• Title/Summary/Keyword: human oral squamous carcinoma cells

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BONE METASTASIS MODEL OF ORAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA (구강 편평상피세포암의 골전이 모델)

  • Park, Young-Wook;Oh, Yu-Jin;Lee, Hee-Su
    • Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.118-125
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    • 2010
  • Background and Purpose: Bone metastases rarely occur in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), so the molecular mechanisms of bone metastasis of OSCC remains unclear. Studies with animal models allow progresses in understanding the molecular events for bone metastasis and provide new targets for therapy. So we tried to establish a murine model for bone metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Materials and Methods: Human OSCC cells (KB cell line) were xenografted to nude mice via direct inoculation into the tibial marrow. Mice with tibial tumors were sacrificed once a week, until seven weeks after the injection of human tumor cells. Growth of tibial tumors were observed by histology. Expression of TGF-$\beta$ and CXCR-4 in bone OSCC (experimental) and subcutaneous tumor (control) was also evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. Results: Bone OSCC was successfully induced by intra-tibial injection of KB cells. Tumor mass was developed in the marrow tissues of tibia and finally invade the endosteum of tibia. Immunohistochemical staining showed higher expression of TGF-$\beta$ in bone tumors than in subcutaneous tumors. Conclusion: A murine model of bone metastasis of OSCC was suggested that imitated the clinical findings of distant vascular metastasis. This bone tumor model should facilitate understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of OSCC bone metastasis, and aid in the developement of treatment strategies against OSCC bone metastasis.

Inhibition of cell growth and induction of apoptosis by bilobalide in FaDu human pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

  • Jeong, Kyung In;Kim, Su-Gwan;Go, Dae-San;Kim, Do Kyungm
    • International Journal of Oral Biology
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.8-14
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    • 2020
  • Bilobalide isolated from the leaves of Ginkgo biloba has several pharmacological activities such as neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anticonvulsant. However, the effect of bilobalide on cancer has not been clearly established. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of bilobalide on cell growth and apoptosis induction in FaDu human pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. This was examined by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, nuclear 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride staining, DNA fragmentation analysis, and immunoblotting. Bilobalide inhibited the growth of FaDu cells in dose- and time-dependent manners. Treatment with bilobalide resulted in nuclear condensation and DNA fragmentation in FaDu cells. Furthermore, it promoted the proteolytic cleavage of procaspase-3/-7/-8/-9 with increase in the amount of cleaved caspase-3/-7/-8/-9. Bilobalide-induced apoptosis in FaDu cells was mediated by the expression of Fas and the activation of caspase-8, caspase-3, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Immunoblotting revealed that the antiapoptotic mitochondrial protein Bcl-2 was downregulated, but the proapoptotic protein Bax was upregulated by bilobalide in FaDu cells. Bilobalide significantly increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. These results suggest that bilobalide inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in FaDu human pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma via both the death receptor-mediated extrinsic apoptotic pathway and the mitochondrial-mediated intrinsic apoptotic pathway.

Comparative Expression of Bcl-2 and NOS2 in Oral White Lesions and Squamous Cell Carcinoma (구강내 백색병소와 편평상피세포암종에서 bcl-2와 NOS2 비교발현에 관한 연구)

