• Title, Summary, Keyword: human oral squamous carcinoma cells

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Anti-cancer Activity of Anthricin through Caspase-dependent Apoptosis in Human Hypopharyngeal Squamous Carcinoma Cell

  • Kim, Won Gi;Lee, Seul Ah;Moon, Sung Min;Kim, Jin-Soo;Kim, Su-Gwan;Shin, Yong Kook;Kim, Do Kyung;Kim, Chun Sung
    • International Journal of Oral Biology
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.183-190
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    • 2016
  • Anthricin (Deoxypodophyllotoxin), a naturally occurring flavolignan, has well known anti-cancer properties in several cancer cells, such as prostate cancer, cervical carcinoma and pancreatic cancer. However, the effects of Anthricin are currently unknown in oral cancer. We examined the anticancer effect and mechanism of action of Anthricin in human FaDu hypopharyngeal squamous carcinoma cells. Our data showed that Anthricin inhibits cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner ($IC_{50}$ 50 nM) in the MTT assay and Live & Dead assay. In addition, Anthricin treated FaDu cells showed marked apoptosis by DAPI stain and FACS. Furthermore, Anthricin activates anti-apoptotic factors such as caspase-3, -9 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), suggesting that caspase-mediated pathways are involved in Anthricin- induced apoptosis. Anthricin treatment also leads to accumulation of the pro-apoptotic factor Bax, followed by inhibition of cell growth. Taken together, these results indicate that Anthricn-induced cell death of human FaDu hypopharyngeal squamous carcinoma cells is mediated by mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathway. In summary, our findings provide a framework for further exploration on Anthricin as a novel chemotherapeutic drug for human oral cancer.

NaF-induced Autophagy on SCC25 Human Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells

  • Kang, Jin-Mo;Lee, Bo-Young;Kim, In-Ryoung;Kim, Yong-Ho;Yu, Su-Bin;Park, Hae-Ryoun;Park, Bong-Soo
    • International Journal of Oral Biology
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.193-199
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    • 2014
  • Fluoride has been accepted as an important material for oral health and is widely used to prevent dental caries in dentistry. However, its safety is still questioned by some. Autophagy has been implicated in cancer cell survival and death, and may play an important role in oral cancer. This study was undertaken to examine whether sodium fluoride (NaF) modulates autophagy in SCC25 human tongue squamous cell carcinoma cells. NaF demonstrated anticancer activity via autophagic and apoptotic cell death. Autophagic vacuoles were detectable using observed to form by monodansylcadaverine (MDC) and acridine orange (AO). Analysis of NaF-treated SCC25 cells for the presence of biochemical markers revealed direct effects on the conversion of LC-3II, degradation of p62/SQSTM1, cleavage formation of ATG5 and Beclin-1, and caspase activation. NaF-induced cell death was suppressed by the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA). NaF-induced autophagy was confirmed as a pro-death signal in SCC25 cells. These results implicate NaF as a novel anticancer compound for oral cancer therapy.

Latex of Ficus carica L. Induces Apoptosis Through Caspase and Bcl-2 Family in FaDu Human Hypopharynx Squamous Carcinoma Cells

