• Title, Summary, Keyword: human oral squamous carcinoma cells

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Cancer Chemoprevention Effects of Geldanamycin and 17-AAG in Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (Geldanamycin과 17-AAG가 구강편평세포암종 세포주에 미치는 암예방 효과)

  • Lee, Eun Ju
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science
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    • v.50 no.4
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    • pp.462-469
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    • 2018
  • HSP90 regulates various proteins involved in differentiation and cell survival. Levels of HSP90 tend to increase during development of squamous cell carcinoma in the head and neck including the mouth. Thus, many studies have been conducted to treat these cancers through suppression of HSP90. This study investigated the effect of two HSP90 inhibitors, geldanamycin and 17-AAG, on the proliferation, apoptosis, and invasion of human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. Cell survival and cell cycle analyses, as well as western blot analysis, were performed with oral cancer cell lines, YD-10B and YD-38. After treatment with HSP90 inhibitors, cell proliferation was significantly inhibited. When YD-10B and YD-38 cells were treated with various concentrations of geldanamycin and 17-AAG (0, 0.1, 0.3, 1 and $10{\mu}M$) for 24 hr, the growth of YD-10B cells was markedly reduced compared to that of YD-38 cells. Thereafter, the cells were subjected to flow cytometry, which revealed G2 arrest. These results demonstrated that geldanamycin induced G2 arrest and inhibited cell proliferation through the $p-GSK-3{\beta}$ pathway in YD-10B and YD-38 cells, thus inhibiting cell survival. HSP90 inhibitors are therefore expected to have a therapeutic effect on various cancer cell lines.

Menadione (Vitamin K3) Induces Apoptosis of Human Oral Cancer Cells and Reduces their Metastatic Potential by Modulating the Expression of Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition Markers and Inhibiting Migration

  • Suresh, Shruthy;Raghu, Dinesh;Karunagaran, Devarajan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.9
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    • pp.5461-5465
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    • 2013
  • Oral cancer is one of the most commonly occurring cancers worldwide, decreasing the patient's survival rate due to tumor recurrence and metastasis. Menadione (Vitamin K3) is known to exhibit cytotoxicity in various cancer cells but the present study focused on its effects on viability, apoptosis, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), anchorage independent growth and migration of oral cancer cells. The results show that menadione is more cytotoxic to SAS (oral squamous carcinoma) cells but not to non-tumorigenic HEK293 and HaCaT cells. Menadione treatment increased the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins, Bax and p53, with a concurrent decrease in anti-apoptotic proteins, Bcl-2 and p65. Menadione induced the expression of E-cadherin but reduced the expression of EMT markers, vimentin and fibronectin. Menadione also inhibited anchorage independent growth and migration in SAS cells. These findings reveal and confirm that menadione is a potential candidate in oral cancer therapy as it exhibits cytotoxic, antineoplastic and antimigratory effects besides effectively blocking EMT in oral cancer cells.

Mechanism Underlying a Proteasome Inhibitor, Lactacystin-Induced Apoptosis on SCC25 Human Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells (사람혀편평상피세포암종세포에서 proteasome 억제제인 lactacystin에 의해 유도된 세포자멸사의 기전에 대한 연구)

  • Baek, Chul-Jung;Kim, Gyoo-Cheon;Kim, In-Ryoung;Lee, Seung-Eun;Kwak, Hyun-Ho;Park, Bong-Soo;Tae, Il-Ho;Ko, Myung-Yun;Ahn, Yong-Woo
    • Journal of Oral Medicine and Pain
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.261-276
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    • 2009
  • Lactacystin, a microbial natural product synthesized by Streptomyces, has been commonly used as a selective proteasome inhibitor in many studies. Proteasome inhibitors is known to be preventing the proliferation of cancer cells in vivo as well as in vitro. Furthermore, proteasome inhibitors, as single or combined with other anticancer agents, are suggested as a new class of potential anticancer agents. This study was undertaken to examine in vitro effects of cytotoxicity and growth inhibition, and the molecular mechanism underlying induction of apoptosis in SCC25 human tongue sqaumous cell carcinoma cell line treated with lactacystin. The viability of SCC25 cells, human normal keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) and human gingiva fibroblasts (HGF-1 cells), and the growth inhibition of SCC25 cells were assessed by MTT assay and clonogenic assay respectively. The hoechst staining, hemacolor staining and TUNEL staining were conducted to observe SCC25 cells undergoing apoptosis. SCC25 cells were treated with lactacystin, and Western blotting, immunocytochemistry, confocal microscopy, FAScan flow cytometry, MMP activity, and proteasome activity were performed. Lactacystin treatment of SCC25 cells resulted in a time- and does-dependent decrease of cell viability and a does-dependent inhibition of cell growth, and induced apoptotic cell death. Interestingly, lactacytin remarkably revealed cytotoxicity in SCC25 cells but not normal cells. And tested SCC25 cells showed several lines of apoptotic manifestation such as nuclear condensation, DNA fragmentation, the reduction of MMP and proteasome activity, the decrease of DNA contents, the release of cytochrome c into cytosol, the translocation of AIF and DFF40 (CAD) onto nuclei, the up-regulation of Bax, and the activation of caspase-7, caspase-3, PARP, lamin A/C and DFF45 (ICAD). Flow cytometric analysis revealed that lactacystin resulted in G1 arrest in cell cycle progression which was associated with up-regulation in the protein expression of CDK inhibitors, $p21^{WAF1/CIP1}$ and $p27^{KIP1}$. We presented data indicating that lactacystin induces G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptois via proteasome, mitochondria and caspase pathway in SCC25 cells. Therefore our data provide the possibility that lactacystin could be as a novel therapeutic strategy for human tongue squamous cell carcinoma.

