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A Collaborative Filtering System Combined with Users' Review Mining : Application to the Recommendation of Smartphone Apps (사용자 리뷰 마이닝을 결합한 협업 필터링 시스템: 스마트폰 앱 추천에의 응용)

  • Jeon, ByeoungKug;Ahn, Hyunchul
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.1-18
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    • 2015
  • Collaborative filtering(CF) algorithm has been popularly used for recommender systems in both academic and practical applications. A general CF system compares users based on how similar they are, and creates recommendation results with the items favored by other people with similar tastes. Thus, it is very important for CF to measure the similarities between users because the recommendation quality depends on it. In most cases, users' explicit numeric ratings of items(i.e. quantitative information) have only been used to calculate the similarities between users in CF. However, several studies indicated that qualitative information such as user's reviews on the items may contribute to measure these similarities more accurately. Considering that a lot of people are likely to share their honest opinion on the items they purchased recently due to the advent of the Web 2.0, user's reviews can be regarded as the informative source for identifying user's preference with accuracy. Under this background, this study proposes a new hybrid recommender system that combines with users' review mining. Our proposed system is based on conventional memory-based CF, but it is designed to use both user's numeric ratings and his/her text reviews on the items when calculating similarities between users. In specific, our system creates not only user-item rating matrix, but also user-item review term matrix. Then, it calculates rating similarity and review similarity from each matrix, and calculates the final user-to-user similarity based on these two similarities(i.e. rating and review similarities). As the methods for calculating review similarity between users, we proposed two alternatives - one is to use the frequency of the commonly used terms, and the other one is to use the sum of the importance weights of the commonly used terms in users' review. In the case of the importance weights of terms, we proposed the use of average TF-IDF(Term Frequency - Inverse Document Frequency) weights. To validate the applicability of the proposed system, we applied it to the implementation of a recommender system for smartphone applications (hereafter, app). At present, over a million apps are offered in each app stores operated by Google and Apple. Due to this information overload, users have difficulty in selecting proper apps that they really want. Furthermore, app store operators like Google and Apple have cumulated huge amount of users' reviews on apps until now. Thus, we chose smartphone app stores as the application domain of our system. In order to collect the experimental data set, we built and operated a Web-based data collection system for about two weeks. As a result, we could obtain 1,246 valid responses(ratings and reviews) from 78 users. The experimental system was implemented using Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications(VBA) and SAS Text Miner. And, to avoid distortion due to human intervention, we did not adopt any refining works by human during the user's review mining process. To examine the effectiveness of the proposed system, we compared its performance to the performance of conventional CF system. The performances of recommender systems were evaluated by using average MAE(mean absolute error). The experimental results showed that our proposed system(MAE = 0.7867 ~ 0.7881) slightly outperformed a conventional CF system(MAE = 0.7939). Also, they showed that the calculation of review similarity between users based on the TF-IDF weights(MAE = 0.7867) leaded to better recommendation accuracy than the calculation based on the frequency of the commonly used terms in reviews(MAE = 0.7881). The results from paired samples t-test presented that our proposed system with review similarity calculation using the frequency of the commonly used terms outperformed conventional CF system with 10% statistical significance level. Our study sheds a light on the application of users' review information for facilitating electronic commerce by recommending proper items to users.

Reliability Verification of FLUKA Transport Code for Double Layered X-ray Protective Sheet Design (이중 구조의 X선 차폐시트 설계를 위한 FLUKA 수송코드의 신뢰성 검증)

  • Kang, Sang Sik;Heo, Seung Wook;Choi, Il Hong;Jun, Jae Hoon;Yang, Sung Woo;Kim, Kyo Tae;Heo, Ye Ji;Park, Ji Koon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
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    • v.11 no.7
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    • pp.547-553
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    • 2017
  • In the current medical field, lead is widely used as a radiation shield. However, the lead weight is very heavy, so wearing protective clothing such as apron is difficult to wear for long periods of time and there is a problem with the danger of lethal toxicity in humans. Recently, many studies have been conducted to develop substitute materials of lead to resolve these problems. As a substitute materials for lead, barium(Ba) and iodine(I) have excellent shielding ability. But, It has characteristics emitting characteristic X-rays from the energy area near 30 keV. For patients or radiation workers, shielding materials is often made into contact with the human body. Therefore, the characteristic X-rays generated by the shielding material are directly exposured in the human body, which increases the risk of increasing radiation absorbed dose. In this study, we have developed the FLUKA transport code, one of the most suitable elements of radiation transport codes, to remove the characteristic X-rays generated by barium or iodine. We have verified the reliability of the shielding fraction of the structure of the structure shielding by comparing with the MCPDX simulations conducted as a prior study. Using the MCNPX and FLUKA, the double layer shielding structures with the various thickness combination consisting of barium sulphate ($BaSO_4$) and bismuth oxide($Bi_2O_3$) are designed. The accuracy of the type shown in IEC 61331-1 was geometrically identical to the simulation. In addition, the transmission spectrum and absorbed dose of the shielding material for the successive x-rays of 120 kVp spectra were compared with lead. In results, $0.3mm-BaSO_4/0.3mm-Bi_2O_3$ and $0.1mm-BaSO_4/0.5mm-Bi_2O_3$ structures have been absorbed in both 33 keV and 37 keV characteristic X-rays. In addition, for high-energy X-rays greater than 90 keV, the shielding efficiency was shown close to lead. Also, the transport code of the FLUKA's photon transport code was showed cut-off on low-energy X-rays(below 33keV) and is limited to computerized X-rays of the low-energy X-rays. But, In high-energy areas above 40 keV, the relative error with MCNPX was found to be highly reliable within 6 %.

