• Title, Summary, Keyword: hypophysectomy

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Hematological and blood chemical findings in hypophysectomized rats (뇌하수체 제거술이 수행된 랫트의 혈액학 및 혈액화학적 소견)

  • Kim, Nam Joong;Kim, Myung-Cheol
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.121-125
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    • 2005
  • The present study was carried out to produce the hematological and blood chemical findings after hypophysectomy in rats. Hypophysectomy was performed by the parapharyngeal method and the sham surgery was performed for the control group. Two weeks after the operation, the body weight of the hypophysectomized and control rats was measured daily for 5 days. We deleted the rats the weight gain of which is less than 5 g during 5 days from the hypophysectomy group. The successful operation rate was approximately 40%. In the hypophysectomized and control rats, their blood samples were collected from posterior vena cava after celiotomy under generally anesthesia with ether. Hematological parameters such as erythrocyte count, leukocyte count, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit level, and platelet count were determined by Animal Blood Counter. The erythrocyte count, hemoglobin concentration, and hematocrit level were lower significantly (p<0.01), and the leukocyte count was lower significantly (p<0.05) in hypophysectomy group compared with control group. But the plate count did not show significant difference (p>0.05) between hypophysectomy group and control group. Also, blood chemical parameters such as glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), aspartate animotransferase, albumin, total protein, cholesterol, calcium, and magnesium in serum were determined. Except BUN concentration, all parameters were not affected by hypophysectomy. But the BUN concentration was higher significantly (p<0.01) in hypophysectomy group compared with control group.

The Effect of Hypophysectomy and Subsequent Administration of Sex Hormone on Several Endocrine Glands and Plasma Components in Rats (흰쥐의 내분비선 및 혈장성분에 미치는 뇌하수체척출의 영향과 이에 대한 성 Hormone의 효과)

  • 김선균;박상윤
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.47-74
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    • 1980
  • The present experiments were carried out to elucidate the effects of hypophysectomy and subsequent administration of sex hormone on thyroid, adrenal gland, gonads and blood plasma components in the rat. The jresults obtained were summarized as follows: The weight of the thyroid gland of both male and female hypophysectiomzed rats decreased markedly from 7 days up to 56 days after the hypophysectomy as compared to the control group. The administration of sex hormone (6 mg of testosterone propionate to male and 6 mg of hexestrol to female) to the hypophysectomized rat gave on effect on the change in the weight of the thyroid gland. The hopophysectomy decreased the uptake of radioactive iodine in the thyroid gland in both male and female rats with time. Subsequent administration of the sex hormone caused no effect. With regard to the histological changes of the thyroid gland, the hypophysectomy caused significant changes in the gland showing a remarkable degeneration. The function of the gland seemed to disa, pp.ar almost completely on 56th day after the hypophysectomy. Upon the administration of sex hormone after the hypophysectomy, however. the epithelia of the follicle which has changed to flat from has partly returned to its functional cubicfrom and nuclei recovered as nearly as normal. These recovery were more remarkable in the female than in the male. The hypophysectomy kept causing a significant decrease in the weight of the adrenal gland in male and female rats during the period of observation (up to 56 days) as in the case of thyroid gland. The administration of sex hormone has on effect in this respect either. The hypophysectomy also caused a marked morphological change in the gland: zona fasciculata and zona reticularis were dicreased in size quichly after the hypophysectomy. The administraton of the sex hormone to the hypophysectomized rat resulted in clear distinction among the three layers of the adrenal cortex which otherwise very diffused. In the male, this phenomenum was more remarkable than in the female and the pattern of the cell arrangements and the thickening of each layer became similar to those of normal rats. The gonads of both sexes have also kept decreasing in the weight and degenerated in morpohology after the hypophysectomy. However, the degenerate follicle became enlarged after the administration of hexestrol in the female. Furthermore, the vacuoles found in interstitial cells of hypophysectomized rat disa, pp.ared after the administration of testosterone in the male and the formation of spermatocytes seemed to be recovered. Hypophysectomy also caused a gradual increase in the contents of total protein, non-protein nitrogen, total lipid, cholesterol and calcium in the blood plasma with time. The concentrations of sodium, potassium and chloride in the blood did not change after the hypophysectomy. Sex hormone caused practically no change in above tendency.

