• Title, Summary, Keyword: iNOS

Search Result 1,525, Processing Time 0.045 seconds

Anti-inflammatory Activity of Veronica peregrina

  • Jeon, Hoon
    • Natural Product Sciences
    • /
    • v.18 no.3
    • /
    • pp.141-146
    • /
    • 2012
  • Veronica peregrina (Scrophylariaceae) has been widely used as a Korean traditional medicine for the treatment of various pathological conditions including infection, hemorrhage and gastric ulcer. In the current study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of methanolic extracts of V. Peregrina (VPM) on the LPS-mediated nitric oxide (NO) production in mouse (C57BL/6) peritoneal macrophages. NO production was significantly down-regulated by the treatment of VPM dose dependently. To evaluate the mechanism of the inhibitory action of VPM on NO production, we performed iNOS enzyme activity assay and checked the change of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) levels by Western blotting. Although VPM did not affect iNOS enzyme activity, iNOS protein expression was attenuated by VPM indicating VPM inhibits NO production via suppression of iNOS enzyme expression. In addition, VPM attenuated the expression of another pro-inflammatory mediator such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in a dose dependent manner. We also found that VPM can reduce trypsin-induced paw edema in mice. Based on this study, we suggest that V. peregrina may be beneficial in diseases which related to macrophage-mediated inflammatory disorders.

Selective iNOS Inhibition Attenuates Skeletal Muscle Reperfusion Injury (선택적 iNOS 억제에 의한 골격근 재관류 손상의 감소)

  • Park, Jong-Woong;Lee, Kwang-Suk;Kim, Sung-Kon;Park, Jung-Ho;Wang, Joon-Ho;Jeon, Woo-Joo;Lee, Jeong-Il
    • Archives of Reconstructive Microsurgery
    • /
    • v.15 no.1
    • /
    • pp.1-9
    • /
    • 2006
  • The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of selective inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor N-[3-aminomethyl]benzyl]acetamidine (l400W) on the reperfused cremaster muscle. The extracellular superoxide dismutase knockout ($EC-SOD^{-/-}$) mice was used to make the experimental window for ischemia-reperfusion injury. The muscle was exposed to 4.5 h of ischemia followed by 90 min of reperfusion and the mice received either 3 mg/kg of 1400W or the same amount of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) subcutaneously at 10 min before the start of reperfusion. The results showed that 1400W treatment markedly improved the recovery of the vessel diameter and blood flow in the reperfused cremaster muscle compared to that of PBS group. Histological examination showed reduced edema in the interstitium and muscle fiber, and reduced nitrotyrosine formation (a marker of total peroxinitrite ($ONOO^-$) in 1400W-treated muscle compared to PBS. Our results suggest that iNOS and $ONOO^-$ products are involved in skeletal muscle I/R injury. Reduced I/R injury by using selective inhibition of iNOS is perhaps via limiting cytotoxic $ONOO^-$ generation, a reaction product of nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide anion ($O_2^-$). Thus, inhibition of iNOS appears to be a good treatment strategy in reducing clinical I/R injury.

  • PDF

Zanthoxylum rhetsa Stem Bark Extract Inhibits LPS-induced COX-2 and iNOS expression in RAW 264.7 Cells via the NF-${\kappa}B$ Inactivation

  • Thu, Nguyen Bich;Trung, Trinh Nam;Ha, Do Thi;Khoi, Nguyen Minh;Than, Nguyen Viet;Soulinho, Thipthaviphone;Nam, Nguyen Hai;Phuong, Tran Thi;Bae, Ki-Hwan
    • Natural Product Sciences
    • /
    • v.16 no.4
    • /
    • pp.265-270
    • /
    • 2010
  • The methanol extract of Zanthoxylum rhetsa (MZRR) were evaluated for its ability to suppress the formation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. MZRR presented an inhibition of LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin $E_2$ ($PGE_2$) in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Western blotting and RT-PCR analyses demonstrated that MZRR significantly inhibited the protein and mRNA expressions of iNOS and COX-2 in LPS-activated macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. LPS-induced COX-2, iNOS, and nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-${\kappa}B$) activity were also decreased in the presence of MZRR. The production of tumor necrosis factor-$\alpha$ (TNF-$\alpha$), the mRNA expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-$\alpha$ and IL-$1{\beta}$, were reduced after MZRR administration in a dose dependent-manner. These results suggest that the MZRR extract involved in the inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 via the NF-${\kappa}B$ pathway, revealing a partial molecular basis for anti-inflammatory properties of the MZRR extract.