Overexpression and Activity Analysis of Cystathionine γ-Lyase Responsible for the Biogenesis of H2S Neurotransmitter (새로운 신경전달물질 H2S 발생 효소, cystathionine γ-lyase의 대량발현 조건과 활성측정)

  • Kim, Kyoung-Ran;Byun, Hae-Jung;Cho, Hyun-Nam;Kim, Jung-Hyun;Yang, Seun-Ah;Jhee, Kwang-Hwan
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.119-126
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    • 2011
  • There is a growing recognition of the significance of $H_2S$ as a biological signaling molecule involved in vascular and nervous system functions. In mammals, two enzymes in the transsulfuration pathway, cystathionine ${\beta}$-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine ${\gamma}$-lyase (CGL), are believed to be chiefly responsible for $H_2S$ biogenesis. Genetic inborn error of CGL leads to human genetic disease, cystathioninuria, by accumulating cystathionine in the body. This disease is secondarily associated with a wide range of diseases including diabetes insipidus and Down's syndrome. Although the human CGL (hCGL) overexpression is essential for the investigation of its function, structure, reaction specificity, substrate specificity, and protein-protein interactions, there is no clear report concerning optimum overexpression conditions. In this study, we report a detailed analysis of the overexpression conditions of the hCGL using a bacterial system. Maximum overexpression was obtained in conditions of low culture temperature after inducer addition, performing low aeration during overexpression, and using a low concentration inducer (0.1 mM, IPTG) for induction. Expressed hCGL was purified by His-tag affinity column chromatography and confirmed by Western blot using hCGL antibody and enzyme activity analysis. We also report that the His tag with TEV site attached protein exhibits 76% activity for ${\alpha}-{\gamma}$ elimination reaction with L-cystathionine and 88% for ${\alpha}-{\beta}$ elimination reaction with L-cysteine compared to those of wild type hCGL, respectively. His tag with TEV site attached protein also exhibits a 420 nm absorption maximum, which is attributed to the binding cofactor, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP).

Applying Social Strategies for Breakdown Situations of Conversational Agents: A Case Study using Forewarning and Apology (대화형 에이전트의 오류 상황에서 사회적 전략 적용: 사전 양해와 사과를 이용한 사례 연구)

  • Lee, Yoomi;Park, Sunjeong;Suk, Hyeon-Jeong
    • Science of Emotion and Sensibility
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.59-70
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    • 2018
  • With the breakthrough of speech recognition technology, conversational agents have become pervasive through smartphones and smart speakers. The recognition accuracy of speech recognition technology has developed to the level of human beings, but it still shows limitations on understanding the underlying meaning or intention of words, or understanding long conversation. Accordingly, the users experience various errors when interacting with the conversational agents, which may negatively affect the user experience. In addition, in the case of smart speakers with a voice as the main interface, the lack of feedback on system and transparency was reported as the main issue when the users using. Therefore, there is a strong need for research on how users can better understand the capability of the conversational agents and mitigate negative emotions in error situations. In this study, we applied social strategies, "forewarning" and "apology", to conversational agent and investigated how these strategies affect users' perceptions of the agent in breakdown situations. For the study, we created a series of demo videos of a user interacting with a conversational agent. After watching the demo videos, the participants were asked to evaluate how they liked and trusted the agent through an online survey. A total of 104 respondents were analyzed and found to be contrary to our expectation based on the literature study. The result showed that forewarning gave a negative impression to the user, especially the reliability of the agent. Also, apology in a breakdown situation did not affect the users' perceptions. In the following in-depth interviews, participants explained that they perceived the smart speaker as a machine rather than a human-like object, and for this reason, the social strategies did not work. These results show that the social strategies should be applied according to the perceptions that user has toward agents.