  • Shin, Bo Su;Lee, Seul Ah;Moon, Sung Min;Han, Seul Hee;Hwang, Eun Ju;Kim, Su-Gwan;Kim, Do Kyung;Kim, Jin-Soo;Park, Bo-Ram;Kim, Chun Sung
    • International Journal of Oral Biology
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.183-190
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    • 2017
  • Ficus carica L. (common fig), one of the first plants cultivated by humans, originated in the Mediterranean basin and currently grows worldwide, including southwest Asia and South Korea. It has been used as a traditional medicine for treatment of metabolic, cardiovascular, and respiratory diseases as well as hemorrhoids and skin infections. Its pharmacological properties have recently been studied in detail, but research on the anti-cancer effect of its latex has been only been studied on a limited basis on several cell lines, such prostate cancer, breast cancer, and leukemia. In this study, we investigated the anti-cancer activity of the latex of Ficus carica L.and its underlying mechanism in FaDu human hypopharynx squamous carcinoma cells. (See Ed. note above) We confirmed through SDS-PAGE analysis and gelatinolytic activity analysis that the latex of Ficus carica contains cysteine protease ficin. Our data showed that the latex inhibited cell growth in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the latex treatment markedly induced apoptosis in FaDu cells as determined by FACS analysis, elevated expression level of cleaved caspase-9, -3 and PARP (poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase), and. increased the expression of Bax (pro-apoptotic factor) while decreasing the expression of Bcl-2 (anti-apoptotic factor). Taken together, these results suggested that latex containing the ficin inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis by caspase and the Bcl-2 family signaling pathway in FaDu human hypopharynx squamous carcinoma cells. These findings point to the potential of latex of Ficus carica to provide a novel chemotherapeutic drug due to its growth inhibition effects and induction of apoptosis in human oral cancer cells.

Mechanism Underlying NaF-Induced Apoptosis in Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  • Hur, Young-Joo;Kim, Do-Kyun;Lee, Seung-Eun;Kim, In-Ryoung;Jeong, Na-Young;Kim, Ji-Young;Park, Bong-Soo
    • International Journal of Oral Biology
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.51-60
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    • 2010
  • Few studies have evaluated the apoptosis-inducing efficacy of NaF on cancer cells in vitro but there has been no previous investigation of the apoptotic effects of NaF on human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. In this study, we have investigated the mechanisms underlying the apoptotic response to NaF treatment in the YD9 human squamous cell carcinoma cell line. The viability of YD9 cells and their growth inhibition were assessed by MTT and clonogenic assays, respectively. Hoechst staining, DNA electrophoresis and TUNEL staining were conducted to detect apoptosis. YD9 cells were treated with NaF, and western blotting, immunocytochemistry, confocal microscopy, FACScan flow cytometry, and MMP and proteasome activity assays were performed sequentially. The NaF treatment resulted in a time- and dose-dependent decrease in YD9 cell viability, a dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth, and the induction of apoptotic cell death. The apoptotic response of these cells was manifested by nuclear condensation, DNA fragmentation, the reduction of MMP and proteasome activity, a decreased DNA content, the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol, the translocation of AIF and DFF40 (CAD) into the nucleus, a significant shift of the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and the activation of caspase-9, caspase-3, PARP, Lamin A/C and DFF45 (ICAD). Furthermore, NaF treatment resulted in the downregulation of G1 cell cyclerelated proteins, and upregulation of p53 and the Cdk inhibitor $p27^{KIP1}$. Taken collectively, our present findings demonstrate that NaF strongly inhibits YD9 cell proliferation by modulating the expression of G1 cell cycle-related proteins and inducing apoptosis via mitochondrial and caspase pathways.

Bradykinin-induced $Ca^{2+}$ signaling in human oral squamous cell carcinoma HSC-3 cells

  • Sohn, Byung-Jin;Kang, Ji-Ah;Jo, Su-Hyun;Choi, Se-Young
    • International Journal of Oral Biology
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.73-79
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    • 2009
  • Cytosolic $Ca^{2+}$ is an important regulator of tumor cell proliferation and metastasis. Recently, the strategy of blocking receptors and channels specific to certain cancer cell types has emerged as a potentially viable future treatment. Oral squamous cell carcinoma is an aggressive form of cancer with a high metastasis rate but the receptor-mechanisms involved in $Ca^{2+}$ signaling in these tumors have not yet been elucidated. In our present study, we report that bradykinin induces $Ca^{2+}$ signaling and its modulation in the human oral squamous carcinoma cell line, HSC-3. Bradykinin was found to increase the cytosolic $Ca^{2+}$ levels in a concentration-dependent manner. This increase was inhibited by pretreatment with the phospholipase C-${\beta}$ inhibitor, U73122, and also by 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, an inhibitor of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor. Pretreatment with extracellular ATP also inhibited the peak bradykinin-induced $Ca^{2+}$ rise. In contrast, the ATP-induced rise in cytosolic $Ca^{2+}$ was not affected by pretreatment with bradykinin. Pretreatment of the cells with either forskolin or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (activators of adenylyl cyclase and protein kinase C, respectively) prior to bradykinin application accelerated the recovery of cytosolic $Ca^{2+}$ to baseline levels. These data suggest that bradykinin receptors are functional in $Ca^{2+}$ signaling in HSC-3 cells and may therefore represent a future target in treatment strategies for human oral squamous cell carcinoma.