  • Shin, Min;Kim, Eun-Cheol
    • Journal of Oral Medicine and Pain
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.145-161
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    • 1999
  • The proto-oncogene bcl-2 confers a survival advantage to cells by blocking programmed cell death (apoptosis). Overexpression of bcl-2 probably plays a role in tumorigenesis, and the expression of the bcl-2 protein has been investigated in many kinds of tumors. An increased expression of nitric oxide synthetase(NOS) has been observed in human colon cancer cell lines as well as in human gynecological, breast, and CNS tumors. However there have been only a few reports on the expression of bcl-2 and $NOS_2$ in oral white lesions and cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the expression of Bcl-2 and $NOS_2$ and several pathological parameters such as histological types and layers. We reported desregulation of bcl-2 and $NOS_2$ expression during progression from oral white lesion, lichen planus and leukoplakia to squamous cell carcinoma. The obtained results were as follows: 1. Immunohistochemical analysis with monoclonal antibodies to bcl-2 oncoprotein and $NOS_2$ in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections revealed that bcl-2 expression is restricted to the basal cell layer and $NOS_2$ was mild expressed only in subepithelial inflammatory cells in normal human mucosa. There wasn't specific finding of those in lichen planus and leukoplakia. 2. Bcl-2 immunoreactivity in severe epithelial dysplasia or CIS occurs throughout the epithelium, $NOS_2$ reactivity in most superficial layer were noted. 3. In well-differentiated squamous cell carcinomas, mostly bcl-2 was overexpressed. In moderated and poor squamous cell carcinomas, the expression of $NOS_2$ was increased and that of bcl-2 was decreased. 4. The immunoreactivity of bcl-2 was 12.5% of normal mucosa, 30% of leukoplakia, 44% of lichen planus and 67% of carcinoma in situ. In carcinoma, those were 43%, 50% and 67% according to differentiation, respectively. 5. The immunoreactivity of $NOS_2$ was 25% of normal mucosa, 70% of leukoplakia, 78% of lichen planus and 100% of carcinoma in situ and epithelial dysplasia. In carcinoma, those were higher in moderated(100%) and poor(83%) squamous cell carcinomas than in well differentiated type(71%). 6. The expression of bcl-2 and $NOS_2$ by Western blot was increased highly in lichen planus and leukoplakia. Therefore, the expression of bcl-2 was increased in the white and precancerous lesions and that was decreased by differentiation of carcinoma. However, $NOS_2$ immunoreactivity in carcinoma in situ was lower than those in moderated and poor squamous cell. These findings suggest that the interaction of bcl-2 and $NOS_2$ may be roled importantly in growth and development of carcinoma.

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CONCOMITANT INHIBITION OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR AND VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR TYROSINE KINASES IN ORAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA (구강 편평상피세포암에서 상피성장인자 수용체와 혈관내피성장인자 수용체 타이로신 활성화효소의 동시 억제)

  • Park, Young-Wook;Lee, Sang-Shin
    • Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.193-201
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    • 2006
  • Squamous cell carcinoma(SCC) of head and neck(SCCHN) is the sixth most common human malignant tumor. However, despite advances in prevention and treatment of SCC, the five-year survival rates for patients remain still low. To improve the outcome for patients with SCCHN, novel treatment strategies are needed. Overexpression of the epidermal growth factor(EGF) and activation of its receptor(EGFR) are associated with progressive growth of SCCHN. Vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) signaling molecules are related with neoangiogenesis and vascular metastasis of SCC. In this study, we determined the therapeutic effect of AEE788(Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland), which is a dual inhibitor of EGFR/ErbB2 and VEGFR tyrosine kinases, on human oral SCC. At first, we screened the expression of EGFR, c-ErbB2(HER-2) and VEGFR-2 in a series of human oral SCC cell lines. And then we evaluated the effects of AEE788 on the phosphorylation of EGFR and VEGFR-2 in a oral SCC cell line expressing EGFR/HER-2 and VEGFR-2. We also evaluated the effects of AEE788 alone, or with paclitaxel(Taxol) on the oral SCC cell growth and apoptosis. As a result, all oral SCC cells expressed EGFR and VEGFR-2. Treatment of oral SCC cells with AEE788 led to dose-dependent inhibition of EGFR and VEGFR-2 phosphorylation, growth inhibition, and induction of apoptosis. Moreover, AEE788 sensitizes the cells to paclitaxel-mediated toxicity and apoptosis. These data mean EGFR and VEGFR-2 can be reliable targets for molecular therapy of oral SCC, and therefore warrant clinical use of EGFR/VEGFR inhibition in the treatment of patients with recurrent or metastatic oral SCC.