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Improved Hypophysectomy Technique by Sublaryngeal A, pp.oach and the Efficacy of bGH in Hypophysectomized Female Rats (흰쥐에서 후두하경로를 통한 하수체 적출술의 개량과 하수체 적출 흰쥐를 이용한 bGH 효능시험)

  • 정영채;김창근;이종완;나광빈;김광식;박선애;유영아;이세영
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.197-205
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    • 1997
  • Improved hypophysectomy technique and the efficacy of bGH in hypophysectomized female rats were studied as a basis for the function of endocrine gland and hormones. 1. With improved sublaryngeal a, pp.oach by hypophysectomy, 34 rats out of 40 were successfully hypophysectomized(more than 80% of success). The surgical time for hypophysectomy per rat was taken about 3.0$\pm$1.0 min. 2. For the effect of hypophysectomy and bGH on body weight gain among the 5 gruops of A, B, C, D, and E, the weight gains for A, B, C, D, and E, were 93g, 9.2g, 10.7g, 25.1g and 36.2g, respectively, which implied that hypophysectomy had a major effect on body weight. And also, the effect of bGH was paralleled with the level of bGH. There were significant difference between control and hypophysectomized groups, and between the bGH treated and bGH non-treated groups after hypophysectomy(p<0.01). 3. For the effect of hypophysectomy and bGH on the length of femur, tibia, humerus, and anterbrachi, longest was for A, shortest for B, and longer in order of C, D, and E. The A group was significantly longer than B, C, D, and E groups. The B group was shorter than C, D, and E groups(p<0.01). 4. For the effect of hypophysectomy and bGH on the weight of femur, tibia, humerus, and antebrachi, heaviest was for A, lightest for B, and heavier in order of C, D, and E. The A group was significantly heavier than B, C, D, and E groups. The B group was lighter than C, D, and E groups(p<0.01). 5. In changes of body length, and weights of liver and heart, A group was most drastically increased. Among the hypophysectomized groups, the change was increased in order of B, C, D, and E. Especially, the change of A group was significantly greater than B, C, D and E gruops. However, no significant differences were found among B, C, D, and E groups. 6. The hypophysectomy in rat had a significant effect on body growth. The effect of hormone was remarkably different depending upon the level of hormone. It was found that 300$\mu\textrm{g}$ of bGH/kg of body wt/day was slightly lower for normal growth.

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EFFECTS OF HYPOPHYSECTOMY ON PROGESTERONE PRODUCTION IN THE FOLLICULAR GRANULOSA CELLS OF THE JAPANESE QUAIL

  • Mori, M.;Kimora, K.;Yamamuro, H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.1 no.3
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    • pp.143-147
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    • 1988
  • In order to investigate the mechanism of regulation of progesterone production, quail were hypophysectomized at various times during the ovulation cycle, and granulose cells were isolated from follicles 4 hr after the operation. They were incubated in vitro at $40^{\circ}C$ with or without LH or dibutyryl cyclic AMP, and the amounts of progesterone produced during 3 hr of incubation were measured by radioimmunoassay. Hypophysectomy at 8 hr or 20 hr before the predicted time of ovulation caused a reduced responsiveness of F1 granulosa cells to exogenous LH or dibutyrul cyclic AMP. Although hypophysectomy at 24 hr before ovulation caused a slight reduction of responsiveness of F1 granulosa cells, the reduction of the progesterone production during the incubation without any stimuli was prominent by the sham operation. These results suggest that the presence of pituitary gland influences the ability of the granulose cells to produce progesterone in response to LH or dibutyryl cyclic AMP.

EFFECT OF GONADOTROPHINS ON FOLLICULAR STEROID HORMONE PRODUCTION IN HYPOPHYSECTOMISED HENS (Gallus domesticus)

  • Li, Z.D.;Koga, O.;Tanaka, K.;Fujihara, N.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.411-416
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    • 1993
  • We assessed effects of ovine luteinizing hormone (oLH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (oFSH) on the granulose and theca layers from the four largest follicles, $F_1-F_4$ of hens which had been hypophysectomized 12 h before expected ovulation. Ovine LH (0.4 mg), oFSH (0.4 mg) or oLH in combination with oFSH (0.4 mg each) was injected intravenously 6 h after hypophysectomy. Progesterone, testosterone and $estradiol-17{\beta}$ levels of the granulose and theca layers which were removed 6 h after hormone injection, were measured by radioimmunoassay. Progesterone contents of $F_1-F_3$ granulosa layer at 12 h after hypophysectomy were much lower than those of control hens. This reduced progesterone level was restored partially by the injection of oLH alone for $F_1$, while no follicles responded to oFSH treatment. In contrast, the injection of oLH in combination with oFSH resulted in high progesterone content of the granulose layer from all four follicles. Progesterone content of the theca layer was negligible in all treatments. Simultaneous injection of oLH and oFSH also elevated $estradiol-17{\beta}$ level accumulating in the theca layer from all follicles, of which much higher concentrations of $estradiol-17{\beta}$ were observed when comparison were made to each of their corresponding controls. No appreciable change in testosterone contents of two layers was observed in the present experiments. These results suggest that oFSH augments function of oLH to stimulate the production of progesterone in the granulose layer and $estradiol-17{\beta}$ in the theca layer.

