sang;Cho Byung-Wook;Kim Heui-Soo
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.472-476
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    • 2006
  • We have built a database server called HorseDB which contains the genome annotation information and biological information for horse from public database entries. The aims of HorseDB are the integration of biological information and horse genome data on genome scale using bioinformatic methods. To facilitate the extraction of useful information among collected horse genome and biological data, we developed a user-friendly interface system, HorseDB; an Integrated Horse Resource and web Service. The database is categorized by the general horse information data, a sequence annotation data, and a world-wide web analysis program interface. The database also provides an easy access for user to find out the useful information within horse genomes and support analyzed information, such as sequence alignment and gene annotation results. HorseDB can be accessed at http://www.primate.or.kr./horse.

Leisure Riding Activation Plan of the Jeju Horse designated industrial zones (말 산업특구 지정에 따른 제주도 레저승마 활성화 방안)

  • Choi, Cheol-Young
    • Journal of the Korea Convergence Society
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    • v.8 no.8
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    • pp.355-363
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    • 2017
  • Jeju-do was designated as the 'first horse industry special zone' in 2014, followed by additional designation of horse industry special zones in Icheon, Yongin of Gyeonggi-do and Gyeongsangbuk-do in 2015. As a result, horses have become no more synonymous with Jeju-do. Jeju-do may see its competitive edge becoming blunt, compared to other local governments, due to its environmental characteristics and accessibility. The Korean proverb, "Send people to Seoul and horses to Jeju-do", has become an old saying that does not match reality. However, Jeju-do, designated as the first horse industry special zone, is expected to play a leading role in cultivation of domestic horse industry and faces a challenge of creating exemplary cases of success in transforming horse industry into the senary (6th) industry. In addition, KRW 114.2 billion is planned to be invested into 35 projects covering 9 sectors, including supply of elite domestic racing horses, expansion of demand basis for horse-riding, cultivation of horse meat industry, etc., by 2017 as envisioned by the horse industry special zone promotion plan. Despite expansion of facilities and demand base for horse-riding, those at the sites point out that government support at policy level has not come home to their hearts and criticism has been mounting that project efficiency remains low. Factors hindering the growth of horse industry, which have come to the fore, include inadequate supply of horse-riding facilities, limitation to expansion of demand for horse-riding, etc., due to excessive regulation. Advancement of horse industry requires wide-ranging deregulation on investment related to horse industry, including horse breeding and horse-riding facility installation, etc. Regulation which is deemed to be the biggest stumbling block to advancement of horse industry is related to the regulation requiring formation of farmland at horse-riding facilities in farming and fishery villages. Along with improvement in such regulations, horse-riding facilities without license should be legalized to promote qualitative growth of horse-riding industry. Moreover, efforts should be made to develop and deploy instructors with horse-riding license in order to develop horse-riding into a full-fledged leisure beyond simple experience auxiliary to tourism, thus ensuring that people can enjoy leisure style horse-riding regularly in safe and healthy manners. It would be necessary to add fresh momentum into efforts to turn Jeju-do into the hub of well-being leisure horse-riding by pooling our wisdom.

A Biometric Study on Hardness of Bone in Race Horse and Jeju Horse (경주마(競走馬)와 제주마(濟州馬)의 생리적(生理的) 골경도(骨硬度)에 관하여)

  • Lee, Won Chang;Kim, Hyo Jung;Shin, Tae Hong
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.185-189
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    • 1974
  • Although considerable research has been done on the blood chemistry of domestic animals, little work has been made of the changes associated with age. Moreover, the records about physiology of the goat were not much available in Korea, and a comprehensive survey of the blood chemical values of the Korean native goat has not been made. The authors intended to biometric study on the hardness of bone of race horse and Jeju horse in Korea. The measurement of hardness of bone were performed in 272 race horses (Thoroughbred 91, Anglo-Arab 107, Arab 74) and in 109 Jeju horses by the caliper by Toryba's method. Some interesting facts obtained through this study were as follows: 1. There was not significant difference of bone hardness between male and female. The average of bone hardness by the Toryba's meteod were $23.07{\pm}1.01$ in race horse and $19.44{\pm}1.84$ in Jeju horse. 2. The grade of bone hardness of race horse were higher than those of Jeju horse(P<0.001). 3. The correlation coefficient between age and grade of bone hardness were r= +0.344 in Jeju horse, theme were statistically significant (P<0.01) and the regression equation was Y=0.29x+18.497.