Characterization of anti-oxidative effects of Mori Cortex Radicis

  • Noh, Won-Ki;Park, Jin-Baek;Kim, Sung-Jin
    • Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine
    • /
    • v.10 no.4
    • /
    • pp.271-277
    • /
    • 2010
  • We tested to determine if Mori Cortex Radicis extract has antioxidant activities and its potential mechanism of action was explored. Anti-oxidative effects were tested by measuring free radical and nitric Oxide (NO) scavenging activity, and reducing power. Since iNOS and COX-2 are important enzymes responsible for the production of free radicals in the cell, Mori Cortex Radicis extract was tested as to whether it could inhibit iNOS and COX-2 expression in LPS stimulated Raw cells. 70% methanolic extract of Mori Cortex Radicis exerted significant DPPH free radical and NO scavenging activities. In addition, the Mori Cortex Radicis extract exerted dramatic reducing power with maximal activity observed at 1 mg/ml (11-fold over control). Production of iNOS induced by LPS was significantly inhibited by the Mori Cortex Radicis extract, suggesting it could inhibit NO production by suppressing iNOS expression. COX-2 induced by LPS was also significantly inhibited by the Mori Cortex Radicis extract. The extract contains well known antioxidant components including phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanin at the concentration of 0.23 mg/g, 42.97 mg/g and 12.08 mg/g, respectively. These results suggest that 70% methanolic extract of Mori Cortex Radicis exerts significant anti-oxidant activity via inhibiting iNOS and COX-2 induction.

Effects of electroacupuncture on the expression of iNOS in Nuclei of solitary tract and Rostral ventrolateral medulla in spontaneously hypertensive rats (전침자극이 자연 발증 고혈압 흰쥐의 혈압 조절 중추에서 iNOS의 발현에 미치는 영향)

  • Hwang, Hye-Suk;Kim, Yu-Sung;Lee, Ji-Eun;Han, Kyung-Ju;Choi, Sun-Mi;Koo, Sung-Tae
    • Korean Journal of Oriental Medicine
    • /
    • v.12 no.3
    • /
    • pp.59-67
    • /
    • 2006
  • Aims: Acupuncture has been used for the treatment of essential hypertension, but the efficacy and the mechanism of acupuncture in prevention of hypertension are still unclear. We tested the hypothesis that electroacupuncture (EA) applied to Baekhoe (GV20) changes NO/NOS system during development of hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), and thereby causes the delay of development of hypertension in SHR. Methods: The male SHR rats in the developmental stages of hypertension (7-8 weeks) were randomly divided into three groups (control group, GV20 acupuncture group, and tail acupuncture group). And the age matched Wistar Koyto Rats (WKY) were randomly divided into two groups (nagative control, GV20 acupuncture group). EA treatments (10Hz, 1mA, 0.1ms) were carried out for 25 min/day for five consecutive days. The systolic blood pressure (SBP) was determined in conscious rats by the tail-cuff method using automatic BP mornitoring system. We investigated the activations of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in nuclei of solitary tract (NTS) and rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) of SHR by the western blotting method. Results: The SBP after the termination of EA stimulation applied to the GV20 was stabilized at $169.14{\pm}3.67$ mmHg which is lower value than that of the control group. The SBP of control group was elevated to $178.14{\pm}3.49$ mmHg. In addition, we evaluated NOS activity as well as iNOS protein expression of NTS and RVLM in both of SHR and WKY. The iNOS activity in NTS was significantly higher in SHR than in WKY. Furthermore, the iNOS activity of NTS showed significant decreases in EA groups compare to that of non treated SHR group. Although iNOS expression of RVLM showed non significant changes between SHR and WKY, EA significantly enhanced the iNOS expression in SHR. Our data support the hypothesis that delayed development of hypertension and altered iNOS expression of NTS and RVLM by EA stimulations in SHR rats. Conclusions: The findings demonstrate that acupuncture can change NO/NOS system in NTS and RVLM, and exert beneficial role on development of hypertension.