A Study on Job Stress of Dental Technician (치과기공사의 업무스트레스에 대한 연구)

  • Lee, Deok-Su;Kwak, Dong-Ju;Nam, Sang-Yong
    • Journal of Technologic Dentistry
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.51-63
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    • 2002
  • The purpose of this study was to be of use for getting rid of job stress from dental technicians, by examining how much they were stressed out at work place as one of the professional medical personnels. The subjects in this study were 255 selected dental technicians who were working in the region of Taegu. The one-on-one interview was conducted from March 1 to 30, 2001, with structured questionnaire. The questionnaire sued in this study included 19 question items about the general characteristics and 29 items regarding job stress. The job stress was categorized into seven subareas based on earlier studies and considering the job situations of dental technicians: heavy workload, job conflicts, improper treatment, role and job knowledge, human relations, physical environment and personal matters. The job stress extent was measured on five-point Likert scale that is widely used in social science: one point for no stress, two for little stress, three for so-so, four for a little stress, and five for severe stress. Therefore, a higher point means a severer job stress. The reliability of the questionnaire turned out very good with Cronbach a = 0.9272. The findings of this study were as follows: 1. The general characteristics of the dental technicians investigated could be described as below: (1) By gender, 80.4% of the dental technicians were male, and 50.2%, the largest percentage, were in their 20s, followed by those in their 30s, those in their 40s, and those in their 50s in the order named. (2) The most common work place was dental technician shop(92.5%), followed by dental technology room in dental hospital or clinic and in general hospital in the order named. The primary duties were coating materials work(30.6%), followed by sculpture, grinding, partial and full denture and orthodontics in the order named. 2. The most larges (1) The most largest motivation to be a dental technician was its being a professional(33.7%), followed by the advice from others, their own aptitude, and good economic treatment in the order named. 3. Their job stress could be explained as below: (1) Their collective job stress average was 3.96$^{\circ}{\ae}$0.50 on the basis of 5 point, which showed that they were exposed to a fairly severe job stress. (2) By area, they were most stressed out from heavy workload (4.12), and they also were severely stressed from role and job knowledge(4.02) and personal matters(4.00). (3) By situation, they were most stressed when the disagreement of prosthesis that results from a specific error is unconditionally attributed to them(4.43). And they were also stressed a lot when their workload increases due to the rework(4.38), when a dentist asks something difficult for them to resolve(4.20), when heavy workload makes their working hours irregular and it's impossible to lead a personal life or have leisure time(4.16), and when they are o work for an excessively short time(4.16). This fact indicated that most of the dental technicians were exposed to a lot of stress in conjunction with job performance. 4. The main duties they took charge of didn't make any significant difference to their job stress, but yielded a significant difference to the extent of job stress in individual areas and the order of the most stressful one. Those who were engaged in grinding were most stressed from their own matters, whereas heavy workload was most stressful for those who were engaged in the other types of works. 5. As a result of seeing if their personal characteristics yielded any differences to job stress, the personal characteristics that made their job stress vary significantly were working hours, motivation of being a dental technician, job satisfaction and willingness to continue doing dental technology works. There was a tendency that longer working hours led to severer job stress, and those who chose to be a dental technician according to their own aptitude were less stressed than the others who became a dental technician because of economic reason or advices from others. And the people who were satisfied with their job were exposed to less job stress than the others who weren't, and those who had an intention to keep that job as much as possible were less stressed, compared to the others who hadn't.

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A study of Brachytherapy for Intraocular Tumor (안구내 악성종양에 대한 저준위 방사선요법에 관한 연구)