Topical Irradiation of UVA to The Eye Induces Immunosuppression in The Mice via Nitric-Oxise Dependent Neuronal Pathways

  • Hiramoto, Keiichi;Yanagihara, Nobuyo;Sato, Eisuke F.;Inoue, Masayasu
    • Journal of Photoscience
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.470-471
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    • 2002
  • It has been well documented that dermal irradiation by ultraviolet A (UVA) locally decreases the number of Langerhans cells and suppresses contact hypersensitivity of the skin. We found that topical irradiation of UVA to the eye systemically decreased the number of Langerhans cells (LC) in the dorsalskin and lymph nodes and elicited lymphocyte apoptosis in the latter tissues but not in the thymus. Optic nerve resection, but not ciliary ganglionectomy, eliminated the UVA-induced decrease in dermal Langerhans cells by a mechanism that was partially inhibited by hypophysectomy. The immunosuppressive effect of UVA was not observed in knockout mice lacking inducible-type of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). These results suggested that topical irradiation of UVA to the eye induced immunosuppression via NO-dependet neuronal pathways.

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Growth Effects of Recombinant Human Growth Hormone (유전자 재조합 Human Growth Hormone의 성장촉진 효과에 관한 연구)

  • 정요찬;송동호;조명행;구본흔;정광회;김경연;정경환;이은경;박두홍
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.3 no.3
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    • pp.233-237
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    • 1995
  • The growth effects of newly developed recombinant human growth hormone (rHGH), were compared with those of Biotropine. For the effective evaluation, we examined the increasing rate of body weight and the thickness of tibial epiphysis as criteria of growth effects on hypophysectomised female rats treated with varing concentration of rHGH for 4 days. rHGH treated groups showed significant body weight gain which was less evident in Biotropine and vehicle treatment group. In tibial epiphyseal test, rHGH also showed clear effects compared to Biotropine and vehicle treatment group. Above findings indicate that newly developed rHGH has better effects of growth stimulation on female rats than Biotropine does.

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Endocrinological Results of the Transsphenoidal Microsurgery for Cushing's Disease (쿠싱병에 대한 경접형동접근법의 내분비학적 결과)

  • Kim, Joon Soo;Kim, Chang Jin;Ha, Sang Soo;Kim, Jung Hoon;Lee, Jung Gyo;Kwun, Byung Duk;Hong, Sung Kwan;Lee, Ki Up;Lee, Bong Jae;Kim, Yong Jae;Choi, Choong Kon;Lee, Ho Gyu
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.30 no.5
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    • pp.611-621
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    • 2001
  • Objective : We analyzed the clinical and endocrinological results of the transsphenoidal microsurgery for ACTH secreting pituitary adenomas. Marerials and Methods : From October 1995 to August 2000, 18 patients underwent transsphenoidal microsurgery for Cushing's disease. We analyzed the surgical results of 17 patients, one patient who was previously operated from other hospital was excluded. Age of the patients were 18 to 61 years old(mean 37.7), male to female ratio was 1 : 3.3, and follow-up period was 3 to 50 months(mean 20.3). The selection of candidates for transsphenoidal exploration was based on endocrinologic criteria. Magnetic resonance imaging was the preferred radiologic test. Selective inferior petrosal sinus sampling of adrenocorticotropic hormone futher refined the diagnosis when endocrinologic and radiologic procedures were not definitive. Results : Results of the preoperative endocrinological test were : level of serum ACTH 29.4 to $225{\mu}g/dL$(mean $93.88{\mu}g/dL$) ; serum cortisol 11.9 to $47.5{\mu}g/dL$(mean $27.49{\mu}g/dL$) ; 24-hour urine free cortisol 235 to $1019{\mu}g/day$(mean $571.0{\mu}g/day$). Inferior petrosal sinus sampling for ACTH was performed in 11 patients and all were confirmed by Cushing's disease and we could predict the laterality of the tumor in 9 of 11 patients. We performed transsphenoidal selective adenomectomy in 5 patients, adenomectomy and subtotal hypophysectomy in 2 patients, adenomectomy and partial hypophysectomy in 9 patients, and in the remaining one patient, hemihypophysectomy followed by total hypophysectomy due to remission failure. Fifteen of 17 patients(88.2%) showed endocrinological remission. Glucocorticoid replacement therapy was performed in all the patients who showed remission for 1 to 24 months(mean 5.9 months), and 6 patients received steroid over 6 months. Conclusion : We conclude that the direct demonstration of a tumor in the pituitary gland by MRI is the most important and definitive diagnostic tool and the location of a mass should be confirmed with increased level of ACTH by the inferior petrosal sinus sampling. Transsphenoidal microsurgery is effective treatment modality for Cushing's disease and the immediate postoperative evaluation of the surgical resection of the tumor is very important. The patients should show hypocortisolism, decreased, subnormal serum ACTH and cortisol levels and 24-hours urine free cortisol. We performed 18 transsphenoidal microsurgery for Cushing's disease in 17 patients and 15 patients(88.2%) showed endocrinological remission.