Luteolin Induces Apoptosis via Mitochondrial Pathway and Inhibits Invasion and Migration of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma by Suppressing Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Induced Transcription Factors

  • Park, Bong-Soo;Kil, Jong-Jin;Kang, Hae-Mi;Yu, Su-Bin;Park, Dan-Bi;Park, Jin-A;Kim, In-Ryoung
    • International Journal of Oral Biology
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.69-76
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    • 2018
  • Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common type of oral malignancy. Numerous therapies have been proposed for its cure. Research is continually being conducted to develop new forms of treatment as current therapies are associated with numerous side-effects. Luteolin, a common dietary flavonoid, has been demonstrated to possess strong anti-cancer activity against various human cancer cell lines. Nevertheless, research into luteolin-based anticancer activity against oral cancer remains scarce. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess the effect of luteolin as an anti-cancer agent. After treatment with luteolin, Ca9-22 and CAL-27 oral cancer cells showed condensed nuclei and enhanced apoptotic rate with evidence of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Epithelialmesenchymal transition (EMT) is closely related to tumor migration and invasion. Luteolin suppressed cancer cell invasion and migration in the current study. Elevated expression of E-cadherin, an adherens junction protein, was evident in both cell lines after luteolin treatment. Luteolin also significantly inhibited transcription factors (i.e., N-cadherin, Slug, Snail, Twist, and ZEB-1) that regulated expression of tumor suppressors such as E-cadherin based on Western blot analysis and quantitative PCR. Thus, luteolin could induce mitochondrial apoptosis and inhibit cancer cell invasion and migration by suppressing EMT-induced transcription factors.

Alu Hypomethylation in Smoke-Exposed Epithelia and Oral Squamous Carcinoma

  • Puttipanyalears, Charoenchai;Subbalekha, Keskanya;Mutirangura, Apiwat;Kitkumthorn, Nakarin
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.9
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    • pp.5495-5501
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    • 2013
  • Background: Alu elements are one of the most common repetitive sequences that now constitute more than 10% of the human genome and potential targets for epigenetic alterations. Correspondingly, methylation of these elements can result in a genome-wide event that may have an impact in cancer. However, studies investigating the genome-wide status of Alu methylation in cancer remain limited. Objectives: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) presents with high incidence in South-East Asia and thus the aim of this study was to evaluate the Alu methylation status in OSCCs and explore with the possibility of using this information for diagnostic screening. We evaluated Alu methylation status in a) normal oral mucosa compared to OSCC; b) peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of normal controls comparing to oral cancer patients; c) among oral epithelium of normal controls, smokers and oral cancer patients. Materials and Methods: Alu methylation was detected by combined bisulfite restriction analysis (COBRA) at 2 CpG sites. The amplified products were classified into three patterns; hypermethylation ($^mC^mC$), partial methylation ($^uC^mC+^mC^uC$), and hypomethylation ($^uC^uC$). Results: The results demonstrate that the $%^mC^mC$ value is suitable for differentiating normal and cancer in oral tissues (p=0.0002), but is not significantly observe in PBMCs. In addition, a stepwise decrease in this value was observed in the oral epithelium from normal, light smoker, heavy smoker, low stage and high stage OSCC (p=0.0003). Furthermore, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses demonstrated the potential of combined $%^mC$ or $%^mC^mC$ values as markers for oral cancer detection with sensitivity and specificity of 86.7% and 56.7%, respectively. Conclusions: Alu hypomethylation is likely to be associated with multistep oral carcinogenesis, and might be developed as a screening tool for oral cancer detection.