  • Ji, Gwang-Su;Yu, Dae-Heon;Lee, Seong-Gu;Kim, Jae-Hyu;Ji, Yeong-Hun
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.19-27
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    • 1996
  • I. Project Title A Study of Brachytherapy for intraocular tumor II. Objective and Importance of the project The eye enucleation or external-beam radiation therapy that has been commonly used for the treatment of intraocular tumor have demerits of visual loss and in deficiency of effective tumor dose. Recently, brachytherapy using the plaques containing radioisotope-now treatment method that decrease the demerits of the above mentioned treatment methods and increase the treatment effect-is introduced and performed in the countries, Our purpose of this research is to design suitable shape of plaque for the ophthalmic brachytherapy, and to measure absorbed doses of Ir-192 ophthalmic plaque and thereby calculate the exact radiation dose of tumor and it's adjacent normal tissue. III. Scope and Contents of the project In order to brachytherapy for intraocular tumor, 1. to determine the eye model and selected suitable radioisotope 2. to design the suitable shape of plaque 3. to measure transmission factor and dose distribution for custom made plaques 4. to compare with the these data and results of computer dose calculation models IV. Results and Proposal for Applications The result were as followed. 1. Eye model was determined as a 25mm diameter sphere, Ir-192 was considered the most appropriate as radioisotope for brachytherapy, because of the size, half, energy and availability. 2. Considering the biological response with human tissue and protection of exposed dose, we made the plaques with gold, of which size were 15mm, 17mm and 20mm in diameter, and 1.5mm in thickness. 3. Transmission factor of plaques are all 0.71 with TLD and film dosimetry at the surface of plaques and 0.45, 0.49 at 1.5mm distance of surface, respectively. 4. As compared the measured data for the plaque with Ir-192 seeds to results of computer dose calculation model by Gary Luxton et al. and CAP-PLAN (Radiation Treatment Planning System), absorbed doses are within ${\pm}10\%$ and distance deviations are within 0.4mm Maximum error is $-11.3\%$ and 0.8mm, respectively. As a result of it, we can treat the intraocular tumor more effectively by using custom made gold plaque and Ir-192 seeds.

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Changes in the inward current and membrane conductance after fertilization in the mouse eggs (수정에 의한 Mouse egg의 세포막전류 변화)

  • Hong, Seong-geun;Park, Choon-ok;Han, Jae-hee;Kim, Ik-hyun;Ha, Dae-sik;Kwun, Jong-kuk
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.157-164
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    • 1992
  • Changes in the both inward current and conductance of membrane by the fertilization were observed using the one microelectrode voltage clamp(or switch clamp) technique. Unfertilized eggs and both 1- and 2-cell stage eggs after fertilization were donated from the superovulated mouse (ICR, more than 6 weeks old) treated with PMSG(pregnant mare serum gonadotropin, Sigma) and HCG(human chorionic gonadotropin, Sigma) and naturally mated ones, respectively in this experiment. Membrane potential was held at -90mV and the voltage step was applied from -80mV to 50mV with interval of 10mV or 20mV for 300ms. since both of amplitudes and time courses in the membrane currents were various according to the states of cells and clamping condition, results were presented by their $averages{\pm}SEM$(standard mean error)and ratios or percentages. Inward currents began to appear in response to the step depolarization from -60mV and reached its maximum at -50mV. However, since the potential was not clamped evenly during the voltage step, current-voltage(I-V) relationship might be positively shifted 10 or 20mV. From the steady-state currents plotted in the I-V curve, outward rectification was markedly observed. Peak inward currents$(i_{in})$ at -50mV were $-0.62{\pm}0.23nA$(n=4),$-0.52{\pm}0.25nA$(n=5) and $-0.37{\pm}0.25nA$(n=6), in the 1-cell stage, 2-cell stage fertilized eggs and in the unfertilized eggs, respectively. Pure inward current (difference between steady-state and peak, $i_{in. pure}$) were $-1.01{\pm}0.23nA$, $-0.69{\pm}0.43nA$ and $-0.68{\pm}0.29nA$, respectively in the 1-cell stage fertilized eggs, unfertilized eggs and 2-cell stage fertilized eggs. These results suggested that the outward current in fertilized eggs of 2-cell stage was more increased than those in the unfertilized eggs. Pure inward currents in the all stages of eggs showed a similar fashion in the I-V relationship from -50mV to 50mV and reversal potential at 50mV. Time constant of inactivation$({\tau})$ in the inward current was decreased as the membrane potential was depolarized in the unfertilized and 2-cell stage eggs but in the 1-cell stage eggs t was not likely to be affected significantly. Slope conductances were 14.2nS, 8.9n5 and 7.7nS in the 1-cell, 2-cell stage fertilized eggs and the unfertilized eggs, respectively. Membranes between two cells within a zona pellucida seem to be electrical-connected in the 2-cell stage eggs from the observation made in the analysis for the electronic spread and decay to the current stimuli. Both of inward current and membrane conductance were increased after fertilization in the mouse eggs. Inward current seems to be carried by the same ion or through the same channels up to the 2-cell stage and ion that carried inward current was thought to play important function after fertilization in the mouse eggs.