EXPRESSIONS OF METASTASIS-RELATED FACTORS IN ORTHOTOPIC TUMOR MODELS OF ORAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA (구강 편평상피세포암 동위종양 모델에서 전이관련 인자의 발현)

  • Park, Young-Wook;Lee, Jong-Won;Kim, So-Hee
    • Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.529-539
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    • 2008
  • Background and Purpose : Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most aggressive tumors of the head and neck area. OSCC is known to preferentially metastasize via lymphatic system, and resulting cervical lymph node metastasis is the most reliable of treatment failure. But the biological mechanism of the regional nodal metastasis is not clear. So, we determined metastasis-related factors in orthotopic nude mouse models of OSCC. Experimental Design : Two cell lines-KB and YD-10B cells, established from human oral mucosal squamous cell carcinoma, were xenografted into the tissue space of athymic murine mouth floor. The mice were followed for tumor development and growth, the murine tumors were examined histopathologically for local invasion or regional or distant metastasis. Finally, we performed immunohistochemical assays with antiepithelial growth factor (EGF), EGF receptor (EGFR), phosphorylated EGFR (pEGFR), and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-2, phosphorylated VEGFR-2/3 (pVEGFR-2/3) antibodies. We also determined the microvessel density. Results : Transplantation of human OSCC tumor cells into the mouth floor successfully resulted in the formation of orthotopic tumors. KB cell line showed significantly higher tumor proliferation and higher nodal metastatic potential than YD-10B cell line. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining demonstrated higher expression of EGFR/pEGFR, VEGF, and pVEGFR-2/3 as well as higher microvessel density in KB murine tumors than in YD-10B murine tumors. Conclusion : An orthotopic model of OSCC in athymic mice was established which copies the cervical lymph nodal metastasis of human OSCC. Our mouth floor model should facillitate the understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of cervical nodal metastasis of OSCC.

14-3-3ζ Regulates Immune Response through Stat3 Signaling in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  • Han, Xinguang;Han, Yongfu;Jiao, Huifeng;Jie, Yaqiong
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.112-121
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    • 2015
  • Ectopic expression of $14-3-3{\zeta}$ has been found in various malignancies, including lung cancer, liver cancer, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), and so on. However, the effect of $14-3-3{\zeta}$ in the regulation of interactions between tumor cells and the immune system has not been previously reported. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether and how $14-3-3{\zeta}$ is implicated in tumor inflammation modulation and immune recognition evasion. In oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines and cancer tissues, we found that $14-3-3{\zeta}$ is overexpressed. In OSCC cells, $14-3-3{\zeta}$ knockdown resulted in the up-regulated expression of inflammatory cytokines. In contrast, $14-3-3{\zeta}$ introduction attenuated cytokine expression in human normal keratinocytes and fibroblasts stimulated with interferon-${\gamma}$ (IFN-${\gamma}$) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Furthermore, supernatants from $14-3-3{\zeta}$ knockdown OSCC cells dramatically altered the response of peritoneal macrophages, dendritic cells and tumor-specific T cells. Interestingly, Stat3 was found to directly interact with $14-3-3{\zeta}$ and its disruption relieved the inhibition induced by $14-3-3{\zeta}$ in tumor inflammation. Taken together, our studies provide evidence that $14-3-3{\zeta}$ may regulate tumor inflammation and immune response through Stat3 signaling in OSCC.