Evaluation of Anti-oxidative, Anti-thrombin, Anti-invasive and Pro-apoptotic Activities of Paeonia japonica (백작약(Paeonia japonica)의 항산화, 트롬빈 저해, 암전이 억제 및 암세포사멸 평가)

  • Kim, Jun-Ho;Kim, Eun-Jung
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.16-23
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    • 2018
  • Paeonia japonica is a perennial flowering plant used in traditional medicine therapy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of water extract and solvent fractions obtained from P. japonica on anti-oxidative, anti-thrombin, anti-invasive and pro-apoptotic activities in YD-10B cells, human oral squamous carcinoma cell line. Water fraction revealed the highest extraction yield at 11.44% (w/w). Anti-oxidative activity was the highest in ethyl acetate fraction (85.13%). In the thrombin inhibitory activity test, ethyl fraction was the highest, with a value of 87.54%. Release and activation of MMP-2/pro-MMP-2 ratio in thrombin-treated YD-10B cells were significantly inhibited in the ethyl acetate fraction. At a concentration of $120{\mu}g/m{\ell}$ water extract and solvent fractions of P. japonica inhibited cell proliferation in YD-10B cells except water fraction. Pro-apoptotic effect on human oral squamous carcinoma cell using the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio analysis was higher in water extract than other fractions. These findings suggest that the ethyl acetate fraction of P. japonica potentiates a promising antioxidant, anti-thrombin and anti-invasive agents.

p16 - a Possible Surrogate Marker for High-Risk Human Papillomaviruses in Oral Cancer?

  • Sritippho, Thanun;Pongsiriwet, Surawut;Lertprasertsuke, Nirush;Buddhachat, Kittisak;Sastraruji, Thanapat;Iamaroon, Anak
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.8
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    • pp.4049-4057
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    • 2016
  • Background: High-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV), particularly types 16 and 18, have been found to play an important role in head and neck cancer, including oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). p16, a cell cycle inhibitor, has been postulated as a surrogate marker for HR-HPV, since p16 is aberrantly overexpressed in such lesions, especially in HR-HPV-positive OPSCC. However, p16 as a surrogate marker for HR-HPV infection in cancers of the oral cavity remains controversial. Objective: The objectives of the study were to investigate the expression of p16 and the presence of HR-HPV in OSCC and oral verrucous carcinoma (VC) and to determine if p16 could be used as a surrogate marker for HR-HPV. Materials and Methods: Forty one formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues of OSCC (n=37) or VC (n=4) with clinical and histopathologic data of each case were collected. Expression of p16 was determined by immunohistochemistry, focusing on both staining intensity and numbers of positive cells. The presence of HPV types 16 and 18 was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Descriptive statistics were employed to describe the demographic, clinical, and histopathologic parameters. Associations between p16 overexpression, HR-HPV and all variables were determined by Fisher's exact test, odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). In addition, the use of p16 as a surrogate marker for HR-HPV was analyzed by sensitivity and specificity tests. Results: p16 was overexpressed in 8/37 cases (21.6%) of OSCC and 2/4 cases (50%) of VC. HPV-16 was detected in 4/34 OSCC cases (11.8%) and HPV-18 was detected in 1/34 OSCC cases (2.9%). Co-infection of HPV-16/18 was detected in 1/4 VC cases (25%). Both p16 overexpression and HR-HPV were significantly associated with young patients with both OSCC and VC (p<0.05, OR 20, 95% CI 1.9-211.8; p<0.05, OR 23.3, 95% CI 2.4-229.7, respectively). p16 was able to predict the presence of HPV-16/18 in OSCC with 40% sensitivity and 79.3% specificity and in VC with 100% sensitivity and 66.7% specificity, respectively. Conclusions: p16 overexpression was found in 24.4% of both OSCC and VC. HR-HPV, regardless of type, was detected in 15.8% in cases of OSCC and VC combined. The results of sensitivity and specificity tests suggest that p16 can be used as a surrogate marker for HR-HPV in OSCC and VC.