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A Study on eDesign Platform for Effective Communication and Information sharing - with an emphasis on process and template (효과적인 커뮤니케이션과 정보공유를 위한 e디자인 플랫폼 구축에 관한 연구 - 프로세스와 템플릿을 중심으로)

  • 윤주현
    • Archives of design research
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.425-436
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    • 2004
  • A new design field called eDesign appears as if eBiz is an online related business in which an industrialized design creates the individual value added facing a digital revolution. The field of eDesign requires a special design process and management methodology regardless of the fact that human sensitivity will be satisfied through a dehumanized computer technique. However, it is the reality of eDesign that has been dependent upon a simple process or project management tool of general design. In this study, we develop an eDesign platform based on an eDesign process and template mainly focused on eBusiness in order to overcome the wrong situation. The template is a kind of document that has a standardization form. We aim to establish a general process through various case projects, store information using a necessary template, and use for the way of visual communication. We propose a standard of eDesign platform that can be widely applied to the field of design, medium and small enterprises focused on IT businesses or design-team through this project performed as an educational-industrial study. It makes it possible to get a detailed process methodology, which can be applied to many small design related companies that don't have their own process yet, and will be a scale for comparing their own process in which the company has a process of opened standard eDesign with it. In addition, it makes possible a systematic control of the own projects within and outside the firm, accumulating information for the firm through the database, and easy communication. Furthermore, it can be applied to check the process of the project as a checklist, and then it will reduce trial and error repeated for every project that has been done.

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Evaluating Impact Resistance of Externally Strengthened Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Slab with Fiber Reinforced Polymers (섬유 보강재로 외부 보강된 강섬유 보강 콘크리트 슬래브의 충격저항성능 평가)

  • Yoo, Doo-Yeol;Min, Kyung-Hwan;Lee, Jin-Young;Yoon, Young-Soo
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.293-303
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    • 2012
  • Recently, as construction technology improved, concrete structures not only became larger, taller and longer but were able to perform various functions. However, if extreme loads such as impact, blast, and fire are applied to those structures, it would cause severe property damages and human casualties. Especially, the structural responses from extreme loading are totally different than that from quasi-static loading, because large pressure is applied to structures from mass acceleration effect of impact and blast loads. Therefore, the strain rate effect and damage levels should be considered when concrete structure is designed. In this study, the low velocity impact loading test of steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) slabs including 0%~1.5% (by volume) of steel fibers, and strengthened with two types of FRP sheets was performed to develop an impact resistant structural member. From the test results, the maximum impact load, dissipated energy and the number of drop to failure increased, whereas the maximum displacement and support rotation were reduced by strengthening SFRC slab with FRP sheets in tensile zone. The test results showed that the impact resistance of concrete slab can be substantially improved by externally strengthening using FRP sheets. This result can be used in designing of primary facilities exposed to such extreme loads. The dynamic responses of SFRC slab strengthened with FRP sheets under low velocity impact load were also analyzed using LS-DYNA, a finite element analysis program with an explicit time integration scheme. The comparison of test and analytical results showed that they were within 5% of error with respect to maximum displacements.

A Study on the Patient Exposure Doses from the Panoramic Radiography using Dentistry (치과 파노라마 촬영에서 환자의 피폭선량에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Ilwoo;Jeung, Wonkyo;Hwang, Hyungsuk;Lim, Sunghwan;Lee, Daenam;Im, Inchul;Lee, Jaeseung;Park, Hyonghu;Kwak, Byungjoon;Yu, Yunsik
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.17-24
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    • 2013
  • This study estimate radiation biological danger factor by measuring patient's exposed dose and propose the low way of patient's exposed dose in panoramic radiography. We seek correcting constant of OSL dosimeter for minimize the error of exposed dose's measurement and measure the Left, Right crystalline lens, thyroid, directly included upper, lower lips, the maxillary bone and the center of photographing that indirect included in panoramic radiography by using the human body model standard phantom advised in ICRP. In result, the center of photographing's level of radiation maximum value is $413.67{\pm}6.53{\mu}Gy$ and each upper, lower lips is $217.80{\pm}2.98{\mu}Gy$, $215.33{\pm}2.61{\mu}Gy$. Also in panoramic radiography, indirect included Left, Right crystalline lens's level of radiation are $30.73{\pm}2.34{\mu}Gy$, $31.87{\pm}2.50{\mu}Gy$, and thyroid's level of measured exposed dose can cause effect of radiation biological and we need justifiable analysis about radiation defense rule and substantiation advised international organization for the low way of patient's exposed dose in panoramic radiography of dental clinic and we judge need the additional study about radiation defense organization for protect the systematize protocol's finance and around internal organs for minimize until accepted by many people that is technological, economical and social fact by using panoramic measurement.