Recombinant Azurin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa Induces Apoptotic Cell Death in Oral Squamous Carcinoma Cells

  • Kim, Uk-Kyu;Jeon, Hyun-Jun;Lee, Moo-Hyung;Kim, Gyoo-Cheon
    • International Journal of Oral Biology
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.35-42
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    • 2010
  • The use of bacteria in the treatment of cancer has a long and interesting history. The use of live bacteria in this way however has a number of potential problems including toxicity. Purified low molecular weight bacterial proteins have therefore been tested as anticancer agents to avoid such complications. Oral cancer is a widely occurring disease around the world and these lesions are typically very resistant to anticancer agents. In our present study we investigated the effects of purified recombinant azurin from Pseudomonas (P.) aeruginosa against YD-9 (p53-positive) human oral squamous carcinoma cells. Azurin showed cytotoxic effects against these cells in a dose dependent manner. The cell death accompanied by this treatment was found to be characterized by chromatin condensation and apoptotic bodies. Azurin treatment was further found to increase the expression of p53 The stabilization of p53 and induction of apoptosis in YD-9 cells by azurin suggests that it has potentially very strong anticancer properties in oral squamous carcinoma.

Mechanism underlying Chios gum mastic-induced apoptosis on SCC25 human tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell line

  • Lee, Seung-Eun;Hur, Young-Joo;Kim, In-Ryoung;Kwak, Hyun-Ho;Kim, Gyoo-Cheon;Shin, Sang-Hun;Kim, Chul-Hoon;Park, Bong-Soo
    • International Journal of Oral Biology
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.61-72
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    • 2009
  • Chios gum mastic (CGM) is a resin produced from the stem and leaves of Pistiacia lentiscus L var chia, a plant which grows only on Chios Island in Greece. CGM has been used for many centuries as a dietary supplement and folk medicine for stomach and duodenal ulcers in many Mediterranean countries and is known also to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in some cancer cells. In this study, we further investigated the induction and mechanisms underlying the apoptotic response to CGM treatment in the SCC25 human tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell line. The viability of SCC25 cells, human normal keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) and human gingival fibroblasts (HGF-1 cells), and the growth inhibition of SCC25 cells were assessed by MTT assay and clonogenic assay, respectively. Staining with Hoechst and hemacolor dyes and TUNEL assays were employed to detect SCC25 cells undergoing apoptosis. SCC25 cells were treated with CGM, and this was followed by western blotting, immunocytochemistry, confocal microscopy, FACScan flow cytometry, MMP activity and proteasome activity analyses. CGM treatment of SCC25 cells was found to result in a time- and dosedependent decrease in cell viability, a dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth, and apoptotic cell death. Interestingly, CGM showed a remarkable level of cytotoxicity in SCC25 cells but not in normal cells. Tested SCC25 cells also showed several lines of apoptotic manifestation. Taken together, our present findings demonstrate that CGM strongly inhibits cell proliferation by modulating the expression of G1 cell cycle-related proteins and induces apoptosis via the proteasome, mitochondria and caspase cascades in SCC25 cells.

