• Title, Summary, Keyword: human oral squamous carcinoma cells

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Apoptotic Effect of Co-treatment with Curcumin and Cisplatin on SCC25 Human Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cell Line

  • Sohn, Hyeon-Jin;Kim, In-Ryoung;Kim, Yong-Ho;Kim, Gyoo-Cheon;Kwak, Hyun-Ho;Park, Bong-Soo
    • International Journal of Oral Biology
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.159-167
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    • 2014
  • Curcumin is a widely used flavoring agent in food, and it has been reported to inhibit cell growth, to induce apoptosis, and to have antitumor activity in many cancers. Cisplatin is one of the most potent known anticancer agents and shows significant clinical activity against a variety of solid tumors. This study was undertaken to investigate the synergistic apoptotic effects of co-treatment with curcumin and cisplatin on human tongue SCC25 cells. To investigate whether the co-treatment efficiently reduced the viability of the SCC25 cells compared with the two treatments separately, an MTT assay was conducted. The induction and the augmentation of apoptosis were confirmed by DNA electrophoresis, Hoechst staining, and an analysis of DNA hypoploidy. Western blot, MMP and immunofluorescence tests were also performed to evaluate the expression levels and the translocation of apoptosis-related proteins following the co-treatment. In this study, following the co-treatment with curcumin and cisplatin, the SCC25 cells showed several forms of apoptotic manifestation, such as nuclear condensation, DNA fragmentation, reduction of MMP, increased levels of Bax, decreased levels of Bcl-2, and decreased DNA content. In addition, they showed a release of cytochrome c into the cytosol, translocation of AIF and DFF40 (CAD) to the nuclei, and activation of caspase-7, caspase-3, PARP, and DFF45 (ICAD). In contrast, separate treatments of $5{\mu}M$ of curcumin or $4{\mu}g/ml$ of cisplatin, for 24 hours, did not induce apoptosis. Therefore, our data suggest that combination therapy with curcumin and cisplatin could be considered as a novel therapeutic strategy for human oral squamous cell carcinoma.

Mechanism Underlying Shikonin-induced Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest on SCC25 Human Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cell Line

  • Oh, Sang-Hun;Park, Sung-Jin;Yu, Su-Bin;Kim, Yong-Ho;Kim, In-Ryoung;Park, Bong-Soo
    • International Journal of Oral Biology
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.51-61
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    • 2015
  • Shikonin, a major ingredient in the traditional Chinese herb Lithospermumerythrorhizon, exhibits multiple biological functions including antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor effects. It has recently been reported that shikonin displays antitumor properties in many cancers. This study was aimed to investigate whether shikonin could inhibit oral squamous carcinoma cell (OSCC) growth via mechanisms of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. The effects of shikonin on the viability and growth of OSCC cell line, SCC25 cells were assessed by MTT assay and clonogenic assays, respectively. Hoechst staining and DNA electrophoresis indicated that the shikonin-treated SCC25 cells were undergoing apoptosis. Western blotting, immunocytochemistry, confocal microscopy, flow cytometry, MMP activity, and proteasome activity also supported the finding that shikonin induces apoptosis. Shikonin treatment of SCC25 cells resulted in a time- and dose-dependent decrease in cell viability, inhibition of cell growth, and increase in apoptotic cell death. The treated SCC25 cells showed several lines of apoptotic manifestation as follows: nuclear condensation; DNA fragmentation; reduced MMP and proteasome activity; decrease in DNA contents; release of cytochrome c into cytosol; translocation of AIF and DFF40 (CAD) onto the nuclei; a significant shift in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio; and activation of caspase-9, -7, -6, and -3, as well as PARP, lamin A/C, and DFF45 (ICAD). Shikonin treatment also resulted in down-regulation of the G1 cell cycle-related proteins and up-regulation of $p27^{KIP1}$. Taken together, our present findings demonstrate that shikonin strongly inhibits cell proliferation by modulating the expression of the G1 cell cycle-related proteins, and that it induces apoptosis via the proteasome, mitochondria, and caspase cascades in SCC25 cells.