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The Mental Health and Occupational Characteristic of Horse Stable Hand Workers in Korea

  • Kim, Kyung-Woo;Lee, Sang-Gil;Hwang, Gyu-Seok
    • Safety and Health at Work
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.384-388
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    • 2019
  • The horse stable hand workers are one of the most important occupations in horse-racing industry. However, suicide problem of the horse stable hand workers in Korea has raised the necessity of new study on how these workers experience mental health problems such as occupational stress and depression in organizational situation. Therefore, this study investigated the occupational stress and depression level of the horse stable hand workers and identified the structural relationship in the horse-racing industry through a detailed interview. A total of 207 horse stable hand workers participated in this study, and occupational stress and depression level were surveyed using the Korean Occupational Stress Scale (KOSS) and Korean version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). The results of this study showed that the occupational stress level of horse stable hand workers was higher than the median of Korean population. The significant difference in occupational stress among the detail job grade was also identified. In addition, 34% of the horse stable hand workers showed high risk of depression, and job demand, organizational system, and inappropriate compensation as the subfactors of occupational stress were showed to mainly affect depression. Although there are some limitations according to the field survey, this study also has significant meaning in that it identifies the relationship between the occupational characteristics of the horse stable hand workers and the mental health. It will be necessary to study the diverse organizational situation and individual mental health for new occupations.

Electrophoretic analysis of the major proteins of race horse erythrocyte membrane: Their relation to fast erythrocyte sedimentation rate (경주 적혈구막 단백의 전기영동법에 의한 분석 -빠른 적혈구 침강 속도와의 관계-)

  • Bahk, Yeong-woo;Lee, Si-yeong
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.259-264
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    • 1991
  • The proteins of the race horse erythrocyte membrane were analysed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate(SDS-PAGE), and their relations to the fast erythrocyte sedimentation rate(ESR) of the race horse were investigated. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate of race horse were very fast compared with the human one(33 times <$90^{\circ}-plastic-ESR/30m$> and 25 times <$90^{\circ}-micro-ESR/30m$> as fast as the human one) are reported previously. Although the general protein profiles of the race horse erythrocyte membranes were almost similar to that of human, band 3 content was showing higher in race horse (34.7%) than in human (25.3%). The glycoprotein profiles of the race horse erythrocyte membranes revealed by periodic acid Schiff's(PAS) stain showed a marked difference from that of human. The PAS-1(glycophorin) and PAS-2(sialoglycoprotein) present in human erythrocyte memo brane were almost absent from the Holstein and race horse erythrocyte membranes, but PAS-2 was more in only race horse from that of human. Instead, the bovine erythrocyte membranes showed a strong PAS-B near the origin of the electrophorograms and the race horse erythrocyte membranes showed a strong PAS-negative band near the end of the electrophorograms, which is named as PAS-E in this study. These results suggest that the fast sedimentation rate of race horse erythrocyte is due in part to the presence of more band 3 protein fraction and PAS-E glycoproteins in the race horse erythrocytes.

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Study on the Storage Stability of Horse Fat in Jeju (제주산 말지방(Horse Fat)의 저장 안정성 향상에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Mi Seon;Yoon, Kyung-Sup
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.46 no.1
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    • pp.31-42
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    • 2020
  • Horse fat is known to be an effective ingredient in Asia, and the horse fat itself, which is mixed with other ingredients at the additive level, is often sold as a finished product. In this case, physical properties of the horse fat raw material are important. Many horse fats produced in Korea (Jeju) have low temperature stability, so if not stored at low temperatures, segregation may occur. In the case of Japanese horse fat, it is partially hydrogenated or is used the solid phase as the horse fat by separating the liquid phase and the solid phase that is harder and more stable than the horse fat of Jeju. In this study, the physical properties were tested to improve the temperature stability even without the partial hydrogenation process of Jeju horse fat. Various oil gelling agents were used in the study. Results confirmed that the physical properties of the hydroxystearic acid added Jeju horse fat were improved. In addition, stability evaluations at temperatures of 25 ℃, 40 ℃, 45 ℃ and flow behavior evaluations at temperatures of 25 ℃, 30 ℃, 40 ℃ were performed for Jeju horse fat with hydroxystearic acid, 100% Jeju horse fat, and 100% Japanese horse fat. Results showed that the Jeju horse fat improved in flow behavior by adding hydroxystearic acid similar to that of Japanese horse fat. In addition, when the crystal state was observed under a microscope, the thermal stability was improved by decreasing the size of the needle-type crystals with the addition of hydroxystearic acid. Jeju horse fat containing hydroxystearic acid was found to have no physical problems even when stored at room temperature for a long time.

Tasks for Promoting the Horse Industry under FTAs (FTA와 말(馬)산업 육성과제)

  • Lee, Young Soo;Kwon, Soon Koog
    • THE INTERNATIONAL COMMERCE & LAW REVIEW
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    • v.57
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    • pp.173-198
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    • 2013
  • This study conducts the horse industry, which shows how country has implemented structural adjustment policies in order to cope with the economic shocks that an FTA brought about. Among the FTAs that Korea has made, Korea-EU and Korea-US FTAs have been regard to bring relatively big impact on korean agricultural sector. The horse industry is a very large and important part of our national and local economies. It is diverse, involving agriculture, business, sport, gaming, entertainment and recreation. The enactment of the 'Horse Industry Promotion Act' can be a turning point for the recovery of the livestock industry. The Act is meaningful in that it can be expand the horse industry as a driving force of rural growth and contribute to people's leisure life. In this context, this study aims to draw policy implications for the Korean government to promote the horse industry.

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