Apoptotic Effect of Co-treatment with Curcumin and Cisplatin on SCC25 Human Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cell Line

  • Sohn, Hyeon-Jin;Kim, In-Ryoung;Kim, Yong-Ho;Kim, Gyoo-Cheon;Kwak, Hyun-Ho;Park, Bong-Soo
    • International Journal of Oral Biology
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.159-167
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    • 2014
  • Curcumin is a widely used flavoring agent in food, and it has been reported to inhibit cell growth, to induce apoptosis, and to have antitumor activity in many cancers. Cisplatin is one of the most potent known anticancer agents and shows significant clinical activity against a variety of solid tumors. This study was undertaken to investigate the synergistic apoptotic effects of co-treatment with curcumin and cisplatin on human tongue SCC25 cells. To investigate whether the co-treatment efficiently reduced the viability of the SCC25 cells compared with the two treatments separately, an MTT assay was conducted. The induction and the augmentation of apoptosis were confirmed by DNA electrophoresis, Hoechst staining, and an analysis of DNA hypoploidy. Western blot, MMP and immunofluorescence tests were also performed to evaluate the expression levels and the translocation of apoptosis-related proteins following the co-treatment. In this study, following the co-treatment with curcumin and cisplatin, the SCC25 cells showed several forms of apoptotic manifestation, such as nuclear condensation, DNA fragmentation, reduction of MMP, increased levels of Bax, decreased levels of Bcl-2, and decreased DNA content. In addition, they showed a release of cytochrome c into the cytosol, translocation of AIF and DFF40 (CAD) to the nuclei, and activation of caspase-7, caspase-3, PARP, and DFF45 (ICAD). In contrast, separate treatments of $5{\mu}M$ of curcumin or $4{\mu}g/ml$ of cisplatin, for 24 hours, did not induce apoptosis. Therefore, our data suggest that combination therapy with curcumin and cisplatin could be considered as a novel therapeutic strategy for human oral squamous cell carcinoma.

Mechanism Underlying Shikonin-induced Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest on SCC25 Human Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cell Line

  • Oh, Sang-Hun;Park, Sung-Jin;Yu, Su-Bin;Kim, Yong-Ho;Kim, In-Ryoung;Park, Bong-Soo
    • International Journal of Oral Biology
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.51-61
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    • 2015
  • Shikonin, a major ingredient in the traditional Chinese herb Lithospermumerythrorhizon, exhibits multiple biological functions including antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor effects. It has recently been reported that shikonin displays antitumor properties in many cancers. This study was aimed to investigate whether shikonin could inhibit oral squamous carcinoma cell (OSCC) growth via mechanisms of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. The effects of shikonin on the viability and growth of OSCC cell line, SCC25 cells were assessed by MTT assay and clonogenic assays, respectively. Hoechst staining and DNA electrophoresis indicated that the shikonin-treated SCC25 cells were undergoing apoptosis. Western blotting, immunocytochemistry, confocal microscopy, flow cytometry, MMP activity, and proteasome activity also supported the finding that shikonin induces apoptosis. Shikonin treatment of SCC25 cells resulted in a time- and dose-dependent decrease in cell viability, inhibition of cell growth, and increase in apoptotic cell death. The treated SCC25 cells showed several lines of apoptotic manifestation as follows: nuclear condensation; DNA fragmentation; reduced MMP and proteasome activity; decrease in DNA contents; release of cytochrome c into cytosol; translocation of AIF and DFF40 (CAD) onto the nuclei; a significant shift in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio; and activation of caspase-9, -7, -6, and -3, as well as PARP, lamin A/C, and DFF45 (ICAD). Shikonin treatment also resulted in down-regulation of the G1 cell cycle-related proteins and up-regulation of $p27^{KIP1}$. Taken together, our present findings demonstrate that shikonin strongly inhibits cell proliferation by modulating the expression of the G1 cell cycle-related proteins, and that it induces apoptosis via the proteasome, mitochondria, and caspase cascades in SCC25 cells.