EXPRESSION OF DOMINANT NEGATIVE p63 ISOFORM IN WELL-DIFFERENCIATED ORAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA (분화도 좋은 구강 편평상피세포암종에서 Dominant Negative p63 isoform의 발현)

  • Kim, In-Su;Kim, Chul-Hwan;Kim, Kyung-Wook
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.191-198
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    • 2007
  • The p53 which is well known as tumor suppressor gene is located at 17p13. p53 is a sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor that responds to certain cytotoxic stresses, such as DNA damage, by enhancing the transcription of genes that regulate cell-cycle progression as well as programmed cell death. The p63 gene that is located at 3q27-29, is recognized members of the p53 family, and responsible for the transcription of 6 isoforms. Three isoforms ($TAp63{\alpha}$, $TAp63{\beta}$, $TAp63{\gamma}$) contain an N-terminal transactivation (TA) domain and can induce apoptosis. The other 3 isoforms (${\Delta}Np63{\alpha}$, ${\Delta}Np63{\beta}$, ${\Delta}Np63{\gamma}$) lack the TA domain and may function in a dominant-negative fashion by inhibiting the transactivation functions of p53 and TAp63 proteins, and thus act as oncoproteins. A number of studies have investigated the role of p63 in human squamous cell carcinomas from different organs. Only a few studies have examined ${\Delta}Np63$ isoform in oral squamous cell carcinoma including normal epithelium. This study aimed to evaluate expression of ${\Delta}Np63$ isoform in human oral squamous cell carcinoma tissue and normal mucosa. The 3 cases of well differenciated oral squamous cell carcinoma specimen including adjacent normal mucosa were examined, and immunohistochemical study with monoclonal antibody(4A4) and tumor cell apoptosis analysis with Transmission Electon Microscopy were studied. And, RT-PCR analysis was done for expression of ${\Delta}Np63$ isoform. The results were as followed. 1. Normal gingiva showed the restricted p63 expression in basal cell layer. 2. Well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma showed mainly p63 expression in overall area of malignancy, especially in basal cell layer to adjacent stromal tissue. 3. Tumor cells around keratinized area with no p63 expression disclosed less micro-organelle in decreased size cytoplasm and severe chromatin margination with nuclear destruction that means apoptosis. 4. Comparison of mRNA expression of ${\Delta}Np63$ isoform by RT-PCR showed variable expression of ${\Delta}Np63$ isoform, but ${\Delta}Np63{\alpha}$ was most highly expressed in all 3 tumor specimen. From theses results, it should be suggested that ${\Delta}Np63$ isoform expression in well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma was closely related to tumor oncogenesis, expecially overexpression of ${\Delta}Np63{\alpha}$ is a most important factor in tumor genesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

Mechanism Underlying Curcumin-induced Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest on SCC25 Human Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cell Line

  • Moon, Jung-Bon;Lee, Kee-Hyun;Kim, In-Ryoung;Kim, Gyoo-Cheon;Kwak, Hyun-Ho;Park, Bong-Soo
    • International Journal of Oral Biology
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.23-33
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    • 2014
  • Several studies have shown that curcumin, which is derived from the rhizomes of turmeric, possesses antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The antitumor properties of curcumin have also now been demonstrated more recently in different cancers. This study was undertaken to investigate the modulation of cell cycle-related proteins and the mechanisms underlying apoptosis induction by curcumin in the SCC25 human tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell line. Curcumin treatment of the SCC25 cells resulted in a time- and dose-dependent reduction in cell viability and cell growth, and onset of apoptotic cell death. The curcumin-treated SCC25 cells showed several types of apoptotic manifestations, such as nuclear condensation, DNA fragmentation, reduced MMP and proteasome activity, and a decreased DNA content. In addition, the treated SCC25 cells showed a release of cytochrome c into the cytosol, translocation of AIF and DFF40/CAD into the nuclei, a significant shift in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and the activation of caspase-9, caspase-7, caspase-6, caspase-3, PARP, lamin A/C, and DFF45/ICAD. Furthermore, curcumin exposure resulted in a downregulation of G1 cell cycle-related proteins and upregulation of $p27^{KIP1}$. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that curcumin strongly inhibits cell proliferation by modulating the expression of G1 cell cycle-related proteins and inducing apoptosis via proteasomal, mitochondrial, and caspase cascades in SCC25 cells.