  • PDF

Effect of Immunosuppressants on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Changes of Nitric Oxide Synthase Activity in Liver and Brain of Mice (면역억제제가 Lipopolysaccharide에 의한 생쥐의 간 및 뇌조직의 Nitric Oxide Synthase 활성도의 변화에 미치는 영향)

  • Min, Byung-Woo;Han, Hyng-Soo;Park, Jung-Sook;Kim, Choong-Young
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
    • /
    • v.31 no.2
    • /
    • pp.233-239
    • /
    • 1995
  • To verify the effect of immunosuppressants on the endotoxin-induced increase in iNOS activity, the action of immunosuppressants, dexamethasone (1.5 mg/kg), azathioprine (5 mg/kg/day) and cyclosporine (10 mg/kg), were evaluated in mice pretreated with LPS. The intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (10 mg/kg) increased the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in the brain and liver to maximum at 1 and 3 hours, respectively. The increase in NOS activity was blocked by the treatment with NOS inhibitor, LNAME(300 mg/kg) and aminoguanidine(100 mg/kg); a protein inhibitor, cycloheximide (10 mg/kg); and a transcription inhibitor of inducible NOS(iNOS), dexamethasone(1.5 mg/kg). Immunosuppressants, azathioprine (5 mg/kg) and cyclosporine (10 mg/kg), effectively blocked the increase in NOS activity. These results suggest that iNOS expression plays an important role in LPS-induced the increase in NOS activity and that immunosuppressants can be used as candidate for therapeutic agents in endotoxemia.

  • PDF

Effects of NOS Inhibitors on Arthritis and Arthritic Pain in Rats

  • Min, Sun-Seek
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
    • /
    • v.11 no.6
    • /
    • pp.253-257
    • /
    • 2007
  • Among the arthritis symptoms, chronic pain is the most serious, and it can profoundly affect the quality of human life. Unfortunately, the mechanism of development in arthritis and arthritic pain has not yet been precisely elucidated. Accumulating evidence indicates that nitric oxide (NO) plays a pivotal role in nociceptive processing in the spinal cord. However, the modulation mechanism of NO in the peripheral site of arthritis and arthritic pain has not been clarified. Therefore, I determined in the present study which nitric oxide synthase (NOS) was involved in the induction of arthritis and arthritic pain. Monoarthritis was induced by intra-articular injection of carrageenan (2%, $50{\mu}l$) into rats, and resulted in the reduction of weight load on the injected leg, increase of knee joint diameter and inflammatory response. Pre-treatment of rats with L-N6-(1-iminoethyl)-lysine (L-NIL, $500{\mu}g$, in $50{\mu}l$), an inhibitor of inducible NOS (iNOS), partially prevented the induction of pain-related behavior and partially reduced inflammatory response in the synovial membrane in the knee joint. These results suggest that iNOS in the knee joint may play an important role in the induction of pain-related behavior and inflammation, and that NO produced by iNOS may be associated with nociceptive signaling in the peripheral site.

Triglycerides increase mRNA Expression of Pro-inflammatory Cytokines Via the iNOS in Jurkat T lymphocyte and U937 Monocyte Cell Lines (Jurkat T 림프구와 U937 단핵구에서 중성지방 처리 시 iNOS를 통한 염증성 사이토카인의 mRNA 발현 증가)