Anti-tumorigenic Effect of DIM-pPhBr and DIM-pPhF Originating from Cruciferous Vegetables in KB Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Through Apoptotic Cell Death (사람구강편명상피암세포주인 KB세포에서 십자화과채소 유래물질인 DIM-pPhBr과 DIM-pPhF의 세포사멸유도를 통한 항종양효능에 관한 연구)

  • Cho, Hyun-Tai;Choi, Eun-Sun;Cho, Nam-Pyo;Cho, Sung-Dae
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.398-402
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    • 2011
  • Cruciferous vegetables including diindolylmethane (DIM) have been shown to have anticancer activity. Especially, DIM-pPhBr and DIM-pPhF used in this study was reported to have more effective and less toxic effects than DIM. However, there is no report presenting their anti-tumorigenic activity in oral cancer. In the present study, we examined the effects of DIM-pPhBr and DIM-pPhF on the cell proliferation and apoptosis in KB human oral cancer cells. DIM-pPhBr and DIM-pPhF decreased cell proliferation and induced apoptosis evidenced by western blot analysis, DAPI staining and sub-$G_1$ population. This provides the first evidence that DIM-pPhBr and DIM-pPhF originating from Cruciferous vegetables induce apoptotic cell death in human oral cancer cells to inhibit cancer cell proliferation.

Effect of the Solvent Fractions of Zingiber officinale Roscoe against Thrombintreated Tumor Invasion in Human Oral Squamous Carcinoma YD-10B Cells (YD-10B 인간구강암세포주에서 생강 유기용매 분획물의 항산화, 트롬빈억제 및 thrombin에 의해 처리된 암 침윤 및 전이 억제 효과)

  • Kim, Eun-Jung;Kim, Jun-Ho
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.26 no.11
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    • pp.1289-1297
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    • 2016
  • Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a common malignant tumor in the oral cavity, comprising up to 90% of oral cancer. Oral cancer is characterized by a marked tendency of local invasiveness and is good for early detection and treatment; therefore, it is recognized as a good model for cancer prevention. The present study investigated the antioxidant, thrombin inhibitory, and anti-invasive activities of the solvent fractions of Zingiber officinale Roscoe. Samples were fractionated into hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol, and water fractions, and each of these was assayed individually. The water fraction showed the highest extraction yield at 9.79%(w/w). Anti-oxidative activity was analyzed by DPPH assay. Thrombin inhibitory activity was used to analyze thrombin inhibitor assay. Cell viability was detected by the MTS assay. The activity and mRNA expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in human oral squamous carcinoma YD-10B cells were examined by zymography and RT-PCR. The antioxidative activities of hexane and water fractions were 92.38% and 92.96%, respectively. In the thrombin inhibitory activity test, water fraction was the highest, with a value of 65.86%. MMP-2/-9 activation was increased in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced YD-10B cells. MMP-9 activation was increased in thrombin-treated YD-10B cells. In PMA- or thrombin-treated YD-10B cells, the increased mRNA expression and protein activation of MMP-2/-9 were significantly inhibited in the hexane fraction. Therefore, the hexane fraction obtained from a Zingiber officinale Roscoe water extract is a promising therapeutic anti-invasive agent in oral cancer.

Porphyra tenera induces apoptosis of oral cancer cells (구강암 세포주에서 김 추출물에 의한 세포자멸사 유도)

  • Kim, Sang Chan;Lee, Jong Rok;Park, Sook Jahr
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.25-30
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    • 2015
  • Objectives : Laver (Porphyra tenera), a red algae species, is one of the most widely consumed edible seaweed in Korea. Laver contains various substances such as essential amino acid, fiber, minerals and polyphenols that benefit human health. In the present study, we prepared ethanol extracts from commercially processed product of Porphyra tenera, and evaluated the growth inhibitory effect against human oral squamous carcinoma YD-10B cells. Methods : Cell viability was measured by MTT assay. Apoptosis was confirmed by TUNEL assay and flow cytometry with the green fluorescent dye FITC annexin V entering apoptotic cells and the red fluorescent dye PI not entering. The expression of the relevant proteins was detected using Western blot. Results : Ethanol extracts of Porphyra tenera (PTE, $50-200{\mu}g/m{\ell}$) caused a significant decrease of cell viability in a dose dependant manner. The cell death occurred as a result of apoptotic process as determined by TUNEL assay and flow cytometric analysis. In line with this observation, decrease in procaspase proteins and increase in cytosolic cytochrome c were observed in cells treated with PTE. In addition, exposure to PTE decreased the expression levels of Bcl-2, and induced PARP cleavage and AIF translocation from mitochondria to nucleus. Conclusions : In conclusion, PTE exerts anti-cancer effects by inducing apoptosis via caspase activation and AIF nuclear translocation in YD-10B cells. These results provide evidence for the possible therapeutic effect of Porphyra tenera in oral cancer cells.