Growth Inhibition of Human Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinomas by Angelica decursiva Extracts

  • Shin, Woo-Cheol;Kim, Chun-Sung;Kim, Heung-Joong;Lee, Myoung-Hwa;Kim, Hye-Ryun;Kim, Do-Kyung
    • International Journal of Oral Biology
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.153-158
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    • 2010
  • Angelica decursiva has been used in Korean traditional medicine as an antitussive, an analgesic, an antipyretic and a cough remedy. However, the anti-cancer properties of Angelica decursiva have not yet been well defined. In our current study the cytotoxic activity of ethanol extracts of Angelica decursiva root (EEAD) and the mechanism of cell death exhibited by EEAD were examined in FaDu human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells. The cytotoxic effects of EEAD upon the growth of FaDu cells were examined with an MTT assay. In addition, the mechanism of cell death induced by EEAD was evaluated by DNA fragmentation analysis, immunoblotting and caspase activation measurements. EEAD induced apoptotic cell death in FaDu cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, as determined by MTT assay and DNA fragmentation analysis. Furthermore, the proteolytic processing of caspase-3, -7 and -9 was increased by EEAD treatment of FaDu cells. In addition, the activation of caspase-3 and -7 was detected in living FaDu cells by fluorescence microscopy. These results suggest that EEAD can induce apoptosis and suppress cell growth in cancer cells and may have utility as a future anticancer therapy.

Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 in Development and Progression of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  • Zaid, Khaled Waleed;Chantiri, Mansour;Bassit, Ghassan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.927-932
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    • 2016
  • Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), belonging to the transforming growth factor-${\beta}$ superfamily, regulate many cellular activities including cell migration, differentiation, adhesion, proliferation and apoptosis. Use of recombinant human bone morphogenic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) in oral and maxillofacial surgery has seen a tremendous increase. Due to its role in many cellular pathways, the influence of this protein on carcinogenesis in different organs has been intensively studied over the past decade. BMPs also have been detected to have a role in the development and progression of many tumors, particularly disease-specific bone metastasis. In oral squamous cell carcinoma - the tumor type accounting for more than 90% of head and neck malignancies- aberrations of both BMP expression and associated signaling pathways have a certain relation with the development and progression of the disease by regulating a range of biological functions in the altered cells. In the current review, we discuss the influence of BMPs -especially rhBMP-2- in the development and progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

Water Extracts of Anthriscus sylvestris Leaf induces Apoptosis in FaDu Human Hypopharynx Squamous Carcinoma Cells

  • Yang, Jung Eun;Lee, Seul Ah;Moon, Sung Min;Han, Seul Hee;Choi, Yun Hee;Kim, Su-Gwan;Kim, Do Kyung;Park, Bo-Ram;Kim, Chun Sung
    • International Journal of Oral Biology
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.47-54
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    • 2017
  • Anthriscus sylvestris (L.) Hoffm. is a perennial herb found widely distributed in various regions of Korea, Europe, and New Zealand. The root of A. sylvestris have been extensively used in the treatment for antitussive, antipyretic, cough remedy in Oriental medicine, but the physiologically active function of the leaf of A. sylvestris is as yet unknown. In this study, we investigated the anti-cancer activity and the mechanism of cell death of water extracts of leaf of Anthriscus sylvestris (WELAS), on human FaDu hypopharyngeal squamous carcinoma cells. Our data showed that WELAS treatment inhibited cell viability in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. In addition, the treatment of WELAS markedly induced apoptosis in FaDu cells, as determined by the viability assay, DAPI stain and FACS analysis. WELAS also increased the proteolytic cleavage of procaspase-3, -9 and PARP (poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase). In addition, exposure to WELAS decreased the expression of Bcl-2 (an anti-apoptotic factor), but increased the expression of Bax (a pro-apoptotic factor), suggesting that mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathways are mediated in WELAS-induced apoptosis. Taken together, these results indicate that water extracts of leaf of A. sylvestris inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis via the mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathway in FaDu human hypopharyngeal squamous carcinoma cells. Therefore, we propose that the water extracts of leaf of A. sylvestris is a novel chemotherapeutic drug, having growth inhibitory properties and induction of apoptosis in human oral cancer cells.