  • Chang, Jeong Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
    • /
    • v.13 no.1
    • /
    • pp.133-140
    • /
    • 2019
  • Triglycerides (TG) are one of the triggers of chronic inflammatory lesions in the blood vessels. In the key factors in the development of inflammatory diseases, Pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha $(TNF-){\alpha}$ and interleukin-1 beta ($IL-1{\beta}$) contribute to the development of inflammatory lesions by recruiting other immune cells in the inflamed area or causing cell necrotic death. In this study, I investigated the effect of Jurkat T lymphocytes and U937 monocytes involved in vascular inflammation development on the expression of $TNF-{\alpha}$ and $IL-1{\beta}$ on exposure to TGs. In Jurkat cells, mRNA expression of $TNF-{\alpha}$ is increased by exposure to TGs. However, the expression levels of $TNF-{\alpha}$ and $IL-1{\beta}$ were increased by TGs in U937 cells. To investigate whether inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is involved in the increase of expression of $TNF-{\alpha}$ and $IL-1{\beta}$ by TGs, treatment of W1400 (an iNOS inhibitor) resulted in recovery of expression level both $TNF-{\alpha}$ and $IL-1{\beta}$. Based on the present study, it was confirmed that the expression of $TNF-{\alpha}$ and $IL-1{\beta}$ in monocytes and T lymphocytes. This increased cytokines contribute to development of vascular inflammatory lesions. In addition, iNOS is involved in the increase of $TNF-{\alpha}$ and $IL-1{\beta}$ expression by TGs.

Cytokines Stimulate Lung Epithelial Cells to Release Nitric Oxide

  • Robbins, Richard A.;Kwon, O-Jung
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
    • /
    • v.42 no.4
    • /
    • pp.447-454
    • /
    • 1995
  • Cytokine release from alveolar macrophages and subsequent interaction of these cytokines with the bronchial epithelium can induce epithelial cells to release inflammatory mediators. Nitric oxide(NO), a highly reactive gas formed from arginine by nitric oxide synthase(NOS), is known to be involved in inflammation and edema formation, and the inducible form of NOS(iNOS) can be increased by cytokines. In this context, we hypothesized that lung epithelial cells could be stimulated by cytokines released by alveolar macrophages to express iNOS. To test this hypothesis, the murine lung epithelial cell line, LA-4, or the human lung epithelial cell line, A549, were stimulated with culture supernatant fluids from alveolar macrophages. NO production was assessed by evaluating the culture supernatant fluids for nitrite and nitrate, the stable end products of NO. Both murine and human cell culture supernatant fluids demonstrated an increase in nitrite and nitrate which were time- and dose-dependent and attenuated by $TNF{\alpha}$ and IL-$1{\beta}$ antibodies(p<0.05, all comparisons). Consistent with these observations, cytomix a combination of $TNF{\alpha}$, IL-$1{\beta}$, and $\gamma$-interferon, stimulated the lung epithelial cell lines as well as primary cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells to increase their NO production as evidenced by an increase in nitrite and nitrate in their culture supernatant fluids, an increase in the iNOS staining by immunocytochemistry, and an increase in iNOS mRNA by Northern blottin(p<0.05, all comparisons). The cytokine effects on iNOS were all attenuated by dexamethasone. To determine if these in vitro observations are reflected in vivo, exhaled NO was measured and found to be increased in asthmatics not receiving corticosteroids. These data demonstrate that alveolar macrophage derived cytokines increase iNOS expression in lung epithelial cells and that these in vitro observations are mirrored by increased exhaled NO levels in asthmatics. Increased NO in the lung may contribute to edema formation and airway narrowing.

  • PDF

Anti-inflammatory Effect of Red Ginseng through Regulation of MAPK in Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 (Lipopolysaccharide로 유도된 RAW264.7 세포에서 MAPK에 의한 홍삼추출물의 항염증 효과)

  • Shin, Ji-Su;Kim, Jong-Myoung;An, Won-Gun
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
    • /
    • v.26 no.3
    • /
    • pp.293-300
    • /
    • 2012
  • Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) are important inflammatory mediators implicated in pathogenesis of inflammation and certain types of human cancers. The present study was designed to determine whether Red Ginseng (RG) could modulate $I{\kappa}B$-kinase, iNOS and COX-2 gene expression and immune responses in RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). RG extract suppressed the expression of LPS-induced $I{\kappa}B$, iNOS, COX-2, and immune responses in a dose-dependent manner. It also showed an anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting NF-${\kappa}B$ immune response induced by LPS treatment. Inhibitory effect of RG on LPS-induced inflammation was mediated by suppressed phosphorylation of ERK, JNK and p38 through the regulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway leading to a decreased production of NO, iNOS, COX-2 and NF-${\kappa}B$. The results implied the role of RG as an inflammation regulator and its possible application for curing inflammatory diseases.