EXPRESSION OF DOMINANT NEGATIVE p63 ISOFORM IN WELL-DIFFERENCIATED ORAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA (분화도 좋은 구강 편평상피세포암종에서 Dominant Negative p63 isoform의 발현)

  • Kim, In-Su;Kim, Chul-Hwan;Kim, Kyung-Wook
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.191-198
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    • 2007
  • The p53 which is well known as tumor suppressor gene is located at 17p13. p53 is a sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor that responds to certain cytotoxic stresses, such as DNA damage, by enhancing the transcription of genes that regulate cell-cycle progression as well as programmed cell death. The p63 gene that is located at 3q27-29, is recognized members of the p53 family, and responsible for the transcription of 6 isoforms. Three isoforms ($TAp63{\alpha}$, $TAp63{\beta}$, $TAp63{\gamma}$) contain an N-terminal transactivation (TA) domain and can induce apoptosis. The other 3 isoforms (${\Delta}Np63{\alpha}$, ${\Delta}Np63{\beta}$, ${\Delta}Np63{\gamma}$) lack the TA domain and may function in a dominant-negative fashion by inhibiting the transactivation functions of p53 and TAp63 proteins, and thus act as oncoproteins. A number of studies have investigated the role of p63 in human squamous cell carcinomas from different organs. Only a few studies have examined ${\Delta}Np63$ isoform in oral squamous cell carcinoma including normal epithelium. This study aimed to evaluate expression of ${\Delta}Np63$ isoform in human oral squamous cell carcinoma tissue and normal mucosa. The 3 cases of well differenciated oral squamous cell carcinoma specimen including adjacent normal mucosa were examined, and immunohistochemical study with monoclonal antibody(4A4) and tumor cell apoptosis analysis with Transmission Electon Microscopy were studied. And, RT-PCR analysis was done for expression of ${\Delta}Np63$ isoform. The results were as followed. 1. Normal gingiva showed the restricted p63 expression in basal cell layer. 2. Well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma showed mainly p63 expression in overall area of malignancy, especially in basal cell layer to adjacent stromal tissue. 3. Tumor cells around keratinized area with no p63 expression disclosed less micro-organelle in decreased size cytoplasm and severe chromatin margination with nuclear destruction that means apoptosis. 4. Comparison of mRNA expression of ${\Delta}Np63$ isoform by RT-PCR showed variable expression of ${\Delta}Np63$ isoform, but ${\Delta}Np63{\alpha}$ was most highly expressed in all 3 tumor specimen. From theses results, it should be suggested that ${\Delta}Np63$ isoform expression in well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma was closely related to tumor oncogenesis, expecially overexpression of ${\Delta}Np63{\alpha}$ is a most important factor in tumor genesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

Mechanism Underlying Curcumin-induced Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest on SCC25 Human Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cell Line

  • Moon, Jung-Bon;Lee, Kee-Hyun;Kim, In-Ryoung;Kim, Gyoo-Cheon;Kwak, Hyun-Ho;Park, Bong-Soo
    • International Journal of Oral Biology
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.23-33
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    • 2014
  • Several studies have shown that curcumin, which is derived from the rhizomes of turmeric, possesses antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The antitumor properties of curcumin have also now been demonstrated more recently in different cancers. This study was undertaken to investigate the modulation of cell cycle-related proteins and the mechanisms underlying apoptosis induction by curcumin in the SCC25 human tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell line. Curcumin treatment of the SCC25 cells resulted in a time- and dose-dependent reduction in cell viability and cell growth, and onset of apoptotic cell death. The curcumin-treated SCC25 cells showed several types of apoptotic manifestations, such as nuclear condensation, DNA fragmentation, reduced MMP and proteasome activity, and a decreased DNA content. In addition, the treated SCC25 cells showed a release of cytochrome c into the cytosol, translocation of AIF and DFF40/CAD into the nuclei, a significant shift in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and the activation of caspase-9, caspase-7, caspase-6, caspase-3, PARP, lamin A/C, and DFF45/ICAD. Furthermore, curcumin exposure resulted in a downregulation of G1 cell cycle-related proteins and upregulation of $p27^{KIP1}$. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that curcumin strongly inhibits cell proliferation by modulating the expression of G1 cell cycle-related proteins and inducing apoptosis via proteasomal, mitochondrial, and caspase cascades in SCC25 cells.