ANTI-TUMOR EFFECTS OF VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR INHIBITOR ON ORAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA CELL LINES (혈관내피세포성장인자 억제제에 의한 구강편평상피세포암종 세포주의 성장 억제 효과)

  • Han, Se-Jin;Lee, Jae-Hoon
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.66-73
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    • 2009
  • Tumor angiogenesis is a process leading to formation of blood vessels within tumors and is crucial for maintaining a supply of oxygen and nutrients to support tumor growth and metastasis. Vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) plays a key role in tumor angiogenesis including induction of endothelial cell proliferation, migration, survival and capillary tube formation. VEGF binds to two distinct receptors on endothelial cells. VEGFR-2 is considered to be the dominant signaling receptor for endothelial cell permeability, proliferation, and differentiation. Bevacizumab(Avastin, Genetech, USA) is a monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor. It is used in the treatment of cancer, where it inhibits tumor growth by blocking the formation of new blood vessels. The goal of this study is to identify the anti-tumor effect of Bevacizumab(Avastin) for oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. Human squamous cell carcinoma cell line(HN4) was used in this study. We examined the sensitivity of HN4 cell line to Bevacizumab(Avastin) by using in vitro proliferation assays. The results were as follows. 1. In the result of MTT assay according to concentration of Bevacizumab(Avastin), antiproliferative effect for oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines was observed. 2. The growth curve of cell line showed the gradual growth inhibition of oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines after exposure of Bevacizumab(Avastin). 3. In the apoptotic index, groups inoculated Bevacizumab(Avastin) were higher than control groups. 4. In condition of serum starvation, VEGFR-2 did not show any detectable autophosphorylation, whereas the addition of VEGF activated the receptor. Suppression of phosphorylated VEGFR-2 and phosphorylated MAPK was observed following treatment with Bevacizumab(Avastin) in a dose-dependent manner. 5. In TEM view, dispersed nuclear membrane, scattered many cytoplasmic vacuoles and localized chromosomal margination after Bevacizumab(Avastin) treatment were observed. These findings suggest that Bevacizumab(Avastin) has the potential to inhibit MAPK pathway in proliferation of oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines via inhibition of VEGF-dependent tumor growth.

Mutantional analysis of tumor suppressor gene p53 in human oral squamous carcinoma cell line YD-9

  • Min, Ji-Hak;Kim, Do-Kyun;Lee, Moo-Hyung;Bae, Moon-Kyoung;Um, Kyung-Il;Kwak, Hyun-Ho;Park, Bong-Soo;Kim, Gyoo-Cheon
    • International Journal of Oral Biology
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.79-84
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    • 2007
  • Oral squamous carcinoma (OSC) is the most common malignant neoplasm of the oral mucosa. Although the etiology of OSC is not fully understood, accumulated evidences indicate that the activation of proto-oncogenes and the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes underlie the disease development. An OSC cell line, YD-9 was newly established and characterized. However, the mutational analysis of p53 gene was not performed. Thus, in this study, the presence of mutation in the p53 gene was examined by amplification of exon-4 to -8 and subsequent DNA sequencing. Two point mutations were found in exon-4 and -6: A to G, resulting in amino acid change Tyr to Cys in exon-4, and C to G, resulting in amino acid change Gly to Arg in exon-6, respectively. Any mutation was not found in the exon-5, -7 and -8. The presented results would contribute to basic research to understand the biological mechanism of OSC using YD-9 cells.

TARGETED MOLECULAR THERAPY IN A MURINE MODEL OF ORAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA WITH AN EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR INHIBITOR (구강 편평상피세포암 마우스 모델에서 상피성장인자 수용체 억제제를 적용한 분자표적치료)

  • Park, Young-Wook
    • Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.8-17
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    • 2009
  • Purpose: We determined the therapeutic effect of an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb), cetuximab (Erbitux) on the growth of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) xenografted in athymic nude mice. Experimental Design: We induced subcutaneous tumors by inoculating human tumor cell suspension into the right flank of nude mice. Nude mice with subcutaneous tumors were randomized to receive cetuximab alone, paclitaxel alone, cetuximab plus paclitaxel, or a placebo (control). Antitumor mechanisms of cetuximab were determined by immunohistochemical and apoptosis assays. Results: Cetuximab, paclitaxel, and cetuximab/paclitaxel combined therapy resulted in 50%, 52%, 67% in vivo inhibition of tumor proliferation, respectively. Tumors of mice treated with cetuximab plus paclitaxel demonstrated decreased PCNA-positive tumor cells and increased apoptotic tumor cells, which slowed growth of the murine tumors. Conclusion: These data show that EGFR can be a molecular target for the treatment of OSCC. And combination therapy with cetuximab and paclitaxel warrants further clinical study.