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Electron Microscopic Ultrastructural Changes of Leiomyoma after Treatment with D-Trp6-Luteinizing Hormone Releasing Hormone (자궁근종시 LHRH agonist (D-Trp6-LHRH) 치료에 따른 근종세포내 미세구조의 변화)

  • Park, K.H.;Shin, M.C.;Lee, B.Y.;Lee, B.S.;Song, C.H.
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.189-196
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    • 1991
  • Long-term administration of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone(LHRH) agonists, through a process of pituitary desensitization and down-regulation of receptors, inhibits the secretion of gonadotropin and sex-steroids and induces a reversible suppression of gonadal activity. This approach can be used as an effective endocrine therapy for some hormone-dependent tumors. We have used D-Trp6-LHRH, a long acting LHRH agonist, for the treatment of eleven patients with uterine leiomyomas, thereafter myomectomy was performed in seven cases and observed the ultrastructural changes of leiomyoma with an electron microscope. The use of LHRH agonist may be effective in reducing the size of a myoma considerably by primarily inducing medical hypophysectomy and would allow easier surgical removal. Electron microscopic findings of myoma cells after the use of LHRH agonist included the following: loss of cristae and swelling nuclear chromatin, perinuclear vacuolation in cytoplasm. Bone mineral density was slightly decreased, however, the difference was not statistically significant.

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Influence of Panax Ginseng on the Responce of Btressful Stimuli in the Experimental Animal exposed to Various Stress (인삼주정추출액이 스트레스에 폭로된 동물의 생체반응에 미치는 영향)

  • 김정진
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.168-186
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    • 1979
  • Three hundred gram of Korean ginseng root was extracted with 95% ethanol on a boiling water bath for about 300 hr. Evaporation of alcohol yieled 50.2g of dark brown residue which was used by dissolving 4 mg of the residue in 1 ml of physiological saline. The ginseng group and the saline group received each day 0.5 ml per 100 g body weight of ginseng extract and physiological saline, respectively. Both the ginseng and saline group with stress were exposed to positive radial acceleration (1∼29g), cold (5$^{\circ}C$, 0$^{\circ}C$ &-10$^{\circ}C$) and heat (35$^{\circ}C$) environment, and surgical stress. After termination of the last stress, the tolerance, body weight, visceral organ weight, basal metabolism rate, rectal temperature, the number of erythrocyte and leucocyte, hemoglobin level, hematocrit ratio, total serum protein content and it's fraction and the content of adrenal ascorbic acid in the experimental animal exposed to stress were measured and at the corresponding periods, the same measurements were also carried out with the ginseng and the saline groups without stress exposure (serving as control). Results obtained were as follows. 1. Administration of ginseng does depressed the decrease of the tolerance, body weight, visceral organ weight, basal metabolism rate, the number of erythrocyte, hemoglobin value, hematocrit ratio and the A/G ratio in the mice and rats exposed to various stress. 2. The change of the rectal temperature, eosinophile counts, total serum protein content and the content of adrenal ascorbic acid of ginseng group that exposured to various stress facilitates the reaction to, and accelerates the recovery from the stress. 3. Even after hypophysectomy which served the link between the central and the peripheral portion of the stress mechanism, the adrenal ascorbic acid content of ginseng group decreased significantly more than that of the saline group 30 min. after administration of ACTH, while the value approached the normal level significantly closer in the ginseng group than in the saline group 1 and 2 hr after ACTH administration. Judging from the above results, it is concluded that administration of ginseng extract tolerated the experimental animals under the environment of stressfu1 stmuli, although the ginseng has no significant influence upon the stress mechanism in the absence of stressful stimuli. The site of action of the ginseng appears to be in the peripheral portion of the stress mechanism.

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