CD44 EXPRESSION IN ORAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA (구강 편평세포 암종에서의 CD44 발현)

  • Park, Sang-Jun;Park, Hae-Ryoun;Kim, Gyoo-Cheon;Park, Bong-Soo;Kim, Tae-Kyu
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.132-136
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    • 2000
  • The cell surface glycoprotein CD44 is a kind of adhesion molecule, which binds hyaluronic acid, type I collagen and fibronectin. Although there have been numerous reports on the expression and the function of CD44 in lymphocytes and macrophages, very little is known about its distribution and definite role in epithelial tissue, especially in oral epithelial one. The present study was performed to investigate the distribution and expression of the CD44 in human gingiva and squamous cell carcinoma(SCC) arising in human gingiva. And the authors compared CD44 expression with histopathologic grade of SCC. The results were as follows: 1. The CD44 was strongly expressed in granular, spinous and basal layers of normal marginal and attached gingiva, in spinous and basal layers of normal sulcular gingiva, and in all epithelial layers of normal junctional gingiva. 2. In SCC of gingiva, the CD44 was expressed in all but one case. In most of the cases the CD44 was expressed at cell membrane and the degree of expression was relatively strong. 3. In low-grade SCC of gingiva, the CD44 was strongly expressed, especially at the basal and spinous layers of abundantly keratinized cancer nests. In high-grade SCC of gingiva, the CD44 expression tended to be weak but was strong at cells showing individual keratinization. This study suggest that the CD44 expression of normal and cancerous gingival epithelium is associated with the degree of proliferation and differentiation of epithelial cells.

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Apoptotic Response of Human Oral Squamous Carcinoma Cells to Etoposide (Etoposide에 대한 사람구강편평상피암종세포의 세포자멸사 반응)

  • Kim, Gyoo-Cheon;Lee, Kyoung-Duk;Park, Jae-Hyun;Kim, Duk-Han;Park, Jeong-Kil;Park, June-Sang;Park, Bong-Soo
    • Journal of Oral Medicine and Pain
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.231-238
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    • 2005
  • Anti-cancer drugs have been shown to target diverse cellular functions in mediation cell death in chemosensitive tumors. Most antineoplastic drugs used in chemotherapy of leukemias and solid tumors induce apoptosis in drug-sensitive target cells. However, the precise molecular requirements that are central for drug-induced cell death are largely unknown. Etoposide is used for the treatment of lung and testicular cancer. This study was performed to examine whether etoposide promote apoptosis in human oral squamous carcinoma cells (OSC9) as well as in lung and testicular cancer. Etoposide had a significant dose- and time-dependent inhibitory effect on the viability of OSC9 cells. TUNEL assay showed the positive reaction on condensed nuclei. Hoechst stain demonstrated that etoposide induced a change in nuclear morphology. The expression of p53 was increased at 48 hour, suggesting that the nuclear of OSC9 cell was damaged, thereby inducing apoptosis. Etoposide treatment induced caspase-3 cleavage and activation. Intact PARP protein 116-kDa and 85-kDa cleaved product were observed. The activated caspase-3 led cleavage of the PARP. These results demonstrate that etoposide-induced apoptosis in OSC9 cells is associated with caspase-3 activation.

The effect of eugenol on the induction of apoptosis in HSC-2 human oral squamous cell carcinoma (사람구강편평상피암세포에서 유지놀에 의한 세포자멸사 유도 효과)

  • Kim, Yong-Ho;Park, Bong-Soo
    • Journal of Korean society of Dental Hygiene
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.523-529
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    • 2015
  • Objectives: Oropharynx tumors(oral cancer), are caused by tobacco, alcohol consumption, and high-risk human papillomavirus(HPV) infection. Oral squamous cell carcinoma(OSCC) is the most common type of oral cancer and frequently arises from the mucosa of the oropharynx and oral cavity. Despite advances in the diagnosis and treatment(chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery) of oral cancer, over the past two decades, the overall survival rates remains at about 60%. Methods: We pretreated HSC-2 cells with various doses of exposed the cells to eugenol and then we measured cell viability by MTT assay. Results: Cell proliferation was markedly inhibited after eugenol treatment compared to the control. The majority of HSC-2 cells in the control groups showed normal morphology with round regular nuclei. In contrast, apoptotic bodies were seen in the 0.5 mM, 1 mM, 2 mM group. However, the pretreatment with eugenol increased HSC-2 cells apoptosis according to dose-dependency. PI staining quantitatively confirmed the anti-apoptotic effects of propofol. The expression levels of cleaved caspase 3, and Bak significantly increased in HSC-2 cells. Conclusions: These findings indicate that eugenol could be a potential anti-cancer agent for human OSCC and provide valuable data for the development of a novel anticancer strategy.